KGO
Broadcast areaSan Francisco Bay Area
Frequency810 kHz
Branding810 The Spread
Programming
FormatSports betting talk
Affiliations
Ownership
Owner
KNBR, KNBR-AM, KSAN, KSFO, KTCT
History
First air date
January 8, 1924
(100 years ago)
 (1924-01-08)
Call sign meaning
General Electric Oakland
Technical information[1]
Licensing authority
FCC
Facility ID34471
ClassA
Power50,000 watts unlimited
Transmitter coordinates
37°31′35″N 122°6′2″W / 37.52639°N 122.10056°W / 37.52639; -122.10056
Links
Public license information
WebcastListen live
Websitewww.810thespread.com

KGO (810 kHz) is a commercial AM radio station licensed to San Francisco, California, and owned by Cumulus Media. Due to its extensive groundwave signal and the effects of the surrounding terrain, its coverage is greater than any Bay Area FM station, and it registers with Arbitron as a station listened to in surrounding metropolitan regions. Cumulus's local offices are based on Battery Street in the SoMa portion of San Francisco's Financial District.

KGO's transmitter site is located in Fremont, near the Dumbarton Bridge, where its prominent towers are landmarks used by pilots as a waypoint in communications with local airports. KGO broadcasts with 50,000 watts, the highest power permitted for AM stations by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It uses a directional antenna fulltime, that sends most of its signal to the north and south. This limits nighttime interference to the other Class A station on 810 kHz, WGY in Schenectady, New York. Most nights, using a good radio, KGO can be heard throughout the western United States, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in northern Mexico, western Canada and Alaska. Its nighttime transmissions are received essentially free of static in locations such as Vancouver and Seattle, and San Diego, but are difficult to receive in Reno, Nevada, and other points east of the Sierra Nevada mountains, due to its directional signal.

Programming

From 1962 until 2022, KGO carried news and talk programming.

Since October 2022, the station has broadcast a sports talk format, with an emphasis on sports betting; it is one of three sports stations owned by Cumulus Media in the San Francisco Bay Area, along with KNBR (AM)FM and KTCT. KGO was the radio home for the San Francisco 49ers football team from 1987 to 2005. It has broadcast University of California, Berkeley Golden Bears Football games since 1974; since 2013, it also broadcast select California Golden Bears men's basketball games.[2] The station began to air San Jose Earthquakes soccer games in 2023.[3]

History

1920s and 1930s

After several late-night test broadcasts, using the experimental call sign 6XG, KGO signed on the air on January 8, 1924, from General Electric's (GE) Oakland transformer manufacturing plant.[4] (The original two-story brick building, constructed specifically for the station on East 14th Street, was demolished sometime in the 1980s.[5]) The station was authorized for a then-impressive transmitting power of 1,000 watts.[6] KGO was part of GE's three-station holdings, in addition to WGY in Schenectady, New York and KOA in Denver, Colorado. At its debut it was known as the "Sunset Station", because it was GE's West Coast outlet.[7]

As was the custom with early radio stations, the programming consisted of performances by local talent, including the KGO Orchestra. which provided some of the music, and a dramatic group known as the KGO Players, which performed weekly plays and short skits, often under the direction of Bay Area drama instructor Wilda Wilson Church. The station's music, which was also performed by other local orchestras and vocalists, included classical selections as well as popular dance music the next night. Due to GE's association with the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), and RCA's 1927 launch of the NBC Red Network, KGO was soon operated by NBC management out of studio facilities in San Francisco.

