Athletics
Shot put
Polish double Olympic champion Tomasz Majewski
World records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 23.56 m (77 ft 3+12 in) (2023)
WomenSoviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) (1987)
Olympic records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 23.30 m (76 ft 5+14 in) (2021)
WomenEast Germany Ilona Slupianek 22.41 m (73 ft 6+14 in) (1980)
World Championship records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 23.51 m (77 ft 1+12 in) (2023)
WomenSoviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) (1987)
New Zealand Valerie Adams 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) (2011)
World Indoor Championship records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 22.77 m (74 ft 8+14 in) (2024)
WomenNew Zealand Valerie Adams 20.67 m (67 ft 9+34 in) (2014)

The shot put is a track and field event involving "putting" (throwing) a heavy spherical ball—the shot—as far as possible. For men, the sport has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival (1896), and women's competition began in 1948.

Demonstration of the spin technique in shot put

History

Czechoslovak shot putter Plíhal at the 1957 East German Indoor Athletics Championships
Shot putter at the University of Nebraska, 1942, showing the circle and stop board

Homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the siege of Troy but there is no record of any weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, and date back to approximately the first century.[1] In the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing.[2]

The first events resembling the modern shot put likely occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs. Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, and were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866.[3]

Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 2.135 metres (7 ft 0 in) in diameter, with a "toe board" or "stop board" 10 centimetres (4 in) high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made on the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules.

Legal throws

Czechoslovak shot putter Jiří Skobla showing the correct technique for keeping the shot near the neck

The following rules (indoor and outdoor) must be adhered to for a legal throw:

Foul throws occur when an athlete:

At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck then it is technically an illegal put.

Regulation misconceptions

The following are either obsolete or non-existent, but commonly believed rules for professional competition:[citation needed]

Competition

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Shot put area

Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896, and it is also included as an event in the World Athletics Championships.

Each of these competitions in the modern era have a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are three qualification rounds to determine qualification for the final. There are then three preliminary rounds in the final with the top eight competitors receiving a further three throws. Each competitor in the final is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final three rounds. The competitor with the longest legal put is declared the winner.

Weight

In open competitions the men's shot weighs 7.2575 kilograms (16 lb), and the women's shot weighs 4 kilograms (8.8185 lb). Junior, school, and masters competitions often use different weights of shots, typically below the weights of those used in open competitions; the individual rules for each competition should be consulted in order to determine the correct weights to be used.

Putting styles

Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin. With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of slightly less than forty-five degrees.[5]

Glide

The origin of this technique dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien from the United States invented a technique that involved the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot. Unlike spin, this technique is a linear movement.[6]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower would begin facing the rear of the circle. They would typically adopt a specific type of crouch, involving their bent right leg, in order to begin the throw from a more beneficial posture whilst also isometrically preloading their muscles. The positioning of their bodyweight over their bent leg, which pushes upwards with equal force, generates a preparatory isometric press. The force generated by this press will be channelled into the subsequent throw making it more powerful. To initiate the throw they kick to the front with the left leg, while pushing off forcefully with the right. As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, the left arm is swung out then pulled back tight, followed by the shoulders, and they then strike in a putting motion with their right arm. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name 'glide'.

Spin

This is also known as the rotational technique.[7] It was first practiced in Europe in the 1950s but did not receive much attention until the 1970s.[8] In 1972 Aleksandr Baryshnikov set his first USSR record using a new putting style, the spin ("круговой мах" in Russian), invented by his coach Viktor Alexeyev.[9][10] The spin involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. In 1976 Baryshnikov went on to set a world record of 22.00 m (72.18 ft) with his spin style, and was the first shot putter to cross the 22-meter mark.[11]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the center of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twisting the hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot.

When the athlete executes the spin, the upper body is twisted hard to the right, so the imaginary lines created by the shoulders and hips are no longer parallel. This action builds up torque, and stretches the muscles, creating an involuntary elasticity in the muscles, providing extra power and momentum. When the athlete prepares to release, the left foot is firmly planted, causing the momentum and energy generated to be conserved, pushing the shot in an upward and outward direction.

Another purpose of the spin is to build up a high rotational speed, by swinging the right leg initially, then to bring all the limbs in tightly, similar to a figure skater bringing in their arms while spinning to increase their speed. Once this fast speed is achieved the shot is released, transferring the energy into the shot put.

Until 2016, a woman had never made an Olympic final (top 8) using the spin technique. The first woman to enter a final and win a medal at the Olympics was Anita Márton.[12][8]

Ryan Crouser, the current men's world record holder, added an additional move, the "Crouser Slide", to his spin technique. He used this technique to set the world record at the Los Angeles Grand Prix in 2023.[13]

Usage

Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin. However the glide remains popular since the technique leads to greater consistency compared to the rotational technique. Almost all throwers start by using the glide. Tomasz Majewski notes that although most athletes use the spin,[14] he and some other top shot putters achieved success using this classic method (for example he became first to defend the Olympic title in 56 years).

The world record and the next six best male results (23.37, 23.30, 23.15, and 23.12 by Ryan Crouser, 23.23 by Joe Kovacs, and 23.12 and 23.10 by Randy Barnes) were completed with the spin technique, while the eighth-best all-time put of 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) by Ulf Timmermann was completed with the glide technique.

