Philippine expressway network
Shields for E1 (expressway) / AH26 (Pan-Philippine Highway) and E5 (expressway)
Map of expressways in Luzon, including under construction and planned expressways
System information
Maintained by private companies under concession from the Department of Public Works and Highways
Length626 km[1] (389 mi)
Formed2014
Highway names
ExpresswaysEx
System links
  • Roads in the Philippines

The Philippine expressway network, also known as the High Standard Highway Network, is a controlled-access highway network managed by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) which consists of all expressways and regional high standard highways in the Philippines.[2]

High standard highways are defined as highways which provide a high level of traffic services by assuring high speed mobility and safe travel in order to vitally support socio-economic activities for sound socio-economic development of strategic regions and the country as a whole.[2] In the Philippines, controlled-access highways are known as expressways. They are multi-lane divided toll roads which are privately maintained under concession from the government. The regional high standard highways are partial controlled-access highways that function as supplementary to expressways.[2]

The Philippine expressway network spanned 420 kilometers (260 mi) in length in 2015 and was extended to 626 kilometers (389 mi) in 2020, and is to be extended to 995 kilometers (618 mi) beyond 2030 according to the master plan submitted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in 2010.[1]

Overview

See also: Philippine highway network

The Philippine highway network spans over 32,000 kilometers (20,000 mi) across all regions of the Philippines. These highways, however, are mostly single and dual carriageways with many U-turn lanes and intersections slowing down traffic. Coupled with the increase in the number of vehicles and the demand for limited-access highways, the Philippine government requested the government of Japan to conduct a master plan for the development of a high standard highway network in 2009 under the Philippine Medium-Term Public Investment Plan (2005–2010).[2] The plan calls for the promotion of national integrity by strengthening the Philippine Nautical Highway System linking roads and ferries, the decongestion of traffic in Metro Manila, and the improvement of accessibility to main tourist spots, among others.[2]

The Philippine expressway network master plan covers the development of high standard highways surrounding Metro Manila in Luzon, Metro Cebu in the Visayas, and the Metro DavaoGeneral Santos area in Mindanao.[2]

Types

High standard highways in the Philippines are classified into two types: the arterial high standard highways or expressways, and regional high standard highways.[2]

Controlled-access highways or Expressways (HSH-1)

Arterial high standards highways (HSH-1) in the Philippines are known as expressways. They are highways with controlled-access, normally with interchanges and may include facilities for levying tolls for passage in an open or closed system.[3] Standard features of Philippine expressways include guard rails, rumble strips, signs and pavement markings, solid wall fence, speed radars, toll plaza, closed-circuit television and rest and service areas. The speed limit is 100 km/h (62 mph) for cars and jeepneys, 80 km/h (50 mph) for trucks and buses, and 60 km/h (37 mph) is the minimum for all classes of vehicles.

The Skyway, the first elevated toll road in the country, as pictured in 2007

The first expressways in the Philippines are the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) and the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX), both of which were built in the late 1960s.[4] The first elevated toll road in the Philippines is the Skyway, with its construction consisting of numerous sections called "stages". Its latest section, Stage 3, was completed in 2021.[5] The Southern Tagalog Arterial Road (STAR) Tollway, from Santo Tomas to Lipa in Batangas was opened in 2001 and was extended in 2008. The Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX), the longest tollway in the Philippines was opened in 2008, setting the stage for the development of the Tarlac–Pangasinan–La Union Expressway (TPLEX), which would extend beyond the SCTEX' northern terminus in Tarlac City. The TPLEX was opened in 2013. The Cavite–Laguna Expressway (CALAX), another expressway in Southern Luzon, was partially opened on October 30, 2019.[6] The Central Luzon Link Expressway (CLLEX) was partially opened on July 15, 2021.[7]

There are many under construction and proposed expressways in the Philippines. All the expressways in the Philippines are privately maintained under concession agreements either with the Department of Public Works and Highways or the Toll Regulatory Board through build–operate–transfer (BOT) arrangements. At present, there are 15 expressways in the Philippines that connect Metro Manila to northern and southern Luzon and 1 expressway in Metro Cebu.

Regional high standard highways (HSH-2)

Regional high standard highways in the Philippines are multi-lane arterial roads with bypass, grade separation and/or frontage road. They connect the expressways and are mostly partial controlled-access highways.[2] Their design speed is 80–100 km/h (50–62 mph) for inter-urban regional highways and 60 kilometers per hour (37 mph) for intra-urban highways.[2]

Numbering system

Under the implementation of a route numbering system commissioned by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) on 2014, expressways are signed with yellow pentagonal signs with black numerals. They are prefixed with the letter "E" for "Expressway" to distinguish them from national highways. Expressways numbers are assigned sequentially and continuously.[3]

Numbered routes

The Philippine expressway network is currently consisting of six discontinuous network of expressways, all of which are located in the island of Luzon.[8][9]