Regional districts used for the November 11, 1928 implementation of the Federal Radio Commission's General Order 40. KGO was in Region 5, and WGY was in Region 1

The March 28, 1928 reauthorization of the Radio Act of 1927 included a provision, known as the Davis Amendment, which mandated an "equality of radio broadcasting service" within the United States. This specified an "equitable allocation" among five regional zones. On November 11, 1928, the Federal Radio Commission (FRC) implemented a major broadcasting station reallocation, based on its General Order 40. Included in this band plan was the designation of what became known as "clear channel" stations, which were high powered stations with extensive nighttime coverage. This plan designated 40 U.S. clear channels, divided eight to each region, with KGO, on 790 kHz, included as one of the Region 5 assignments.[8] The only other station assigned to 790 kHz was WGY.[9] KGO and WGY were both owned by GE, with WGY considered the company's showcase station. GE was able to effectively transfer KGO's clear channel assignment from Region 5 to WGY's Region 1, by increasing the power of WGY to 50,000 watts, while limiting KGO to 7,500 watts. (Directional antennas were not developed until the early 1930s, so both stations operated with non-directional antennas.) Any question about the propriety of this action became moot after the Davis Amendment was repealed on June 5, 1936.

1940s and 1950s

In 1941, stations on 790, including WGY and KGO, were moved to 810 as part of the implementation of the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA).[10]

In 1942, KGO became the key western affiliate for the newly divested Blue (later American Broadcasting Company) radio network.[11]

When the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) required NBC to sell one of its two networks (and that network's owned-and-operated stations), KGO's license switched from Radio Corporation of America to the Blue Network, Inc., effective January 23, 1942.[12] The NBC Blue Network initially simply dropped "NBC" from its name to become the "Blue Network", then in June 1945 became the American Broadcasting Company. KGO became one of the founding stations of the ABC Radio Network as a result.

In the post World War 2 period, KGO produced many live music programs, including that of Western Swing bandleader Bob Wills, whose music was a staple of the time. KGO was instrumental in bringing the first exercise show to broadcasting, hosted by Jack LaLanne, a fitness instructor and gym operator in nearby Oakland. LaLanne conducted his radio fitness show for many years on KGO, moving in the late 1950s to KGO-TV and a successful TV syndication career.

On December 1, 1947, KGO's power was increased to 50,000 watts, as it switched to a directional antenna that limited its signal toward WGY in the west, while WGY continued to operate with a non-directional antenna. It was reported at the time that KGO's upgrade "retired the nation's oldest regularly operating transmitter-a 7,500-watter... in use since Jan. 8, 1924".[13]

By the late 1950s, KGO suffered from poor ratings. In 1962, ABC installed new management, including program director Jim Dunbar from Chicago sister station WLS. Dunbar revamped the station into one of the country's first news/talk stations. While the new format was initially unsuccessful, Dunbar stressed the "live and local" aspect of the programming by running the talk shows every day from locations such as Johnny Kan's Chinese restaurant, Señor Pico's Restaurant, and the hungry i nightclub. This higher profile caused KGO's ratings to begin a steady climb. Among KGO's personalities during this period was future Radio Hall of Fame member J.P. McCarthy, the station's morning host in the early 1960s.

1960s–1980s

After trying various formats, KGO eventually shifted to news and talk programming, relying heavily on the ABC radio network for its news programs. KGO started carrying Paul Harvey's twice-daily programs but also began to develop a strong local news staff that produced extended morning and afternoon newscasts. The local talk show hosts included Les Crane, Owen Spann and Jim Eason, who often interviewed visiting celebrities in the KGO studios. Owen Spann also originated special broadcasts from Europe and Africa, interviewing government officials from those countries. Local director-actor Jack Brooks hosted a Saturday-morning entertainment program until his sudden death in June 1984, after directing a production of Kismet for the Capuchino Community Theatre that featured Jim Eason as the poet Omar Khayyám. Dr. Dean Edell began his regular medical programs at KGO,[citation needed] leading to nationally syndicated broadcasts

Two of KGO's three towers partially collapsed during the Loma Prieta earthquake on October 17, 1989. All three were replaced.[14]

1990s–2010s

KGO helicopter (2006)
KGO transmission towers in San Francisco Bay, 2008

In March 2008, solar panels were installed at KGO's transmitter site in Fremont, California, to offset some of its power consumption during daytime hours. The installation was a test bed for Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is located near the Dumbarton Bridge. The solar system uses both CPV (SolFocus) and PV (Premier Power) arrays and provides about 17 Kilowatts, or 33% (one third), of the radio frequency (RF) power output from the 50KW transmitter (or about one-tenth of the total power consumption of their transmitter site over a 24-hour period). United States Speaker of the House Rep. Nancy Pelosi turned the system on during an on-air ceremony.[15]