The decision to glide or spin may need to be decided on an individual basis, determined by the thrower's size and power. Short throwers may benefit from the spin and taller throwers may benefit from the glide, but many throwers do not follow this guideline.

Types of shot

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The shot is made of different kinds of materials depending on its intended use. Materials used include sand, iron, cast iron, solid steel, stainless steel, brass, and synthetic materials like polyvinyl. Some metals are more dense than others, making the size of the shot vary. For example, different materials are used to make indoor and outdoor shot – because damage to surroundings must be taken into account – so the latter are smaller. There are various size and weight standards for the implement that depend on the age and gender of the competitors as well as the national customs of the governing body.

World records

Main articles: Men's shot put world record progression and Women's shot put world record progression

The current world record holders are:[15]

Type Athlete Mark Date Place
Men
Outdoor Ryan Crouser 23.56 m (77 ft 3+12 in) 27 May 2023 Los Angeles, USA
Indoor Ryan Crouser 22.82 m (74 ft 10+14 in) 24 January 2021 Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
Women
Outdoor Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) 7 June 1987 Moscow, USSR
Indoor Helena Fibingerová 22.50 m (73 ft 9+34 in) 19 February 1977 Jablonec, CZE

Continental records

The current records held on each continent are:[16][17]

Area Men's Women's
Mark Athlete Nation Mark Athlete Nation
Africa 21.97 m (72 ft 34 in) Janus Robberts  South Africa 18.43 m (60 ft 5+12 in) Vivian Chukwuemeka  Nigeria
Asia 21.77 m (71 ft 5 in) Tajinderpal Singh Toor  India 21.76 m (71 ft 4+12 in) Meisu Li  China
Europe 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) Ulf Timmermann  East Germany 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) WR Natalya Lisovskaya  Soviet Union
North and Central
America, and Caribbean
23.56 m (77 ft 3+12 in) WR Ryan Crouser  United States 20.96 m (68 ft 9 in) A Belsy Laza  Cuba
Oceania 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) Tomas Walsh  New Zealand 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) Valerie Adams  New Zealand
South America 22.61 m (74 ft 2 in) Darlan Romani  Brazil 19.30 m (63 ft 3+34 in) A Elisângela Adriano  Brazil

All-time top 25

Tables show data for two definitions of "Top 25" - the top 25 distances and the top 25 athletes:
- denotes top performance for an athlete in the top 25 distances
- denotes lesser performances, still in the top 25 distances, by a repeat athlete
- denotes top performance (only) for other top 25 athletes who fall outside the top 25 distances

Men (outdoor)

Ath.# Perf.# Mark Technique Athlete Nation Date Place Ref.
1 1 23.56 m (77 ft 3+12 in) spin Ryan Crouser  United States 27 May 2023 Los Angeles [20]
2 23.51 m (77 ft 1+12 in) Crouser #2 19 August 2023 Budapest [21]
3 23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) Crouser #3 18 June 2021 Eugene [22]
4 23.30 m (76 ft 5+14 in) Crouser #4 5 August 2021 Tokyo
2 5 23.23 m (76 ft 2+12 in) spin Joe Kovacs  United States 7 September 2022 Zürich [23]
6 23.15 m (75 ft 11+14 in) Crouser #5 21 August 2021 Eugene
7 23.13 m (75 ft 10+12 in) Kovacs #2 25 May 2024 Eugene [24]
3 8 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) spin Randy Barnes  United States 20 May 1990 Westwood
8 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) Crouser #6 24 June 2022 Eugene [25]
10 23.10 m (75 ft 9+14 in) Barnes #2 26 May 1990 San Jose
11 23.07 m (75 ft 8+14 in) Crouser #7 23 July 2023 London [26]
4 12 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) glide Ulf Timmermann  East Germany 22 May 1988 Chania
13 23.02 m (75 ft 6+14 in) Crouser #8 28 May 2022 Eugene [27]
14 23.01 m (75 ft 5+34 in) Crouser #9 22 May 2021 Tucson
5 15 22.95 m (75 ft 3+12 in) spin Leonardo Fabbri  Italy 15 May 2024 Savona [28]
16 22.94 m (75 ft 3 in) Crouser #10 17 July 2022 Eugene [29]
17 22.93 m (75 ft 2+34 in) Kovacs #3 17 September 2023 Eugene [30]
22.93 m (75 ft 2+34 in) Kovacs #4 18 May 2024 Los Angeles [31]
19 22.92 m (75 ft 2+14 in) Crouser #11 18 June 2021 Eugene
6 20 22.91 m (75 ft 1+34 in) glide Alessandro Andrei  Italy 12 August 1987 Viareggio
20 22.91 m (75 ft 1+34 in) Kovacs #5 5 October 2019 Doha [32]
Crouser #12 18 July 2020 Marietta
Crouser #13 17 September 2023 Eugene [30]
24 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) Crouser #14 5 October 2019 Doha
7 24 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) spin Tom Walsh  New Zealand 5 October 2019 Doha [32]
8 22.86 m (75 ft 0 in) A spin Brian Oldfield  United States 10 May 1975 El Paso
9 22.75 m (74 ft 7+12 in) glide Werner Günthör  Switzerland 23 August 1988 Bern
10 22.67 m (74 ft 4+12 in) spin Kevin Toth  United States 19 April 2003 Lawrence
11 22.64 m (74 ft 3+14 in) glide Udo Beyer  East Germany 20 August 1986 Berlin
12 22.61 m (74 ft 2 in) spin Darlan Romani  Brazil 30 June 2019 Stanford [33]
13 22.59 m (74 ft 1+14 in) spin Payton Otterdahl  United States 24 April 2024 Des Moines [34]
14 22.54 m (73 ft 11+14 in) spin Christian Cantwell  United States 5 June 2004 Gresham
15 22.52 m (73 ft 10+12 in) glide John Brenner  United States 26 April 1987 Walnut
16 22.51 m (73 ft 10 in) spin Adam Nelson  United States 18 May 2002 Portland
17 22.44 m (73 ft 7+14 in) spin Darrell Hill  United States 31 August 2017 Brussels [35]
spin Zane Weir  Italy 3 September 2023 Padua [36]
19 22.43 m (73 ft 7 in) spin Reese Hoffa  United States 3 August 2007 London
20 22.32 m (73 ft 2+12 in) spin Michał Haratyk  Poland 28 July 2019 Warsaw [37]
21 22.29 m (73 ft 1+12 in) spin Josh Awotunde  United States 17 July 2022 Eugene [29]
22 22.28 m (73 ft 1 in) spin Ryan Whiting  United States 10 May 2013 Doha
23 22.25 m (72 ft 11+34 in) spin Konrad Bukowiecki  Poland 14 September 2019 Chorzów [38]
24 22.24 m (72 ft 11+12 in) glide Sergey Smirnov  Soviet Union 21 June 1986 Tallinn
25 22.22 m (72 ft 10+34 in) spin Bob Bertemes  Luxembourg 4 August 2019 Luxembourg City [39]
spin Rajindra Campbell  Jamaica 22 July 2023 Madrid [40]

