Since the 1960s, many municipalities in the United States have removed monuments and memorials on public property dedicated to the Confederate States of America (CSA; the Confederacy), and some, such as Silent Sam in North Carolina, have been torn down by protestors. Efforts to remove Confederate memorials increased in the late 2010s after high-profile incidents including the Charleston church shooting (2015), the Unite the Right rally (2017), and the murder of George Floyd (2020).[1][2][3] The removals have been driven by historical analysis that the monuments express and re-enforce white supremacy;[4] memorialize an unrecognized, treasonous[5][6] government, the Confederacy, whose founding principle was the perpetuation and expansion of slavery; and that the presence of these Confederate memorials over a hundred years after the defeat of the Confederacy continues to disenfranchise and alienate African Americans.[7][8][9][10][11]

The vast majority of these Confederate monuments were built during the era of Jim Crow laws, from 1877 to 1964. Critics of the monuments point out that they were not built as memorials, but as a means of intimidating African Americans and reaffirming white supremacy after the Civil War.[12][13][14] The monuments have thus become highly politicized; according to Eleanor Harvey, a senior curator at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and a scholar of Civil War history: "If white nationalists and neo-Nazis are now claiming this as part of their heritage, they have essentially co-opted those images and those statues beyond any capacity to neutralize them again".[7] In a counter-reaction to the movement to remove Confederate monuments, some Southern states passed state laws restricting or prohibiting the removal or alteration of public monuments.[15]

As part of the protests that followed the murder of George Floyd in 2020, there was a new wave of removal of Confederate monuments. An Alabama law prohibiting the removal of historical monuments was deliberately broken by the mayor of Birmingham, Alabama; the city council of Anniston, Alabama;[16] and others. The mayor said that the penalty fine was preferable to the unrest that would follow if it were not removed. The governor of North Carolina removed, on the grounds of public safety, three Confederate monuments at the North Carolina Capitol that the legislature had in effect made illegal to remove. The U.S. Army said it would rename Fort Bragg and its other military bases named for Confederate generals. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Marines prohibited the display of the Confederate flag, including as bumper stickers on private cars on base; a wave of corporate product re-branding has also ensued. During the George Floyd protests, the campaign to remove monuments extended beyond the United States; numerous statues and other public works of art related to the transatlantic slave trade and European colonialism around the world were removed or destroyed.

The 2021 Defense Authorization Bill set up The Naming Commission to consider changes to the nine U.S. Army bases named for Confederate leaders. In May 2022, the Commission reported that it was recommending to Congress the following changes:

Background

See also: Lost Cause of the Confederacy

Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center, by year of establishment.[note 1]
Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center, by year of establishment.[note 1]
The Robert E. Lee monument in New Orleans being lowered, May 19, 2017
The Robert E. Lee monument in New Orleans being lowered, May 19, 2017

Most of the Confederate monuments concerned were built in periods of racial conflict, such as when Jim Crow laws were being introduced in the late 19th century and at the start of the 20th century or during the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s.[note 2][note 3] These two periods also coincided with the 50th anniversary and the American Civil War Centennial.[18] The peak in construction of Civil War Monuments occurred between the late 1890s up to 1920, with a second, smaller peak in the late 1950s to mid 1960s.[18]

According to historian Jane Dailey from University of Chicago, in many cases the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[20] Another historian, Karyn Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era".[21] A historian from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[22]

Adam Goodheart, Civil War author and director of the Starr Center at Washington College, stated in National Geographic: "They're 20th-century artifacts in the sense that a lot of it had to do with a vision of national unity that embraced Southerners as well as Northerners, but importantly still excluded black people."[7]

Academic commentary

In an August 2017 statement on the monuments controversy, the American Historical Association (AHA) said that to remove a monument "is not to erase history, but rather to alter or call attention to a previous interpretation of history." The AHA stated that most monuments were erected "without anything resembling a democratic process", and recommended that it was "time to reconsider these decisions." According to the AHA, most Confederate monuments were erected during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century, and this undertaking was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[23]

Michael J. McAfee, curator of history at the West Point Museum, said "There are no monuments that mention the name Benedict Arnold. What does this have to do with the Southern monuments honoring the political and military leaders of the Confederacy? They, like Arnold, were traitors. They turned their backs on their nation, their oaths, and the sacrifices of their ancestors in the War for Independence. ... They attempted to destroy their nation to defend chattel slavery and from a sense that as white men they were innately superior to all other races. They fought for white racial supremacy. That is why monuments glorifying them and their cause should be removed. Leave monuments marking their participation on the battlefields of the war, but tear down those that only commemorate the intolerance, violence, and hate that inspired their attempt to destroy the American nation."[24]

According to historian Adam Goodheart, the statues were meant to be symbols of white supremacy and the rallying around them by white supremacists will likely hasten their demise.[25] Elijah Anderson, a professor of sociology at Yale University, said the statues "really impacts the psyche of black people."[26] Harold Holzer, the director of the Roosevelt House Public Policy Institute at Hunter College, agreed that the statues were designed to belittle African Americans.[27] Dell Upton, chair of the Department of Art History at the University of California, Los Angeles, wrote that "the monuments were not intended as public art", but rather were installed "as affirmations that the American polity was a white polity", and that because of their explicitly white supremacist intent, their removal from civic spaces was a matter "of justice, equity, and civic values."[14] In a 1993 book on the issue in Georgia, author Frank McKenney argued otherwise; "These monuments were communal efforts, public art, and social history", he wrote.[28] Ex-soldiers and politicians had difficult time raising funds to erect monuments so the task mostly fell to the women, the "mothers widows, and orphans, the bereaved fiancees and sisters" of the soldiers who had lost their lives.[29] Many ladies' memorial associations were formed in the decades following the end of the Civil War, most of them joining the United Daughters of the Confederacy following its inception in 1894. The women were advised to "remember that they were buying art, not metal and stone;"[30] The history the monuments celebrated told only one side of the story, however—one that was "openly pro-Confederate", Upton argues. Furthermore, Confederate monuments were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African-Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[14] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[31]