For over 30 years, from July 1978 to January 2009, KGO was the number-one station in the San Francisco Bay Area in the Arbitron ratings, a feat unmatched by any other station in the United States.[16] According to the 2010 Arbitron ratings, however, KGO had lost its lead to KCBS, with KOIT-FM as a close second, and KGO listing at third.[citation needed] When KGO switched to all-news in December 2011, it fell further behind in the local ratings. As of Spring 2013, KGO placed 16th in the market, with approximately half of their listenership when they were number one.[17]

Until December 5, 2011, KGO created nearly all of its own local programming, with very limited syndicated content. The majority of its programs were hosted by San Francisco Bay Area broadcasters.[citation needed] The daily schedule included many issues-oriented talk shows, with weekday hosts that included Gene Burns, Gil Gross, Ronn Owens, John Rothmann and lawyer Len Tillem. The station also carried a variety of specialty programs, particularly on weekends, with John Hamilton discussing travel and leisure, Gene Burns covering fine food and dining (on a show separate from his weekday program), Joanie Greggains hosting a health-and-fitness program, and Brent Walters, who teaches "Comparative Religions" at San Jose State University, hosting the early Sunday morning show, God Talk. In 2014, KGO brought in John Batchelor at midnight. News/talk weekend hosts now include Brian Copeland, "Karel" Charles Karel Bouley, and Pat Thurston.

Up to 2011, the weekday morning news (from 5 a.m. to 9 a.m.) was co-anchored by Jon Bristow and Jennifer Jones-Lee.[18] The afternoon news (from 2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) featured veteran reporter Chris Brecher and award-winning reporter/anchor Bret Burkhart.[19]

On December 2, 2011, new owner Cumulus Media announced that KGO was rebranding itself as "news and information", moving to an all-news format from 2 p.m. to 7 p.m. (in addition to the existing morning-drive, noon-hour and afternoon-drive news blocks) on December 5.[20][21] This had resulted in the abrupt termination, on December 1, of most of the talk hosts (including Gene Burns, Gil Gross, John Rothmann, Ray Taliaferro, Len Tillem, and Dr. Bill Wattenburg). Ronn Owens's morning show, as well as weekend talk programming remained, although some of the weekend hosts (including Joanie Greggains, and Len Tillem) were also terminated on December 1, 2011. Bob Brinker's syndicated "Moneytalk" was moved to KSFO, a politically conservative talk radio sister station which arguably better reflects Brinker's conservative politico-economic views. KGO also dropped Leo Laporte's weekend syndicated tech talk program in the format change.[22] Gil Gross, Len Tillem and Leo Laporte would all move to competitor KKSF.

The format change and termination of many popular talk show hosts sparked outrage among long-time listeners, many of whom called for sponsors to drop their advertising on the station.[23] Ratings declined substantially following the change, with competitors KCBS and KQED-FM continuing to lead the market, and in December 2014, KGO reintroduced talk programming on weekdays.[2] In December 2014, KGO added Chip Franklin to the noon to 3 pm lineup.[24] In January 2015, KGO announced they had hired Chicago/San Antonio radio personality Kevin "DreX" Buchar, best known for his successful morning show on Chicago's WKSC-FM, which ran for more than a decade, from 7PM to 10PM.[25] John Batchelor's syndicated show aired overnights, returning KGO to the same level of news programming as before 2011.[26]

Both KGO and Dallas-based sister station KLIF shared similar visual "News/Information" identities after KLIF's parent Cumulus acquired Citadel, until 2014, when talk programming was reintroduced.