Notable throws and series

Women (outdoor)

Ath.# Perf.# Mark Technique Athlete Nation Date Place Ref.
1 1 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) glide Natalya Lisovskaya  Soviet Union 7 June 1987 Moscow
2 22.60 m (74 ft 1+34 in) Lisovskaya #2 7 June 1987 Moscow
3 22.55 m (73 ft 11+34 in) Lisovskaya #3 5 July 1988 Tallinn
4 22.53 m (73 ft 11 in) Lisovskaya #4 27 May 1984 Sochi
Lisovskaya #5 14 August 1988 Kyiv
2 6 22.45 m (73 ft 7+34 in) glide Ilona Slupianek  East Germany 11 May 1980 Potsdam
7 22.41 m (73 ft 6+14 in) Slupianek #2 24 July 1980 Moscow
8 22.40 m (73 ft 5+34 in) Slupianek #3 3 June 1983 Berlin
9 22.38 m (73 ft 5 in) Slupianek #4 25 May 1980 Karl-Marx-Stadt
10 22.36 m (73 ft 4+14 in) Slupianek #5 2 May 1980 Celje
11 22.34 m (73 ft 3+12 in) Slupianek #6 7 May 1980 Berlin
Slupianek #7 18 July 1980 Cottbus
3 13 22.32 m (73 ft 2+12 in) glide Helena Fibingerová  Czechoslovakia 20 August 1977 Nitra
14 22.24 m (72 ft 11+12 in) Lisovskaya #6 1 October 1988 Seoul
15 22.22 m (72 ft 10+34 in) Slupianek #8 13 July 1980 Potsdam
4 16 22.19 m (72 ft 9+12 in) glide Claudia Losch  West Germany 23 August 1987 Hainfeld
17 22.13 m (72 ft 7+14 in) Slupianek #9 29 April 1980 Split
18 22.06 m (72 ft 4+12 in) Lisovskaya #7 6 August 1988 Moscow
19 22.05 m (72 ft 4 in) Slupianek #10 28 May 1980 Berlin
Slupianek #11 31 May 1980 Potsdam
21 22.04 m (72 ft 3+12 in) Slupianek #12 4 July 1979 Potsdam
Slupianek #13 29 July 1979 Potsdam
23 21.99 m (72 ft 1+12 in) Fibingerová #2 26 September 1976 Opava
24 21.98 m (72 ft 1+14 in) Slupianek #14 17 July 1979 Berlin
25 21.96 m (72 ft 12 in) Fibingerová #3 8 June 1977 Ostrava
Lisovskaya #8 16 August 1984 Prague
Lisovskaya #9 28 August 1988 Vilnius
5 21.89 m (71 ft 9+34 in) glide Ivanka Khristova  Bulgaria 4 July 1976 Belmeken
6 21.86 m (71 ft 8+12 in) glide Marianne Adam  East Germany 23 June 1979 Leipzig
7 21.76 m (71 ft 4+12 in) glide Li Meisu  China 23 April 1988 Shijiazhuang
8 21.73 m (71 ft 3+12 in) glide Natalya Akhrimenko  Soviet Union 21 May 1988 Leselidze
9 21.69 m (71 ft 1+34 in) glide Vita Pavlysh  Ukraine 20 August 1998 Budapest
10 21.66 m (71 ft 34 in) glide Sui Xinmei  China 9 June 1990 Beijing
11 21.61 m (70 ft 10+34 in) glide Verzhinia Veselinova  Bulgaria 21 August 1982 Sofia
12 21.58 m (70 ft 9+12 in) glide Margitta Droese-Pufe  East Germany 28 May 1978 Erfurt
13 21.57 m (70 ft 9 in) glide Ines Müller  East Germany 16 May 1988 Athens
14 21.53 m (70 ft 7+12 in) glide Nunu Abashidze  Soviet Union 20 June 1984 Kyiv
15 21.52 m (70 ft 7 in) glide Huang Zhihong  China 27 June 1990 Beijing
16 21.46 m (70 ft 4+34 in) glide Larisa Peleshenko  Russia 26 August 2000 Budapest
17 21.45 m (70 ft 4+14 in) glide Nadezhda Chizhova  Soviet Union 29 September 1973 Varna
18 21.43 m (70 ft 3+12 in) glide Eva Wilms  West Germany 17 June 1977 Munich
19 21.42 m (70 ft 3+14 in) glide Svetlana Krachevskaya  Soviet Union 24 July 1980 Moscow
20 21.31 m (69 ft 10+34 in) glide Heike Hartwig  East Germany 16 May 1988 Athens
21 21.27 m (69 ft 9+14 in) glide Liane Schmuhl  East Germany 26 June 1982 Cottbus
22 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) glide Valerie Adams  New Zealand 29 August 2011 Daegu
23 21.22 m (69 ft 7+14 in) glide Astrid Kumbernuss  Germany 5 August 1995 Gothenburg
24 21.21 m (69 ft 7 in) glide Kathrin Neimke  East Germany 5 September 1987 Rome
25 21.19 m (69 ft 6+14 in) glide Helma Knorscheidt  East Germany 24 May 1984 Berlin