Robert Seigler, in his study of Confederate monuments in South Carolina, found that out of the over one hundred and seventy that he documented, only five monuments were found dedicated to the African Americans who had been used by the Confederacy working "on fortifications, and had served as musicians, teamsters, cooks, servants, and in other capacities." Four of those were to slaves and one to a musician, Henry Brown.[32]

Cheryl Benard, president of the Alliance for the Restoration of Cultural Heritage,[33] argued against the removal of Confederate war monuments in an op-ed written for The National Interest: "From my vantage point, the idea that the way to deal with history is to destroy any relics that remind you of something you don't like, is highly alarming."[34]

Eric Foner, a historian of the Civil War and biographer of Lincoln, argued that more statues of African Americans like Nat Turner should be erected.[26] Alfred Brophy, a professor of law at the University of Alabama, argued the removal of the Confederate statues "facilitates forgetting", although these statues were "re-inscribed images of white supremacy". Brophy also stated that the Lee statue in Charlottesville should be removed.[26]

Civil War historian James I. Robertson Jr. said that the monuments were not a "Jim Crow signal of defiance". He called the current climate to dismantle or destroy Confederate monuments as an "age of idiocy", motivated by "elements hell-bent on tearing apart unity that generations of Americans have painfully constructed".[35] However, Civil War historian David Blight asked: "Why, in the year [2016], should communal spaces in the South continue to be sullied by tributes to those who defended slavery? How can Americans ignore the pain that black citizens, especially, must feel when they walk by the [John C.] Calhoun monument, or any similar statues, on their way to work, school or Bible study?"[36]

Julian Hayter, a historian at the University of Richmond, supports a different approach for the statues: re-contextualization. He supports adding a "footnote of epic proportions" such as a prominent historical sign or marker that explains the context in which they were built to help people see old monuments in a new light. "I'm suggesting we use the scale and grandeur of those monuments against themselves. I think we lack imagination when we talk about memorials. It's all or nothin'.... As if there's nothin' in between that we could do to tell a more enriching story about American history.[37][38]

History

Planned removal of the Robert Edward Lee Sculpture in Charlottesville, Va. sparked protests and counter-protests, resulting in three deaths.[39]
Planned removal of the Robert Edward Lee Sculpture in Charlottesville, Va. sparked protests and counter-protests, resulting in three deaths.[39]

The removals were marked by events in Louisiana and Virginia within the span of two years. In Louisiana, after the Charleston church shooting of 2015, the city of New Orleans removed its Confederate memorials two years later.[40] A few months later, in August 2017, a state of emergency was declared in Virginia after a Unite the Right rally against the removal of the Robert Edward Lee statue in Charlottesville turned violent.[41]

Other events followed across the United States. In Baltimore, for example, the city's Confederate statues were removed on the night of August 15–16, 2017. Mayor Catherine Pugh said that she ordered the overnight removals to preserve public safety.[42][43] Similarly, in Lexington, Kentucky, Mayor Jim Gray asked the city council on August 16, 2017 to approve the relocation of two statues from a courthouse.[44][45]

In the three years since the Charleston shooting, Texas has removed 31 memorials, more than any other state.[46] According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, at least 114 Confederate monuments have been removed from public spaces during the same period.[47]

According to an April 2020 study, Confederate monuments are more likely to be removed in localities that have a large black and Democratic population, a chapter of the NAACP, and Southern state legislatures that have the power to decree removal.[48]

Time period Number of removals[49]
1865–2009 2
2009–2014 3
2015 (after Charleston church shooting) 4
2016 4
2017 (year of the Unite the Right rally) 36
2018 8
2019 4
2020 (after murder of George Floyd) 94[50]
2021 16[51]

Proponents

Legal impediments

Seven states have passed laws that ban or impede the removal or alteration of public Confederate monuments. Alabama (2017),[56] Georgia (early 20th century),[57] and North Carolina (2015)[58] prohibit altogether such removal or alteration;[59] while Mississippi (2004), South Carolina (2000), Tennessee (2013, updated 2016), and Virginia (1902, repealed 2020) merely impede such actions.

Attempts to repeal these laws have not been successful, except in Virginia.

