Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and racewalking.
The results of racing events are decided by finishing position (or time, where measured), while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most common types of sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country.
Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC. The rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, and were then spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are held under the auspices of World Athletics, the global governing body for the sport of athletics, or its member continental and national federations. (Full article...)
The 1896 Summer Olympics (Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, romanized: Therinoí Olympiakoí Agónes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad (Greek: Αγώνες της 1ης Ολυμπιάδας, romanized: Agónes tis 1is Olympiádas) and commonly known as Athens 1896 (Greek: Αθήνα 1896), was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by French aristocrat Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
Fourteen nations (according to the IOC, though the number is subject to interpretation) and 241 athletes (all males; this number is also disputed) took part in the games. Participants were all European, or living in Europe, with the exception of the United States team. Over 65% of the competing athletes were Greek. Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11, while host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 47. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events.
The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event. After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later. (Full article...)
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Usain St. Leo Bolt OJ CD OLY (/ˈjuːseɪn/; born 21 August 1986) is a Jamaican retired sprinter, widely considered to be the greatest sprinter of all time. He is the world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres, and 4 × 100 metres relay.
An eight-time Olympic gold medallist, Bolt is the only sprinter to win Olympic 100 m and 200 m titles at three consecutive Olympics (2008, 2012, and 2016). He also won two 4 × 100 relay gold medals. He gained worldwide fame for his double sprint victory in world record times at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which made him the first person to hold both records since fully automatic time became mandatory.
An eleven-time World Champion, he won consecutive World Championship 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 metres relay gold medals from 2009 to 2015, with the exception of a 100 m false start in 2011. He is the most successful male athlete of the World Championships. Bolt is the first athlete to win four World Championship titles in the 200 m and is one of the most successful in the 100 m with three titles.
Bolt improved upon his second 100 m world record of 9.69 with 9.58 seconds in 2009 – the biggest improvement since the start of electronic timing. He has twice broken the 200 metres world record, setting 19.30 in 2008 and 19.19 in 2009. He has helped Jamaica to three 4 × 100 metres relay world records, with the current record being 36.84 seconds set in 2012. Bolt's most successful event is the 200 m, with three Olympic and four World titles. The 2008 Olympics was his international debut over 100 m; he had earlier won numerous 200 m medals (including 2007 World Championship silver) and held the world under-20 and world under-18 records for the event until being surpassed by Erriyon Knighton in 2021. (Full article...)
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|100 m||Usain Bolt||9.58||Florence Griffith Joyner||10.49|
|200 m||Usain Bolt||19.19||Florence Griffith Joyner||21.34|
|400 m||Wayde van Niekerk||43.03||Marita Koch||47.60|
|800 m||David Rudisha||1:40.91||Jarmila Kratochvílová||1:53.28|
|1500 m||Hicham El Guerrouj||3:26.00||Genzebe Dibaba||3:50.07|
|3000 m||Daniel Komen||7:20.67||Wang Junxia||8:06.11|
|5000 m||Joshua Cheptegei||12:35.36||Letesenbet Gidey||14:06.62|
|10,000 m||Joshua Cheptegei||26:11.00||Letesenbet Gidey||29:01.03|
|Half marathon||Jacob Kiplimo||57:31||Letesenbet Gidey||1:02:52|
|Marathon||Eliud Kipchoge||2:01:39||Brigid Kosgei||2:14:04|
|3000 m steeplechase||Saif Saaeed Shaheen||7:53.63||Beatrice Chepkoech||8:44.32|
|110 / 100 m hurdles||Aries Merritt||12.80||Tobi Amusan||12.12|
|400 m hurdles||Karsten Warholm||45.94||Sydney McLaughlin||50.68|
|High jump||Javier Sotomayor||2.45 m||Stefka Kostadinova||2.09 m|
|Pole vault||Armand Duplantis||6.21 m||Yelena Isinbayeva||5.06 m|
|Long jump||Mike Powell||8.95 m||Galina Chistyakova||7.52 m|
|Triple jump||Jonathan Edwards||18.29 m||Yulimar Rojas||15.74 m|
|Shot put||Ryan Crouser||23.37 m||Natalya Lisovskaya||22.63 m|
|Discus throw||Jürgen Schult||74.08 m||Gabriele Reinsch||76.80 m|
|Hammer throw||Yuriy Sedykh||86.74 m||Anita Włodarczyk||82.98 m|
|Javelin throw||Jan Železný||98.48 m||Barbora Špotáková||72.28 m|
|Decathlon/Heptathlon||Kevin Mayer||9126 pts.||Jackie Joyner-Kersee||7291 pts.|
|20 km racewalk||Vladimir Kanaykin||1:17:16||Liu Hong||1:24:38|
|50 km racewalk||Yohann Diniz||3:32:33||Lindsay Pelas||—|
|4×100 m relay||Jamaica||36.84||United States||40.82|
|4×400 m relay||United States||2:54.29||Soviet Union||3:15.17|
It's from the first edition (1896 Summer Olympics), that Athletics has been considered the "Queen" of the Olympics. Since then there have been a series of competitions organized at world level, than at the continental level. Furthermore, the Athletics is the main sport of nearly all multi-sport events such as Universiade, Mediterranean Games or Pan American Games. The following list refers to the main Athletics competitions that take place in the world.
|Event||1st edition||Kind of competition||Can participate|
|Olympic Games||1896||World games|
|World Championships||1983||World championships|
|World Indoor Championships||1985|
|European Championships||1934||Continental championships|
|European Indoor Championships||1966|
|South American Championships||1919|
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