Men (indoor)

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 22.82 m (74 ft 10+14 in)  Ryan Crouser (USA) 24 January 2021 Fayetteville
2 22.66 m (74 ft 4 in)  Randy Barnes (USA) 20 January 1989 Los Angeles
3 22.55 m (73 ft 11+34 in)  Ulf Timmermann (GDR) 11 February 1989 Senftenberg
4 22.53 m (73 ft 11 in)  Darlan Romani (BRA) 19 March 2022 Belgrade
5 22.40 m (73 ft 5+34 in)  Adam Nelson (USA) 15 February 2008 Fayetteville
6 22.37 m (73 ft 4+12 in)  Leonardo Fabbri (ITA) 11 February 2024 Liévin [44]
7 22.31 m (73 ft 2+14 in)  Tom Walsh (NZL) 3 March 2018 Birmingham
8 22.26 m (73 ft 14 in)  Werner Günthör (SUI) 8 February 1987 Magglingen
9 22.23 m (72 ft 11 in) A  Ryan Whiting (USA) 23 February 2014 Albuquerque
10 22.18 m (72 ft 9 in)  Christian Cantwell (USA) 22 February 2008 Warrensburg
11 22.17 m (72 ft 8+34 in)  Tomáš Staněk (CZE) 6 February 2018 Düsseldorf [45]
12 22.16 m (72 ft 8+14 in)  Rajindra Campbell (JAM) 23 February 2024 Madrid [46]
13 22.11 m (72 ft 6+14 in)  Reese Hoffa (USA) 10 March 2006 Moscow
14 22.09 m (72 ft 5+12 in)  Mika Halvari (FIN) 7 February 2000 Tampere
15 22.06 m (72 ft 4+12 in)  Zane Weir (ITA) 3 March 2023 Istanbul [47]
16 22.05 m (72 ft 4 in)  Joe Kovacs (USA) 13 February 2021 Geneva
17 22.02 m (72 ft 2+34 in)  George Woods (USA) 8 February 1974 Inglewood
18 22.00 m (72 ft 2 in)  Konrad Bukowiecki (POL) 15 February 2018 Toruń
19 21.93 m (71 ft 11+14 in)  Bob Bertemes (LUX) 19 February 2023 Kirchberg
20 21.88 m (71 ft 9+14 in)  David Storl (GER) 9 March 2012 Istanbul
21 21.85 m (71 ft 8 in)  Turner Washington (USA) 13 February 2021 Lubbock
22 21.84 m (71 ft 7+34 in)  Filip Mihaljević (CRO) 27 February 2020 Belgrade
 Roman Kokoshko (UKR) 3 March 2023 Istanbul [47]
24 21.83 m (71 ft 7+14 in)  Oleksandr Bahach (UKR) 21 February 1991 Brovary
 John Godina (USA) 26 February 2005 Boston
 Michał Haratyk (POL) 12 February 2021 Łódź

Notes

Below is a list of all other throws equal or superior to 22.42 m:

Ryan Crouser threw 23.38 i, a possible world record, in Pocatello, Idaho on 18 February 2023. But this result was unratifiable because the throwing circle was too wide and raised above ground level.[48]