Tennessee law

In 2016, Tennessee passed its Tennessee Heritage Protection Act, which requires a two-thirds majority of the Tennessee Historical Commission to rename, remove, or move any public statue, monument, or memorial.[60] A 2018 amendment passed in response to events in Memphis (see below) prohibits municipalities from selling or transferring ownership of memorials without a waiver, and "allows any entity, group or individual with an interest in a Confederate memorial to seek an injunction to preserve the memorial in question."[61] The New York Times wrote in 2018 that the Tennessee act shows "an express intent to prevent municipalities in Tennessee from taking down Confederate memorials."[62]

As of 2022, the Tennessee Historical Commission has considered seven petitions to remove a Confederate monument and approved just one: for the Forrest bust in the state capitol.[63]

South Carolina law

The removal of the Confederate flag from the South Carolina capitol required a two-thirds vote of both houses of the legislature, as would the removal of any other Confederate monument in South Carolina.[64]

North Carolina law

A state law, the Cultural History Artifact Management and Patriotism Act of 2015,[65][66] prevents local governments from removing monuments on public property, and places limits on their relocation within the property.[67] In 2017 Governor Roy Cooper asked the North Carolina Legislature to repeal the law, saying: "I don't pretend to know what it's like for a person of color to pass by one of these monuments and consider that those memorialized in stone and metal did not value my freedom or humanity. Unlike an African-American father, I'll never have to explain to my daughters why there exists an exalted monument for those who wished to keep her and her ancestors in chains."[68] "We cannot continue to glorify a war against the United States of America fought in the defense of slavery", he wrote. "These monuments should come down."[69] He also has asked the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources to "determine the cost and logistics of removing Confederate monuments from state property."[70][71]

After the University of North Carolina renamed Saunders Hall in 2014 (see below), its Board of Trustees prohibited for 16 years any more renamings.[72] In another legal impediment to removal, the Board of Trustees of the University of North Carolina prohibited for 16 years the renaming of any university memorials. This was triggered by the University's 2014 decision to rename Saunders Hall (see below).

In 2019, North Carolina's law prohibiting monument removal was challenged indirectly. The Confederate Soldiers Monument in Winston-Salem was removed as a public nuisance, and a similar monument in Pittsboro was removed after a court ruled that it had never become county property, so the statute did not apply.[73]

Virginia law

On March 8, 2020, the Virginia legislature "passed measures that would undo an existing state law that protects the monuments[74] and instead let local governments decide their fate."[75] On April 11, 2020, Governor Ralph Northam signed the bill into law,[76] which went into effect on July 1. Previously, the state law had prohibited local governments from taking the monuments down, moving them, or even adding placards explaining why they were erected.[77]

Alabama law

Alabama's law, the Alabama Memorial Preservation Act, was passed in May 2017. On January 14, 2019, a circuit judge ruled that the law is an un-Constitutional infringement on the City of Birmingham's right to free speech, and cannot be enforced.[78][79] On November 27, 2019, the Alabama Supreme Court reversed that ruling by a vote of nine to zero. In their decision, the court stated that "a municipality has no individual, substantive constitutional rights and that the trial court erred by holding that the City has constitutional rights to free speech."[80][81]

Unsuccessful federal legislation

On July 22, 2020, in the midst of the George Floyd protests, the U.S. House of Representatives voted 305-113 to remove a bust of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (as well as statues honoring figures who were part of the Confederacy during the Civil War) from the U.S. Capitol and replace it with a bust of Justice Thurgood Marshall. The bill called for removal of Taney's bust within 30 days after the law's passage. The bust had been mounted in the old robing room adjacent to the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the Capitol Building. The bill (H.R. 7573[82]) also created a "process to obtain a bust of Marshall ... and place it there within a minimum of two years."[83] After the bill reached the Republican-led Senate on July 30, 2020 (S.4382) it was referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration, but no further action on it was taken.[84]

Protesters

In North Carolina and Georgia, where removal is completely prohibited, protesters toppled three Confederate monuments:

Of these, the first and third were damaged to the point that they cannot be repaired. Silent Sam, which was not seriously damaged, is in storage as of June 2020, awaiting a political decision about what to do with it. The "Confederate Dead Monument" was then replaced through funds raised by the Sons of Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy.[85]

In addition, the bust of Robert E. Lee in Fort Myers, Florida, was toppled by unknown parties during the night of March 11–12, 2019.

More details and citations are under each monument, below.

Threats of violence

Removal of Confederate monuments in Maryland and New Orleans took place in the middle of the night, with police protection and workers wearing bullet-proof vests, because of concerns about possible violence. In the case of New Orleans, a crane had to be brought in from an unidentified out-of-state company as no local company wanted the business; one local company had a vehicle set ablaze and sand poured in the gas tank of another. (See below.)

Jason Spencer, a white member of the Georgia legislature, told an African-American colleague that if she continued calling for removal of Confederate monuments that she wouldn't be "met with torches but something a lot more definitive", and that people who want the statues gone "will go missing in the Okefenokee.... Don't say I didn't warn you."[86][87]

Public opinion

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of American adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. According to Reuters, "responses to the poll were sharply split along racial and party lines, however, with whites and Republicans largely supportive of preservation. Democrats and minorities were more likely to support removal."[88][89] Another 2017 poll, by HuffPost/YouGov, found that 48% of respondents favored the "remain" option, 33% favored removal, and 18% were unsure.[90][91] An NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist Poll released in 2017 found that most Americans, including 44% of African Americans, believe that statues honoring leaders of the Confederacy should remain in place.[92]

Support for removal increased during the George Floyd protests, with 52% in favor of removal, and 44% opposed.[93][94]

Artistic treatment

Ben Hamburger, an artist based in North Carolina, has exhibited six paintings, as a group called Monuments.[95] They show monuments being taken down and hauled away: Silent Sam, the Confederate Soldiers Monument in Durham, North Carolina, the Confederate Women's Monument in Baltimore, the Jefferson Davis Monument in New Orleans, and two others.[96]