Image Route From To Length Toll roads Areas served Notes
North Luzon Expressway  E1 Quezon City Rosario, La Union 226 km (140 mi) North Luzon Expressway
Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway
(Mabalacat–Tarlac City segment)
Tarlac–Pangasinan–La Union Expressway
Bulacan, La Union, northern Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Tarlac Includes the 3.36-kilometer (2.09 mi) NLEX Tabang Spur Road in Bulacan.
South Luzon Expressway  E2 Makati Batangas City 103.7 km (64.4 mi) South Luzon Expressway
(Magallanes–Santo Tomas segment)
Skyway[note 1]
Southern Tagalog Arterial Road
Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila
Muntinlupa 4 km (2.5 mi) Muntinlupa–Cavite Expressway Southern Metro Manila, Cavite Spur of E2
Taguig Parañaque 7.7 km (4.8 mi) C-5 Southlink Expressway Southern Metro Manila Partially operational (Taguig to Merville)
Quezon City Taguig 34 km (21 mi) Southeast Metro Manila Expressway Rizal, eastern Metro Manila Under construction
 E3 Parañaque Kawit, Cavite 14 km (8.7 mi) Manila–Cavite Expressway Cavite, southern Metro Manila
Kawit, Cavite Biñan 44.6 km (27.7 mi) Cavite–Laguna Expressway Cavite, Laguna Partially opertaional (Silang Aguinaldo to Mamplasan)
Subic Freeport Expresway
Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway
 E4 Olongapo Mabalacat 59.3 km (36.8 mi) Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (Hermosa–Mabalacat segment)[note 2]
Subic Freeport Expressway
Bataan, Pampanga, Zambales
NLEX Segment 8.1 (Mindanao Avenue Link)  E5 Quezon City Navotas 24.85 km (15.44 mi) NLEX Segment 8.2 (Construction pending)
NLEX Mindanao Avenue Link
NLEX Karuhatan Link
NLEX Harbor Link
Northern Metro Manila Operational (Valenzuela to Navotas)
 E6 Parañaque Taguig 11.6 km (7.2 mi) NAIA Expressway Southern Metro Manila including Ninoy Aquino International Airport

Unnumbered routes

Image From To Length Toll roads Areas served Notes
Tarlac City San Jose, Nueva Ecija 66.4 km (41.3 mi) Central Luzon Link Expressway Tarlac, Nueva Ecija Partially operational (Tarlac City to Aliaga)
Cebu City Cordova 8.9 km (5.5 mi) Cebu-Cordova Link Expressway Cebu City, Cordova Longest bridge in the Philippines, first expressway in Visayas
Caloocan Manila 7.7 km (4.8 mi) NLEX Connector Western Metro Manila Operational (Caloocan to Magsaysay Boulevard); under construction (Magsaysay Boulevard to Santa Mesa)

Tolls

Most of the expressways implement tolls, usually of the closed road and barrier toll systems. On expressways roads using closed road tolling, motorists first get a card or ticket at the entry point and surrender them upon exit. On expressways implementing barrier tolling, toll collection is done at toll plazas on a fixed rate. Some expressways employ a hybrid system that includes both, like the North Luzon Expressway, which uses both barrier ("open system") and closed road tolling.

Electronic toll collection (ETC) is first implemented on the Skyway and South Luzon Expressway, using transponder technology branded E-Pass. ETC systems are implemented by some toll road operators, with inter-running support on other connected expressways. Toll plazas or toll gates have ETC lanes on the leftmost lanes or on "mixed" lanes, that allow cash collection, or both. Latest ETC systems use radio frequency identification (RFID) technology over transponder technology for collection. Having different ETC systems that are not supported on other roads, a plan for a unified ETC system is promoted for motorists' convenience. Cashless toll collections on all expressways are on a dry run since 2023, aiming for full implementation in 2024.[10]

As of January 2024, the toll rates by expressway are as follows:

Name Class 1
(Cars, Motorcycles, SUVs, Jeepneys)
Class 2
(Buses, Light Trucks)
Class 3
(Heavy Trucks)
Cavite–Laguna Expressway ₱4.494/km ₱8.989/km ₱13.483/km
C-5 Southlink Expressway ₱35.00 ₱69.00 ₱104.00
Manila–Cavite Expressway ₱8.00 (Kabihasnan)
₱35.00 (Parañaque)
₱73.00 (Kawit)
₱70.00 (Parañaque)
₱146.00 (Kawit)
₱104.00 (Parañaque)
₱219.00 (Kawit)
Metro Manila Skyway ₱164.00 (to & from Alabang/SLEx)
₱118.00 (to & from Sucat/Dr. A. Santos Ave.)
₱72.00 (to & from Bicutan/Doña Soledad)
₱105.00 (Buendia to Plaza Azul/Nagtahan)
₱129.00 (E. Rodriguez to NLEX Balintawak)
₱264.00 (Buendia to NLEX Balintawak)
₱329.00 (to & from Alabang/SLEx)
₱237.00 (to & from Sucat/Dr. A. Santos Ave.)
₱145.00 (to & from Bicutan/Doña Soledad)
₱210.00 (Buendia to Plaza Azul/Nagtahan)
₱258.00 (E. Rodriguez to NLEX Balintawak)
₱528.00 (Buendia to NLEX Balintawak)
₱493.00 (to & from Alabang/SLEx)
₱356.00 (to & from Sucat/Dr. A. Santos Ave.)
₱218.00 (to & from Bicutan/Doña Soledad)
Muntinlupa–Cavite Expressway ₱18.00 ₱37.00 ₱55.00
NAIA Expressway ₱35.00 (Short Segment)
₱45.00 (Full Route)
₱69.00 (Short Segment)
₱90.00 (Full Route)
₱104.00 (Short Segment)
₱134.00 (Full Route)
NLEX Connector ₱86.00 ₱215.00 ₱302.00
North Luzon Expressway ₱62.00 [Open System (Balintawak–Marilao)]
₱3.56/km [Closed System (Bocaue–Sta.Ines)]
₱155.00 [Open System (Balintawak–Marilao)]
₱8.90/km [Closed System (Bocaue–Sta.Ines)]
₱187.00 [Open System (Balintawak–Marilao)]
₱10.68/km [Closed System (Bocaue–Sta.Ines)]
South Luzon Expressway ₱4.822/km ₱9.685/km ₱14.568/km
STAR Tollway ₱2.482/km ₱4.964/km ₱7.422/km
Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway ₱4.09/km ₱6.44/km ₱9.45/km
Subic Freeport Expressway ₱27.00 ₱67.00 ₱80.00
Tarlac–Pangasinan–La Union Expressway ₱3.50/km ₱8.70/km ₱10.50/km

Philippine Spine Expressway Network

3 components of the expressway network or the High Standard Highway Network are the Luzon Spine Expressway Network (LSEN), the Visayas Spine Expressway Network (VSEN), and the Mindanao Spine Expressway Network (MSEN). It is a planned network of interconnected expressways within the islands of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. It is part of the Build! Build! Build! Infrastructure Plan of DuterteNomics[11] and the Build Better More of Bongbong Marcos.[citation needed]

In addition to the following expressways:

New expressways will be built as well, such as:

Asian Highway Network

Main article: Asian Highway Network

The Asian Highway 26 () passes through three expressways in the Philippines:

  1. North Luzon Expressway from Guiguinto, Bulacan to Balintawak Interchange, Quezon City;
  2. South Luzon Expressway from Magallanes Interchange, Makati to Calamba, Laguna; and
  3. Skyway from Makati to Alabang.[note 1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The extent of E2/AH26 in Skyway is unknown since the DPWH's GIS apps does not show any route designation for the tollway. Despite this, some E2/AH26 markers were seen between Buendia and Alabang until they were dismantled together with the center barriers in 2020.
  2. ^ This segment from Hermosa, Bataan to Mabalacat is currently numbered E1 according to the DPWH's GIS apps but their 2019 atlas, as well as older sources, shows that it is part of E4.

References

  1. ^ a b "Master Plan for High Standard Highways/Expressways for PPP". Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Study of Masterplan on High Standard Highway Network Development in the Republic of the Philippines" (PDF). Japan International Cooperation Agency. July 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Brief History of National Roads in the Philippines" (PDF). Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  4. ^ Abecilla, Victor (November 3, 2015). "Practical solutions to Metro Manila". The Standard. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  5. ^ "Skyway Stage 3 to officially open on January 15". CNN Philippines. January 13, 2021. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021.
  6. ^ Tuquero, Loreben (October 22, 2019). "Cavite-Laguna Expressway passable by October 30 – DPWH". Rappler. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  7. ^ Aguilar, Krissy (July 15, 2021). "First 18 km of 30-km Central Luzon Link Expressway opens". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  8. ^ "2015 DPWH Road Data". Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  9. ^ "Road and Bridge Inventory". www.dpwh.gov.ph. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  10. ^ Manabat, Johnson (January 9, 2024). "One RFID to rule all tollways, elimination of cash lanes eyed this year". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 20, 2024.
  11. ^ "Luzon Spine Expressway: A road network eyed to shorten travel time between La Union and Bicol to 9 hours". January 27, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  12. ^ "The Philippine Stock Exchange, Inc. Disclosure Department" (PDF).
  13. ^ a b Admin. "WATCH: Luzon Spine Expressway Network is Duterte's P107-billion traffic decongestion plan". The Summit Express. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  14. ^ Grecia, Leandre (June 23, 2022). "TRB approves expressway linking Skyway Stage 3 to Bulacan airport". Top Gear Philippines. Retrieved February 14, 2023.
  15. ^ Amojelar, Darwin (October 19, 2023). "SMC signs deal on 76.8-km. Pangasinan Link Expressway". Manila Standard. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  16. ^ Yparraguirre, Liwayway (July 10, 2023). "Pangasinan Link Expressway phase 1 gets nod from prov'l board". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  17. ^ "SLEX Toll Road 5 to connect Quezon province to Sorsogon". YugaTech. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  18. ^ Laurel, Drei (June 21, 2022). "DOTr and SMC sign agreement for new Southern Access Link Expressway". Top Gear Philippines. Retrieved February 14, 2023.