Women (indoor)

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 22.50 m (73 ft 9+34 in)  Helena Fibingerová (TCH) 19 February 1977 Jablonec
2 22.14 m (72 ft 7+12 in)  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS) 7 February 1987 Penza
3 21.60 m (70 ft 10+14 in)  Valentina Fedyushina (UKR) 28 December 1991 Simferopol
4 21.59 m (70 ft 10 in)  Ilona Slupianek (GDR) 24 January 1979 Berlin
5 21.46 m (70 ft 4+34 in)  Claudia Losch (FRG) 4 February 1986 Zweibrücken
6 21.26 m (69 ft 9 in)  Ines Müller (GDR) 24 February 1985 Berlin
 Natalya Akhrimenko (URS) 24 January 1987 Leningrad
8 21.23 m (69 ft 7+34 in)  Margitta Droese-Pufe (GDR) 26 February 1978 Senftenberg
9 21.15 m (69 ft 4+12 in)  Irina Korzhanenko (RUS) 18 February 1999 Moscow
10 21.10 m (69 ft 2+12 in)  Sui Xinmei (CHN) 3 March 1990 Beijing
11 21.08 m (69 ft 1+34 in)  Li Meisu (CHN) 25 March 1988 Beijing
12 21.06 m (69 ft 1 in)  Eva Wilms (FRG) 19 February 1977 Dortmund
 Nunu Abashidze (URS) 8 February 1984 Budapest
14 21.03 m (68 ft 11+34 in)  Helma Knorscheidt (GDR) 4 August 1983 Berlin
15 20.98 m (68 ft 9+34 in)  Valerie Adams (NZL) 28 August 2013 Zürich
16 20.94 m (68 ft 8+14 in)  Kathrin Neimke (GDR) 3 February 1988 Senftenberg
17 20.85 m (68 ft 4+34 in)  Heidi Krieger (GDR) 25 January 1987 Berlin
18 20.78 m (68 ft 2 in)  Ivanka Khristova (BUL) 14 February 1976 Sofia
19 20.75 m (68 ft 34 in)  Heike Hartwig (GDR) 7 February 1987 Senftenberg
20 20.74 m (68 ft 12 in)  Verzhiniya Veselinova (BUL) 21 February 1982 Sofia
21 20.73 m (68 ft 0 in)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR) 22 February 2004 Sumy
22 20.71 m (67 ft 11+14 in)  Larisa Peleshenko (URS) 11 February 1988 Volgograd
23 20.70 m (67 ft 10+34 in)  Liane Schmuhl (GDR) 27 February 1982 Senftenberg
24 20.69 m (67 ft 10+12 in)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS) 22 January 1999 Moscow
25 20.62 m (67 ft 7+34 in)  Nadezhda Chizhova (URS) 9 March 1974 Gothenburg

Annulled

The following athletes had their performance (inside 21.50 m) annulled due to doping offences:

Olympic medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Robert Garrett
 United States
Miltiadis Gouskos
 Greece
Georgios Papasideris
 Greece
1900 Paris
details
Richard Sheldon
 United States
Josiah McCracken
 United States
Robert Garrett
 United States
1904 St. Louis
details
Ralph Rose
 United States
Wesley Coe
 United States
Lawrence Feuerbach
 United States
1908 London
details
Ralph Rose
 United States
Denis Horgan
 Great Britain
John Garrels
 United States
1912 Stockholm
details
Pat McDonald
 United States
Ralph Rose
 United States
Lawrence Whitney
 United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Ville Pörhölä
 Finland
Elmer Niklander
 Finland
Harry Liversedge
 United States
1924 Paris
details
Bud Houser
 United States
Glenn Hartranft
 United States
Ralph Hills
 United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
John Kuck
 United States
Herman Brix
 United States
Emil Hirschfeld
 Germany
1932 Los Angeles
details
Leo Sexton
 United States
Harlow Rothert
 United States
František Douda
 Czechoslovakia
1936 Berlin
details
Hans Woellke
 Germany
Sulo Bärlund
 Finland
Gerhard Stöck
 Germany
1948 London
details
Wilbur Thompson
 United States
Jim Delaney
 United States
Jim Fuchs
 United States
1952 Helsinki
details
Parry O'Brien
 United States
Darrow Hooper
 United States
Jim Fuchs
 United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Parry O'Brien
 United States
Bill Nieder
 United States
Jiří Skobla
 Czechoslovakia
1960 Rome
details
Bill Nieder
 United States
Parry O'Brien
 United States
Dallas Long
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Dallas Long
 United States
Randy Matson
 United States
Vilmos Varjú
 Hungary
1968 Mexico City
details
Randy Matson
 United States
George Woods
 United States
Eduard Gushchin
 Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Władysław Komar
 Poland
George Woods
 United States
Hartmut Briesenick
 East Germany
1976 Montreal
details
Udo Beyer
 East Germany
Yevgeniy Mironov
 Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
 Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Vladimir Kiselyov
 Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
 Soviet Union
Udo Beyer
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Alessandro Andrei
 Italy
Mike Carter
 United States
Dave Laut
 United States
1988 Seoul
details
Ulf Timmermann
 East Germany
Randy Barnes
 United States
Werner Günthör
 Switzerland
1992 Barcelona
details
Mike Stulce
 United States
Jim Doehring
 United States
Vyacheslav Lykho
 Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Randy Barnes
 United States
John Godina
 United States
Oleksandr Bagach
 Ukraine
2000 Sydney
details
Arsi Harju
 Finland
Adam Nelson
 United States
John Godina
 United States
2004 Athens
details
Adam Nelson
 United States
Joachim Olsen
 Denmark
Manuel Martínez
 Spain
2008 Beijing
details
Tomasz Majewski
 Poland
Christian Cantwell
 United States
Dylan Armstrong
 Canada
2012 London
details
Tomasz Majewski
 Poland
David Storl
 Germany
Reese Hoffa
 United States
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Ryan Crouser
 United States
Joe Kovacs
 United States
Tom Walsh
 New Zealand
2020 Tokyo
details
Ryan Crouser
 United States
Joe Kovacs
 United States
Tom Walsh
 New Zealand
2024 Paris
details