Vestigial pedestals

In the case of many monuments, after they are removed the pedestals or plinths remain. What to do with them has been the subject of some discussion. In the case of the toppled Silent Sam monument at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, two scholars proposed leaving the "empty pedestal — shorn all original images and inscriptions — [which] eliminates the offending tribute while still preserving a record of what these communities did and where they did it.... The most effective way to commemorate the rise and fall of white supremacist monument-building is to preserve unoccupied pedestals as the ruins that they are — broken tributes to a morally bankrupt cause."[97]

In Baltimore, one of the four empty plinths was used in 2017, for a statue of a pregnant black woman, naked from the waist up, holding a baby in a brightly-covered sling on her back, with a raised golden fist: Madre Luz (Mother Light). The statue was first placed in front of the monument before its removal, then raised to the pedestal. According to the artist Pablo Machioli, "his original idea was to construct a pregnant mother as a symbol of life. 'I feel like people would understand and respect that'". The statue has been vandalized several times.[98] According to a writer for Another Chicago Magazine discussing the removal of the Baltimore monuments, she is "defiant.... [H]er imposing presence combines maternal nurturing with power. Madre Luz is Gaia, The Triple Goddess, and The Mother's Knot. She is the American Statue of Maternity. She is the African seed of the wawa tree. She is a black flame."[99] The informal artpiece was subsequently removed by the city.

At the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, the plinth of Silent Sam and its plaques were removed on January 14, 2019, at the direction of Chancellor Carol Folt (see below).

The plinths of the statues in Richmond, Virginia, were removed in 2022.[100]

List of removals

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

National

See above regarding the proposed renaming of U.S. Army bases.

Alabama

See also: Alabama Memorial Preservation Act

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

In 2017, the Arkansas Legislature voted to stop honoring Robert E. Lee's birthday.[117]

In 2019, the Arkansas Legislature voted to replace Arkansas's two statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection. Uriah Milton Rose, an attorney and founder of the Rose Law Firm, advised against secession, but backed the Confederacy during the war; while not a soldier or elected officeholder, he served the Confederacy as chancellor of Pulaski County, later being appointed the Confederacy's state historian.[118] A statue of white supremacist progressive era-Governor James Paul Clarke was also removed.[119] They will be replaced with statues of Johnny Cash and journalist and state NAACP president Daisy L. Gatson Bates, who played a key role in the integration of Little Rock's Central High School in 1957.[120]

California

District of Columbia

The empty, vandalized pedestal of the Albert Pike Memorial in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 2020, after the statue was toppled by protesters.
The empty, vandalized pedestal of the Albert Pike Memorial in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 2020, after the statue was toppled by protesters.

Florida

An August 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[144]

Ft. Myers is the county seat of Lee County, Florida.
Memoria In Aeterna, now in Brandon Family Cemetery, Brandon, Florida
Memoria In Aeterna, now in Brandon Family Cemetery, Brandon, Florida

Georgia

Indiana

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Jefferson Davis Monument in New Orleans, Louisiana; left: the monument being unveiled February 22, 1911; right: after removal of statue and pedestal May 11, 2017.

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Confederate Memorial Fountain in Helena, Montana before removal.
Confederate Memorial Fountain in Helena, Montana before removal.

Nevada

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

See also: Silent Sam

Old Chatham County Courthouse, Pittsboro, North Carolina (1908)
Old Chatham County Courthouse, Pittsboro, North Carolina (1908)

Ohio

Oklahoma

Pennsylvania

South Carolina

Tennessee

The 2016 Tennessee Heritage Protection Act puts "the brakes on cities' and counties' ability to remove monuments or change names of streets and parks."[385]

Removed statue of Nathan Bedford Forrest, Health Sciences Park (formerly Forrest Park), Memphis
Removed statue of Nathan Bedford Forrest, Health Sciences Park (formerly Forrest Park), Memphis
Confederate Memorial Hall, now known as Memorial Hall, Vanderbilt University.
Confederate Memorial Hall, now known as Memorial Hall, Vanderbilt University.

Texas

Empty slab after the Confederate War Memorial monument was removed in 2020
Empty slab after the Confederate War Memorial monument was removed in 2020

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Lee sculpture in Charlottesville, Virginia, covered in black tarp following the Unite the Right rally
Lee sculpture in Charlottesville, Virginia, covered in black tarp following the Unite the Right rally
Old Isle of Wight County Courthouse, with former Confederate memorial statue.
Old Isle of Wight County Courthouse, with former Confederate memorial statue.
The removed statues on Monument Avenue, Richmond, clockwise from top left: Stonewall Jackson, Matthew Fontaine Maury, J. E. B. Stuart and Jefferson Davis.
Defaced Lee Monument, Richmond, before removal in 2021
Defaced Lee Monument, Richmond, before removal in 2021

Washington (state)

Jefferson Davis Highway marker from Blaine
Jefferson Davis Highway marker from Blaine