At noon on March 31, 2016, KGO dropped its previous programming and began stunting with recordings of speeches from influential figures and people talking about San Francisco, as well as songs about the city, while promoting "The Next Generation of KGO" to launch on April 5 (though with a break during the weekend for paid programming). At least 20 people, including the entire news staff, as well as some staffers from sister station KFOG, were laid off with the change.[27][28][29] Originally, long-time KGO host Ronn Owens announced that he would be moving to sister station KSFO in the afternoon slot beginning April 4. However, due to what was advertised as a "listener reaction" against the move (in reality, Owens contested the move of his show off KGO as against the terms of his contract), Owens stayed with KGO. KGO kept its news/talk format, but relaunched it with a new live and local lineup, which included Owens and Armstrong & Getty in mornings;[30] Armstrong & Getty, a regionally syndicated program based at KSTE in Sacramento, had previously aired in the Bay Area on KKSF.[27] Owens left the station in 2018, and Armstrong & Getty moved to KSFO in 2020 to be replaced by Nikki Medoro, previously an afternoon news anchor.[31]

2020s: end of news and talk; "The Spread"

On October 6, 2022, at approximately 10:16 a.m., KGO abruptly ended the news/talk format in the middle of midday host Mark Thompson's show; Thompson later said he had been informed just before going on-air that a format change would be implemented shortly, but was asked not to use the opportunity to say goodbye to listeners.[32] Instead, mid-show, Thompson was signaled to give a final station identification;[33] the station then began a stunt loop featuring songs and promotional announcements referring to betting, money, and winning. The promotions stated that a new format, billed as "the most unique radio station in the Bay Area", would launch on October 10, assuring listeners that they "can bet on it".[34][35] On that day, KGO launched a sports talk format emphasizing sports betting, branded as "810 The Spread"; the new format has no local programming, and the station's schedule is primarily sourced from the BetQL and CBS Sports Radio networks, serving as a complement to sister sports stations KNBR-FM and KTCT. Some hours on weekends are money-related paid brokered programming.[36]

Annual Cure-a-Thon

Until the change in December 2011, KGO hosted an annual fundraiser called the KGO Cure-a-Thon to help raise money for The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society with all of the station's regular programming pre-empted for an entire day during the event. Listeners were encouraged to call in and donate money to help in the fight against these kinds of cancer. An auction was also held to help raise money. Notable items up for auction have included a trip with Gene Burns on a private jet to various destinations, such as Las Vegas and Italy, for a gourmet dinner. Cumulus Media has announced that it will not be continuing the KGO Cure-a-Thon charity event despite the fact it has raised millions of dollars for charity in the past.[citation needed]

Former staff

Former logos

KGO logo during the 1990s
KGO logo from 2000 to 2011
KGO's logo under an all-news format, 2011–2016
KGO's final logo as a news/talk station, 2016–2022