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1948 London
details
Micheline Ostermeyer
 France
Amelia Piccinini
 Italy
Ina Schäffer
 Austria
1952 Helsinki
details
Galina Zybina
 Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
 Germany
Klavdiya Tochenova
 Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Tamara Tyshkevich
 Soviet Union
Galina Zybina
 Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
 United Team of Germany
1960 Rome
details
Tamara Press
 Soviet Union
Johanna Lüttge
 United Team of Germany
Earlene Brown
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Tamara Press
 Soviet Union
Renate Culmberger
 United Team of Germany
Galina Zybina
 Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Margitta Gummel
 East Germany
Marita Lange
 East Germany
Nadezhda Chizhova
 Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Nadezhda Chizhova
 Soviet Union
Margitta Gummel
 East Germany
Ivanka Khristova
 Bulgaria
1976 Montreal
details
Ivanka Khristova
 Bulgaria
Nadezhda Chizhova
 Soviet Union
Helena Fibingerová
 Czechoslovakia
1980 Moscow
details
Ilona Slupianek
 East Germany
Svetlana Krachevskaya
 Soviet Union
Margitta Pufe
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Claudia Losch
 West Germany
Mihaela Loghin
 Romania
Gael Martin
 Australia
1988 Seoul
details
Natalya Lisovskaya
 Soviet Union
Kathrin Neimke
 East Germany
Li Meisu
 China
1992 Barcelona
details
Svetlana Krivelyova
 Unified Team
Huang Zhihong
 China
Kathrin Neimke
 Germany
1996 Atlanta
details
Astrid Kumbernuss
 Germany
Sui Xinmei
 China
Irina Khudoroshkina
 Russia
2000 Sydney
details
Yanina Karolchik
 Belarus
Larisa Peleshenko
 Russia
Astrid Kumbernuss
 Germany
2004 Athens
details
Yumileidi Cumbá
 Cuba
Nadine Kleinert
 Germany
Not awarded[50]
2008 Beijing
details
Valerie Vili
 New Zealand
Misleydis González
 Cuba
Gong Lijiao
 China
2012 London
details
Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
Gong Lijiao
 China
Li Ling
 China
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Michelle Carter
 United States
Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
Anita Márton
 Hungary
2020 Tokyo
details
Gong Lijiao
 China
Raven Saunders
 United States
Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
2024 Paris
details

World Championship medalists

Men

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Edward Sarul (POL)  Ulf Timmermann (GDR)  Remigius Machura (TCH)
1987 Rome
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Alessandro Andrei (ITA)  John Brenner (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Lars Arvid Nilsen (NOR)  Aleksandr Klimenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Randy Barnes (USA)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 John Godina (USA)  Mika Halvari (FIN)  Randy Barnes (USA)
1997 Athens
details
 John Godina (USA)  Oliver-Sven Buder (GER)  C. J. Hunter (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 C. J. Hunter (USA)  Oliver-Sven Buder (GER)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 John Godina (USA)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Arsi Harju (FIN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Adam Nelson (USA)  Rutger Smith (NED)  Ralf Bartels (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Reese Hoffa (USA)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Tomasz Majewski (POL)  Ralf Bartels (GER)
2011 Daegu
details
 David Storl (GER)  Dylan Armstrong (CAN)  Christian Cantwell (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
 David Storl (GER)  Ryan Whiting (USA)  Dylan Armstrong (CAN)
2015 Beijing
details
 Joe Kovacs (USA)  David Storl (GER)  O'Dayne Richards (JAM)
2017 London
details
 Tom Walsh (NZL)  Joe Kovacs (USA)  Stipe Žunić (CRO)
2019 Doha
details
 Joe Kovacs (USA)  Ryan Crouser (USA)  Tom Walsh (NZL)
2022 Eugene
details
 Ryan Crouser (USA)  Joe Kovacs (USA)  Josh Awotunde (USA)
2023 Budapest
details
 Ryan Crouser (USA)  Leonardo Fabbri (ITA)  Joe Kovacs (USA)