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Brazil

Canada

Worldwide

Main article: Monuments and memorials removed during the George Floyd protests

As part of the worldwide George Floyd protests, members of the Black Lives Matter movement have also removed or defaced statues of other historical figures that were responsible or alleged of causing suffering or harm against Black people. In Bristol, England, protesters toppled a statue of slave trader Edward Colston, who played a prominent role in the Bristol slave trade, while other protesters in Ghent vandalized a statue of King Leopold II of Belgium, the ruler of the Congo Free State during atrocities that took place there.[564]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature."[18]
  2. ^ Graham (2016) "Many of the treasured monuments that seem to offer a connection to the post-bellum South are actually much later, anachronistic constructions, and they tend to correlate closely with periods of fraught racial relations".[19]
  3. ^ Graham (2016) "A timeline of the genesis of the Confederate sites shows two notable spikes. One comes around the turn of the 20th century, just after Plessy v. Ferguson, and just as many Southern states were establishing repressive race laws. The second runs from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s—the peak of the civil-rights movement."[7][19]

References

  1. ^ Schachar, Natalie (August 15, 2015). "Jindal seeks to block illegal removal of Confederate monuments in New Orleans". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Kenning, Chris (August 15, 2017). "Confederate Monuments Are Illegally Coming Down Across the United States". The New York Times.
  3. ^ "U.S. cities step up removal of Confederate statues, despite Virginia". Reuters. August 16, 2017.
  4. ^ Sah Heritage Conservation Committee (December 1, 2020). "Statement on the Removal of Monuments to the Confederacy from Public Spaces". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 79 (4): 379–380. doi:10.1525/jsah.2020.79.4.379. ISSN 0037-9808. S2CID 241554344.
  5. ^ The Law of Treason. The New York Times, April 21, 1861
  6. ^ Top US General Slams Confederacy As ‘Treason’, Signals Support For Base Renaming. DefenseOne, July 9, 2020
  7. ^ a b c d "Why the U.S. Capitol Still Hosts Confederate Monuments". National Geographic. August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  8. ^ "What Confederate Monument Builders Were Thinking". Bloomberg News. August 20, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  9. ^ Parks, Miles (August 20, 2017). "Confederate Statues Were Built To Further A 'White Supremacist Future'". NPR. NPR. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  10. ^ The History of Blaming 'Both Sides' and Why Language Matters, retrieved August 21, 2017
  11. ^ Drum, Kevin (August 15, 2017). "The real story behind all those Confederate statues". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  12. ^ Parks, Miles (August 20, 2017). "Why Were Confederate Monuments Built? : NPR". NPR. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  13. ^ "Striking graphic reveals the construction of Confederate monuments peaked during the Jim Crow and civil rights eras". The Week. August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  14. ^ a b c Confederate Monuments and Civic Values in the Wake of Charlottesville. Dell Upton, Society of American Historians, September 13, 2017
  15. ^ Bliss, Jessica; Meyer, Holly (August 17, 2017). "In the South, Confederate monuments often protected, hard to remove thanks to state laws". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on July 31, 2020.
  16. ^ "Alabama city removes Confederate monument following vote". Associated Press. September 28, 2020. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  17. ^ Washington Post Editorial Board (May 26, 2022). "Work to scrub the Confederate stain from military bases is off to a good start". Washington Post.
  18. ^ a b c d e Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth (ed.). "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy" (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  19. ^ a b Graham, David A. (April 26, 2016). "Why Are There Still So Many Confederate Monuments?". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  20. ^ Parks, Miles (August 20, 2017). "Confederate Statues Were Built To Further A 'White Supremacist Future'". NPR. NPR. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  21. ^ Cox, Karen L. (August 16, 2017). "Analysis – The whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  22. ^ "Durham Confederate statue: tribute to dying veterans or political tool of Jim Crow South?". The Herald Sun. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  23. ^ American Historical Association, AHA Statement on Confederate Monuments (August 2017)
  24. ^ "Empty Pedestals: What should be done with civic monuments to the Confederacy and its leaders?". HistoryNet – Civil War Times Magazine. October 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  25. ^ "Regime Change in Charlottesville". Politico. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  26. ^ a b c Munshi, Neil (August 17, 2017). "Trump says it is 'foolish' to remove Confederate symbols". Financial Times. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  27. ^ Stoilas, Helen; Stapley-Brown, Victoria (August 17, 2017). "Charlottesville riot hastens removal of Confederate monuments throughout the US". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  28. ^ McKenney, Frank M. (1993). The Standing Army: History of Georgia's County Confederate Monuments. Alpharetta, Georgia: WH Wolfe Associates. p. ix.
  29. ^ McKenney 1993, p. 1.
  30. ^ McKenney 1993, p. 5.
  31. ^ Confederate monuments: What to do with them?. Grier, Peter. Christian Science Monitor, August 22, 2017
  32. ^ Seigler, Robert S., A Guide to Confederate Monuments in South Carolina: Passing the Cup, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1997 p. 10
  33. ^ "Team". ARCH International. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  34. ^ Benard, Cheryl. "Destroying Confederate Monuments Hurts Us All—and Accomplishes Nothing". The National Interest. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  35. ^ "Debate Over Confederate Monuments | C-SPAN.org". c-span.org.