See also

References

  1. ^ "Facility Technical Data for KGO". Licensing and Management System. Federal Communications Commission.
  2. ^ a b "Cal, KGO Extend Broadcast Partnership". www.calbears.com. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  3. ^ "Earthquakes Announce New English Language Flagship Radio Station". San Jose Earthquakes (Press release). February 22, 2023.
  4. ^ "New K. G. O. Will Open Tomorrow", Oakland Tribune, January 8, 1924, p. 15.
  5. ^ Hedin, Mark (April 22, 2017). "Historic but toxic Oakland brick buildings defy attempts to level them". East Bay Times. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  6. ^ "New stations", Radio Service Bulletin, February 1, 1924, page 2.
  7. ^ "KGO, 'Sunset' Station, Ready to Broadcast", Washington (DC) Evening Star, January 8, 1924, page 3.
  8. ^ "The Listener's Dial"
  9. ^ "Revised list of broadcasting stations, by frequencies, effective 3 a. m., November 11, 1928, eastern standard time", Second Annual Report of the Federal Radio Commission for the Year Ended June 30, 1928, Together With Supplemental Report for the Period From July 1, 1928 to September 30, 1928, pages 200-214.
  10. ^ "United States station assignments by frequency", Arrangement between the United States of America, Canada, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico, comprising recommendations of the North American Regional Radio-Engineering Meeting (supplemental to North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement, Habana, 1937). Signed at Washington January 30, 1941; effective March 29, 1941, pages 1421–1443.
  11. ^ KGO (advertisement), Broadcasting, June 22, 1942, page 23.
  12. ^ "FCC Okays Transfer of WJZ, KGO, WENR". Billboard. January 31, 1942. p. 6. Retrieved July 13, 2023.
  13. ^ "KGO Increases Power to 50 kw Today With Governor Warren Giving Signal" (PDF). Broadcasting. December 1, 1947. p. 24. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
  14. ^ Schneider, John. "KGO Radio Tower Collapse 1989". The Bay Area Radio Museum. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  15. ^ "KGO Flips the Solar Switch" by Tom Vernon, December 18, 2008 (radioworld.com)
  16. ^ Hartlaub, Peter (October 8, 2022). "KGO was once a local talk radio juggernaut. How could it die so fast?". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
  17. ^ "KGO Radio reshuffles as ratings decline". sfgate.com. March 15, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  18. ^ "KGO Newstalk 810 San Francisco". Archived from the original on December 13, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  19. ^ "KGO Newstalk 810 San Francisco". Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  20. ^ "KGO 810 San Francisco". Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  21. ^ "Major Shakeup At KGO San Francisco - RadioInsight". radioinsight.com. December 5, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  22. ^ "KGO radio going to news format — veterans leaving". San Francisco Chronicle. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  23. ^ "KGO Radio Format Change Sparks Outrage Among Loyal Listeners". Huffington Post. December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  24. ^ "Media Confidential: SF Radio: Talk Host Chip Franklin Joining KGO 810 AM". mediaconfidential.blogspot.com. November 19, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  25. ^ "KGO/SF Goes Talk 7-10 PM". Radio Ink. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015.
  26. ^ "After going mostly news, KGO is talking again". sfchronicle.com. February 12, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  27. ^ a b KGO Announces New Lineup With Ronn Owens Staying After All - RadioInsight (published March 31, 2016)
  28. ^ "End of an era: KGO Radio lays off news staff". sfexaminer.com. Retrieved October 10, 2022.
  29. ^ KGO 810 News, Talk & Traffic uploaded a photo (published March 31, 2016)
  30. ^ KGO 810 announces next generation live and local line-up Archived April 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine - KGO 810 official site (accessed April 4, 2016)
  31. ^ "Nikki Medoro to host new morning show on KGO radio". The Mercury News. February 14, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
  32. ^ "KGO host talks about Bay Area radio station's abrupt signoff". SFGate. October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 7, 2022.
  33. ^ Keys, Matthew (October 6, 2022). "KGO Radio ends news and talk format, will start offering sports betting shows". The Desk. Retrieved October 8, 2022.
  34. ^ "KGO Signs-Off News/Talk Format". RadioInsight. October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 7, 2022.
  35. ^ "KGO 810, legendary long-time Bay Area talk radio station, ends format, leaves cryptic message". SiliconValley.com. October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 6, 2022.
  36. ^ Venta, Lance (October 10, 2022). "Sports Betting Is Spread Across KGO". RadioInsight. Retrieved October 10, 2022.
  37. ^ a b Sies, Luther F. (2014). Encyclopedia of American Radio, 1920-1960, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-5149-4.
  38. ^ "The Broadcast Legends - Russ Coughlan". Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
  39. ^ Taylor, Michael (December 26, 1995). "The Dark Side Of Duane Garrett / Friends say he bilked them". The San Francisco Chronicle. "Popular talk show host and influential political insider Duane Garrett, who committed suicide last summer, was so entangled in a web of debt and deceit that he routinely bilked investors who were also his friends and associates, recently filed court records show."
  40. ^ Club, San Francisco Peninsula Press (July 26, 2007). "San Francisco Press Club: David Lazarus will also quit KGO-AM gig". sfppc.blogspot.com. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  41. ^ "Longtime Bay Area radio host Ray Taliaferro found dead in Kentucky". The Mercury News. December 3, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  42. ^ Gustafson, Craig (Spring 2009). "Pat Novak ... for Hire". Nostalgia Digest. 35 (2): 4–9.