Women

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Helena Fibingerová (TCH)  Helma Knorscheidt (GDR)  Ilona Schoknecht-Slupianek (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
 Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Kathrin Neimke (GDR)  Ines Müller (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Svetlana Krivelyova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Kathrin Neimke (GER)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Svetla Mitkova (BUL)
1997 Athens
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)  Stephanie Storp (GER)
1999 Seville
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Yanina Karolchik (BLR)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki[51]
details
 Olga Ryabinkina (RUS)  Valerie Vili (NZL)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Li Ling (CHN)
2009 Berlin
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2011 Daegu
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2013 Moscow
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Christina Schwanitz (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2015 Beijing
details
 Christina Schwanitz (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)  Michelle Carter (USA)
2017 London
details
 Gong Lijiao (CHN)  Anita Márton (HUN)  Michelle Carter (USA)
2019 Doha
details
 Gong Lijiao (CHN)  Danniel Thomas-Dodd (JAM)  Christina Schwanitz (GER)
2022 Eugene
details
 Chase Ealey (USA)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)  Jessica Schilder (NED)
2023 Budapest
details
 Chase Ealey (USA)  Sarah Mitton (CAN)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)

World Indoor Championships medalists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]
details
 Remigius Machura (TCH)  Udo Beyer (GDR)  Jānis Bojārs (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Ulf Timmermann (GDR)  Werner Günthör (SUI)  Sergey Smirnov (URS)
1989 Budapest
details
 Ulf Timmermann (GDR)  Randy Barnes (USA)  Georg Andersen (NOR)
1991 Seville
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Klaus Bodenmüller (AUT)  Ron Backes (USA)
1993 Toronto
details
 Mike Stulce (USA)  Jim Doehring (USA)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Mika Halvari (FIN)  C. J. Hunter (USA)  Dragan Perić (FRY)
1997 Paris
details
 Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)  John Godina (USA)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)  John Godina (USA)  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2001 Lisbon
details
 John Godina (USA)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Manuel Martínez (ESP)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Manuel Martínez (ESP)  John Godina (USA)  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2004 Budapest
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Reese Hoffa (USA)  Joachim Olsen (DEN)
2006 Moscow
details
 Reese Hoffa (USA)  Joachim Olsen (DEN)  Pavel Sofin (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Reese Hoffa (USA)  Tomasz Majewski (POL)
2010 Doha
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Ralf Bartels (GER)  Dylan Armstrong (CAN)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Ryan Whiting (USA)  David Storl (GER)  Tomasz Majewski (POL)
2014 Sopot
details
 Ryan Whiting (USA)  David Storl (GER)  Tomas Walsh (NZL)
2016 Portland
details
 Tomas Walsh (NZL)  Andrei Gag (ROU)  Filip Mihaljević (CRO)
2018 Birmingham
details
 Tomas Walsh (NZL)  David Storl (GER)  Tomáš Staněk (CZE)
2022 Belgrade
details
 Darlan Romani (BRA)  Ryan Crouser (USA)  Tomas Walsh (NZL)
2024 Glasgow
details
 Ryan Crouser (USA)  Tomas Walsh (NZL)  Leonardo Fabbri (ITA)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]
details
 Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Ines Müller (GDR)  Nunu Abashidze (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Ilona Briesenick (GDR)  Claudia Losch (FRG)
1989 Budapest
details
 Claudia Losch (FRG)  Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Christa Wiese (GDR)
1991 Seville
details
 Sui Xinmei (CHN)  Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)
1993 Toronto
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Stephanie Storp (GER)  Zhang Liuhong (CHN)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Kathrin Neimke (GER)  Connie Price-Smith (USA)  Grit Hammer (GER)
1997 Paris
details
 Vita Pavlysh (UKR)  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Irina Korzhanenko (RUS)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Krystyna Danilczyk-Zabawska (POL)  Teri Steer-Tunks (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Larisa Peleshenko (RUS)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Irina Korzhanenko (RUS)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Yumileidi Cumbá (CUB)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2006 Moscow
details
 Natallia Mikhnevich (BLR)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Olga Ryabinkina (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL)  Li Meiju (CHN)  Misleydis González (CUB)
2010 Doha
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Anna Avdeyeva (RUS)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Michelle Carter (USA)  Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Christina Schwanitz (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2016 Portland
details
 Michelle Carter (USA)  Anita Márton (HUN)  Valerie Adams (NZL)
2018 Birmingham
details
 Anita Márton (HUN)  Danniel Thomas-Dodd (JAM)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2022 Belgrade
details
 Auriol Dongmo (POR)  Chase Ealey (USA)  Jessica Schilder (NED)
2024 Glasgow
details
 Sarah Mitton (CAN)  Yemisi Ogunleye (GER)  Chase Jackson (USA)