  36. ^ ((cite news Very respectfully, your obedient servant, R. E. Lee. (Charleston Courier, September 2, 1869)))
  37. ^ "Times Are Changing As Tolerance Weakens For Confederate Monuments". NPR.org. NPR. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  38. ^ "The history and future of Confederate monuments – 60 minutes". CBS News. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  39. ^ "Charlottesville covers Confederate statues with black shrouds". Fox News. August 23, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  40. ^ Simon, Darran (May 19, 2017). "New Orleans removes Gen. Robert E. Lee statue". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  41. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Rosenthal, Brian M. (August 12, 2017). "Man Charged After White Nationalist Rally in Charlottesville Ends in Deadly Violence". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  42. ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Goldman, Russell (August 16, 2017). "Baltimore Removes Confederate Statues; Mayor Cites Public Safety". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  43. ^ Campbell, Colin; Richman, Talia; Broadwater, Luke (August 16, 2017). "Confederate monuments taken down in Baltimore overnight".
  44. ^ Suerth, Jessica (August 16, 2017). "Here are the Confederate memorials that will be removed after Charlottesville". CNN. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  45. ^ Holland, Jesse J. (August 15, 2017). "Deadly rally accelerates ongoing removal of Confederate statues across U.S." The Chicago Tribune.
  46. ^ "The state leading the way in removing Confederate monuments? Texas". June 5, 2018.
  47. ^ a b Mervosh, Sarah (June 22, 2019). "What Should Happen to Confederate Statues? A City Auctions One for $1.4 Million". The New York Times.
  48. ^ Benjamin, Andrea; Block, Ray; Clemons, Jared; Laird, Chryl; Wamble, Julian (April 2020). "Set in Stone? Predicting Confederate Monument Removal". PS: Political Science & Politics. 53 (2): 237–242. doi:10.1017/S1049096519002026. ISSN 1049-0965.
  49. ^ Berkowitz, Bonnie; Blanco, Adrian (June 20, 2020). "Confederate monuments are falling, but hundreds still stand. Here's where". The Washington Post.
  50. ^ Treisman, Rachel (February 23, 2021). "Nearly 100 Confederate Monuments Removed In 2020, Report Says; More Than 700 Remain". NPR.
  51. ^ "SPLC LAUNCHES THIRD EDITION OF ITS WHOSE HERITAGE? REPORT TRACKING CONFEDERATE MEMORIALS AND THEIR REMOVALS ACROSS THE U.S." Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  52. ^ Holloway, Kali (June 3, 2018). "Announcing the Launch of the Make It Right Project". Independent Media Institute.
  53. ^ a b "Jefferson Davis statue torn down in Richmond". Associated Press. June 11, 2020. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  54. ^ Take 'Em Down Jax (2019). "Take Down All Symbols of White Supremacy". Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  55. ^ a b "Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. February 1, 2019.
  56. ^ Hrynkiw, Ivana (April 13, 2018). "AG, Birmingham attorneys argue over Confederate memorial". Birmingham News.
  57. ^ Reynolds, Jacob (August 17, 2017). "Georgia State Law Makes It Difficult to Completely Remove or Hide Confederate Monuments". WMAZ. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  58. ^ Waggoner, Martha (April 13, 2018). "Historians: Civil War statues need context, should be moved". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 17, 2018.
  59. ^ Bonner, Lynn (September 8, 2017a). "NC governor has a new site in mind for 3 Confederate monuments on Capitol grounds". News & Observer.
  60. ^ Meyer, Holly (August 17, 2017). "Why removing Confederate monuments in Tennessee is not an easy process". The Tennessean.
  61. ^ Lohr, David (May 31, 2018). "This Is Why Another Confederate Statue Won't Come Down In Tennessee". HuffPost.
  62. ^ Renkl, Margaret (January 29, 2018). "A Monument the Old South Would Like to Ignore". The New York Times.
  63. ^ "Tennessee Heritage Protection Act". TN.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  64. ^ a b Holpuch, Amanda (July 10, 2015). "Confederate flag removed from South Carolina capitol in victory for activists". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  65. ^ "An act to ensure respectful treatment of the American flag and the North Carolina flag by state agencies and other political subdivisions of the state; to establish the Division of Veterans Affairs as the clearinghouse for the disposal of worn, tattered, and damaged flags; to provide for the protection of monuments and memorials commemorating events, persons, and military service in North Carolina history; and to transfer custody of certain historic documents in the possession of the Office of the Secretary of State to the Department of Cultural Resources and to facilitate public opportunity to view these documents". SL 2015-170, Act of July 23, 2015 (PDF).
  66. ^ Fandos, Nicholas; Fausset, Richard; Blinder, Alan (August 16, 2017). "Charlottesville Violence Spurs New Resistance to Confederate Symbols". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  67. ^ Wahlers, Kasi E. (2016). "North Carolina's Heritage Protection Act: Cementing Confederate Monuments in North Carolina's Landscape". North Carolina Law Review. 94 (6–8): 2176.
  68. ^ a b Jackson, Amanda. "Durham, North Carolina: Seven arrested in toppling of Confederate statue". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  69. ^ a b Silva, Daniella (August 15, 2017). "National Battle Over Confederate Monuments Renewed After Charlottesville Violence". NBC News.
  70. ^ Cooper, Governor Roy (August 15, 2017). "North Carolina Monuments". Medium. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  71. ^ Ross, Janell; Berman, Mark; Achenbach, Joel (August 16, 2017). "Mayors taking swift action to avoid becoming the next Charlottesville". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  72. ^ Lennon, Preston (November 5, 2018). "Silent Sam and Carolina Hall: The Board of Trustee's [sic] quest for context". Daily Tar Heel.
  73. ^ Green, Jordan (November 29, 2019). "N.C. ban on removal of Confederate monuments is challenged as local councils continue to bring down statues". The Washington Post.
