|Place of origin||France|
|Main ingredients||Bread, butter, ham, cheese (typically Gruyère)|
A croque monsieur (French pronunciation: [kʁɔk məsjø]) is a hot sandwich made with ham and cheese. The name comes from the French words croque ("crunch") and monsieur ("mister").
The dish originated in French cafés and bars as a quick snack. In the early 1900s, bistro owner Michel Lunarca popularized the croque-monsieur.
A croque monsieur is traditionally made with baked or boiled ham and sliced cheese between slices of pain de mie, topped with grated cheese and slightly salted and peppered, and then baked in an oven or fried in a frying pan. The bread may optionally be browned by grilling after being dipped in beaten egg. Traditionally, Gruyère is used, but sometimes Comté or Emmental cheese as well. Some brasseries also add béchamel sauce.
Croque monsieur may be baked or fried so that the cheese topping melts and forms a crust.
A croque monsieur served with a poached or lightly fried egg on top is known as a croque madame (or, in parts of Normandy, as a croque-à-cheval). According to the Petit Robert dictionary, the name dates to around 1960. The name croque-mademoiselle is associated with its lighter, vegetarian version: made of the same bread, but with ordinary melting cheese, accompanied with chives, cucumber and lettuce.
In the United Kingdom, a ham-and-cheese hot snack is called a toastie, and toastie makers are available to buy. In the United States, the Monte Cristo, a ham-and-cheese sandwich, often dipped in egg and fried, is popular diner fare, and a 'grilled cheese sandwich' is a classic sandwich that has been enjoyed at home and in cafeteria-style restaurants since the Great Depression.
Variants of the sandwich with substitutions or additional ingredients are given names modelled on the original croque-monsieur, for example:
|Barros jarpa||Variation with same ingredients from Chilean cuisine|||
|Barros Luco||Made with roast beef instead of ham|||
|Croque auvergnat||Bleu d'Auvergne cheese|||
|Croque norvégien||Smoked salmon instead of ham|||
|Croque tartiflette||Sliced potatoes and Reblochon cheese|||
|Croque bolognese / croque Boum-Boum||Bolognese sauce|
|Croque señor||Tomato salsa|
|Croque Hawaiian||Slice of pineapple|
|Croque gagnet||Gouda cheese and andouille|||
|Croque Madame||Fried egg|||
|Croque monsieur with bechamel||Standard croque monsieur topped with bechamel sauce|||
|Francesinha||Variation from Portuguese cuisine with steak, sausage, ham, melted cheese and beer sauce|||