Season's bests

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Colin White (31 December 2009). Projectile Dynamics in Sport: Principles and Applications. Taylor & Francis. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-415-47331-6. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  2. ^ "Hammer Throw". IAAF. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  3. ^ Shot Put – Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-02-28.
  4. ^ "Laying Out Sector Angles for the Track and Field Throwing Events" (PDF). USA Track & Field Pacific Northwest. Retrieved 2022-03-19. The shot, discus, hammer & weight throw sector is 34.92º. This angle was chosen due to its simple geometry.
  5. ^ "Biomechanical Problem of Shot Putting Finally Solved".
  6. ^ "Follow These Directions for the Glide Technique in Shot Put".
  7. ^ "Rotational vs. Glide Revisited - Comparing Shot Techniques [ARTICLE] | the Track & Field / Cross Country Coaches Insider". Archived from the original on 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
  8. ^ a b "Shot Put Spin and Glide Technique Comparison". 2013-09-17.
  9. ^ Aleksandr Baryshnikov biography on sportsdaily.ru (in Russian) reference tested at 11 May 2009
  10. ^ Aleksandr Baryshnikov, Athlete from Russia (in Russian) Archived 2010-09-17 at the Wayback Machine reference tested at 11 May 2009
  11. ^ Григорий РУДЕРМАН (Израиль), заслуженный тренер России «Метания в хх веке : тенденции развития.» Archived 2013-10-31 at the Wayback Machine reference tested at 11 May 2009
  12. ^ "High School Shot Put: Glide or Spin?" (PDF). Louisiana Track and Field Coaches Association. 2009. Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  13. ^ "History's best shot putter smashes world record with new technique at L.A. Grand Prix". Los Angeles Times. 2023-05-28. Retrieved 2023-06-29.
  14. ^ Playboy Poland 8/2012, page 44,45
  15. ^ "Ryan Crouser breaks world indoor shot put record with 2 best throws in history". 24 January 2021.
  16. ^ "Men's Outdoor Shot Put | Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Women's Outdoor Shot Put | Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  18. ^ "Shot Put Men Senior Outdoor". IAAF. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  19. ^ "All-time men's best Shot Put". alltime-athletics.com. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  20. ^ a b "FLASH: Crouser breaks world shot put record with 23.56m in Los Angeles | REPORT | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2023-05-27.
  21. ^ "Crouser retains shot put title at worlds after nearly staying home due to blood clots". AP News. 2023-08-19. Retrieved 2023-08-21.
  22. ^ "Crouser smashes world shot put record with 23.37m in Eugene | REPORT | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  23. ^ Jess Whittington (7 September 2022). "Kovacs throws 23.23m in superb shot put showdown on Sechselautenplatz". World Athletics. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  24. ^ "Shot Put Result" (PDF). swisstiming.com. 25 May 2024. Retrieved 28 May 2024.
  25. ^ a b Karen Rosen (25 June 2022). "Kerley cruises to speedy 100m triumph at US Championships". World Athletics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  26. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 23 July 2023. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  27. ^ Cathal Dennehy (29 May 2022). "Norman reigns in fierce 400m clash with record run in Eugene". World Athletics. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  28. ^ "Furlani jumps world U20 record, Fabbri throws 22.95m in Savona". World Athletics. 15 May 2024. Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  29. ^ a b "Men's Shot Put Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 17 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  30. ^ a b "Tsegay smashes world 5000m record and Duplantis breaks world pole vault record in Eugene | REPORT | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2023-09-18.
  31. ^ "Shot Put Results". Word Athletics. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  32. ^ a b "Shot Put Results" (PDF). IAAF. 5 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  33. ^ Brian Russell (1 July 2019). "Romani takes surprise shot put win in Stanford – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  34. ^ "Otterdahl, Ramsey Team Up to Win Drake Relays Shot Put Showcase". godrakebulldogs.com. 24 April 2024. Retrieved 25 April 2024.
  35. ^ Mike Rowbottom (31 August 2017). "Hill hits the shot put jackpot in Brussels' Place de la Monnaie – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Weir blasts a lifetime best of 22.44m for victory in Padua". European Athletics. 4 September 2023. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  37. ^ "Haratyk smashes Polish shot put record with 22.32m in Warsaw". European Athletics. 28 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  38. ^ Bob Ramsak (14 September 2019). "Bukowiecki improves to 22.25m in Chorzow". IAAF. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  39. ^ "Cessange -Luxembourg- (Luxembourg), 3–4.8.2019 -Mémorial J.-P. Kops & J.-M. Reuter-". trackinsun.blogspot.com. 4 August 2019. Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  40. ^ "Rajindra Campbell breaks national Shot Put record". The Gleaner. 22 July 2023. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  41. ^ "Shot Put Women Senior Outdoor". IAAF. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  42. ^ "All-time women's best Shot Put". alltime-athletics.com. 30 August 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Shot Put - men - senior - indoor". World Athletics. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  44. ^ Mulkeen, Jon (10 February 2024). "Tsegay, Girma and Holloway threaten world indoor records in Lievin". World Athletics. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  45. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  46. ^ Jon Mulkeen (23 February 2024). "Charlton threatens world record in Madrid". World Athletics. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  47. ^ a b "Shot Put Final Results" (PDF). European Athletics. 3 March 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  48. ^ Lindstrom, Sieg (12 April 2023). "No April Fools' Gag — Crouser's 76-8½ Nixed". Track&Field News. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  49. ^ "Shot Put - women - senior - indoor". World Athletics. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  50. ^ Athens 2004 Athletics Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  51. ^ Revision of results following sanctions of Tsikhan and Ostapchuk