  74. ^ Rankin, Sarah (March 8, 2020). "Lawmakers pass bill allowing Confederate monument removals". Associated Press. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  75. ^ Rankin, Sarah (March 8, 2020). "Lawmakers pass bill allowing Confederate monument removals". ABC News.
  76. ^ "Northam signs bills on Confederate monuments, LGBTQ protections". NBC29.com. April 12, 2020.
  77. ^ Sturla, Anna; Haider, Monica (January 6, 2020). "Richmond, the former capital of the Confederacy, seeks local control of its Civil War monuments". CNN.
  78. ^ Gstalter, Morgan (January 15, 2019). "Alabama judge overturns law that prevents removal of Confederate monuments". The Hill.
  79. ^ Stewart, Ian (January 15, 2019). "Judge Throws Out Alabama Law That Protects Confederate Monuments". NPR. NPR.
  80. ^ "Alabama Supreme Court upholds Confederate monument law". al. November 27, 2019.
  81. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 29, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  82. ^ "H.R.7573 - To direct the Joint Committee on the Library to replace the bust of Roger Brooke Taney in the Old Supreme Court Chamber of the United States Capitol with a bust of Thurgood Marshall to be obtained by the Joint Committee on the Library and to remove certain statues from areas of the United States Capitol which are accessible to the public, to remove all statues of individuals who voluntarily served the Confederate States of America from display in the United States Capitol, and for other purposes". congress.gov. July 22, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  83. ^ Walsh, Deirdre (July 22, 2020). "House Passes Bill Removing Confederate Statues, Other Figures From Capitol". NPR. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  84. ^ "S. 4382: A bill to direct the Joint Committee on the Library to replace the bust of Roger Brooke Taney in the Old Supreme Court Chamber of the Capitol with a bust of Thurgood Marshall to be obtained by the Joint Committee on the Library and to remove certain statues from areas of the Capitol which are accessible to the public, to remove all statues of individuals who voluntarily served the Confederate States of America from display in the Capitol, and for other purposes". govtrack.us. July 30, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  85. ^ Autry, Enoch. "Screven County Confederate monument rededicated after original toppled". The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  86. ^ Bluestein, Greg (August 29, 2017). "Georgia lawmaker: Talk of ditching Confederate statues could cause Democrat to 'go missing'". Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  87. ^ Wootson, Cleve R. Jr. (August 30, 2017). "White lawmaker warns black attorney she may 'go missing' if Confederate statues are threatened". The Washington Post.
  88. ^ "A majority of Americans want to preserve Confederate monuments: Reuters/Ipsos poll". Reuters. August 21, 2017.
  89. ^ "Reuters/Ipsos Data: Confederate Monuments". Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  90. ^ Edwards-Levy, Ariel (August 23, 2017). "Polls Find Little Support For Confederate Statue Removal – But How You Ask Matters" – via Huff Post.
  91. ^ "HuffPost: Confederate Flag, August 15 – 16, 2017 – 1000 US Adults" (PDF).
  92. ^ "Polling table" (PDF). maristpoll.marist.edu. 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  93. ^ Klar, Rebecca (June 17, 2020). "Poll: Majority supports removing Confederate statues from public places". The Hill. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  94. ^ "QU Poll Release Detail". QU Poll. Quinnipiac University. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  95. ^ Pietras, Emily (February 6, 2019). "Painting Magic Mushrooms on Pill Bottles and Cell Phones, Ben Hamburger Contrasts Our Culture's Mindful Ambitions and Mindless Habits". Indy Week (Durham, North Carolina).
  96. ^ Menconi, David (February 13, 2019). "When Confederate statues fall, this artist is there to 'commemorate this time of change'".
  97. ^ Kytle, Ethan J.; Roberts, Blain (August 22, 2018). "Broken Tributes to a Morally Bankrupt Cause". The New York Times.
  98. ^ McLeod, Ethan (August 17, 2017). "Someone Toppled the 'Madre Luz' Sculpture that Briefly Replaced Baltimore's Lee-Jackson Monument". Baltimore Fishbowl. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  99. ^ Harvey, Steve (August 31, 2018). "Madre Luz". Another Chicago Magazine.
  100. ^ Schneider, Gregory S. (February 1, 2022). "The last stands: Richmond starts taking down Confederate statues' pedestals, too". MSN.
  101. ^ "Confederate general's name removed from Army's road". Deseret News. Associated Press. August 1, 2000. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  102. ^ "Confederate items to be banned from all Marine bases". KTVU. Associated Press. March 2, 2020.
  103. ^ Charles, Dean (June 24, 2015). "Alabama Gov. Bentley removes Confederate flags from Capitol grounds". The Birmingham News. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  104. ^ Anniston Star, March 27, 2022
  105. ^ Sheets, Connor (June 2, 2020). "Obituary for a racist symbol: Birmingham takes down Confederate monument after 115 years". al.com.
  106. ^ "Alabama attorney general sues Birmingham for removing Confederate monument". al.com. June 2, 2020.
  107. ^ Reeves, Jay (June 2, 2020). "Confederate monuments targeted by protests come down in Alabama, Virginia, Florida". WPBI-LD. Associated Press.
  108. ^ Edgemon, Erin (July 16, 2016). "Alabama police officer crashes into Confederate Monument while on patrol". AL.com. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  109. ^ Montgomery, David (August 6, 2017). "A car crash topples a Confederate statue – and forces a Southern town to confront its past". The Week. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  110. ^ "Confederate monument in Huntsville removed overnight". AL.com. October 23, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  111. ^ Cason, Mike (June 2, 2020). "4 face felony charge for bringing down Robert E. Lee High statue". al.com.
  112. ^ "University of Alabama trustees vote to rename hall honoring 'ardent white supremacist'". Montgomery Advertiser. September 17, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  113. ^ Demer, Lisa (July 2, 2015). "Wade Hampton no more: Alaska census area named for confederate officer gets new moniker". Alaska Dispatch News. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  114. ^ "At least 3 Confederate monuments believed to be standing in Arizona". The Arizona Republic. July 25, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  115. ^ a b "2 Arizona Confederate monuments on state land relocated to private property". Fox10phoenix.com. July 22, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  116. ^ Fischer, Howard (July 24, 2020). "Confederate marker stolen from Picacho Peak". Arizona Capitol Times. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  117. ^ Prior, Ryan (February 28, 2019). "Arkansas legislators rejected a proposal to change the meaning of a star on the state flag that honors the Confederacy". CNN.
  118. ^ Goss, Kay C. (2018). "County Judge, Office of". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Central Arkansas Library System. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  119. ^ Tucker, Clarke (October 11, 2018). "A new statue to represent Arkansas in D.C." Arkansas Times.
  120. ^ Itkowitz, Colby (April 17, 2019). "Johnny Cash to replace Confederate statue on Capitol Hill". The Washington Post.
  121. ^ "Fort Smith Educators Target 'Dixie,' Rebel Mascot". Southwest Times Record. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  122. ^ Mathis, Kevan (August 13, 2003). "Icon gone - General Jubilation T. Cornpone of Dogpatch fame charges into Branson for repairs". Harrison Daily Times. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  123. ^ Barnes, Steve (October 20, 2015). "Arkansas capital renames street long known as Confederate Boulevard". Reuters. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  124. ^ a b Simpson, Stephen (June 21, 2020). "Arkansas statues fall, raising fresh debate". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  125. ^ Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 887. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
  126. ^ "Salinas' Confederate Corners renamed Springtown". The Salinas Californian. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  127. ^ Epstein, Jennifer Rice (July 19, 2016). "Long Beach to Rename Three Schools". The Grunion. Long Beach, California. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  128. ^ Harvey, Steve (May 29, 2010). "Southern California does indeed have a Civil War history". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 11, 2017. So will Hollywood Forever Cemetery, where the Long Beach chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy maintains a Confederate monument.
  129. ^ Bosman, Julie (September 21, 2017). "Battle Over Confederate Monuments Moves to the Cemeteries". The New York Times.
  130. ^ FOX. "Confederate monument at Hollywood Forever Cemetery to be removed". KTTV. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  131. ^ McCormick, Chris (August 24, 2017). "My California high school had a Confederate mascot". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  132. ^ Magee, Maureen (May 23, 2016). "Robert E. Lee school name changed". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  133. ^ "J. D. Highway". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  134. ^ Ward, Christopher (August 16, 2017). "Christopher Ward on Twitter: "This morning we removed plaque in @HortonPlazaPark honoring Jefferson Davis. Monuments to bigotry have no place in #SanDiego – or anywhere!"". Retrieved August 17, 2017 – via Twitter.
  135. ^ Taylor, Otis R. Jr. (August 18, 2017). "Bay Area isn't above the Confederacy fray: High school scrubs Rebel mascot". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  136. ^ Ford, Matt. "Why Are Confederate Statues Still Displayed in the Capitol?". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  137. ^ Kennedy, Merrit (December 21, 2020). "Virginia Removes Its Robert E. Lee Statue From U.S. Capitol". NPR. Archived from the original on December 21, 2020. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  138. ^ John Edward Hurley? (September 12, 1997). "Court Action Forces Confederate Museum to Close". This is apparently an imitation news article. Confederate Memorial Association. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  139. ^ Capps, Kriston (June 19, 2015). "Texas Built a Confederate Memorial on a Street Named for Martin Luther King Jr". CityLab.
  140. ^ Montgomery, David (April 11, 2011). "Traces of the Confederacy in Washington, not all gone with the wind". The Washington Post.
  141. ^ Boorstein, Michelle (September 6, 2017). "Washington National Cathedral to remove stained glass windows honoring Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  142. ^ Stein, Perry (June 20, 2020). "Protesters topple only Confederate statue in the nation's capital". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  143. ^ Schultz, Kyley (June 20, 2020). "Who was Confederate General Albert Pike, and why was his statue in DC in the first place?". WUSA. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  144. ^ Elias, Dave (August 18, 2017). "Fort Myers mayor considering options for removing Civil War pieces". WBBH. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  145. ^ Associated Press, "Florida Senate plans to remove Confederate flag from seal", Sun-Sentinel, October 19, 2015.
  146. ^ "Flsenate Archive: Information Center > About the Legislature". archive.flsenate.gov. Archived from the original on March 20, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  147. ^ Morse, Hannah (August 22, 2017). "Commission votes to move Confederate monument from courthouse". Bradenton Herald. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  148. ^ "In Memory of Our Confederate Soldiers". Florida Public Archaeology Network. University of West Florida. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  149. ^ "While moving it in the middle of the night, crews break Confederate monument". Bradenton Herald. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  150. ^ a b c d e Widener, Ralph W. (1982). Confederate monuments: Enduring symbols of the South and the War Between the States. Andromeda Associates. OCLC 8697924.
  151. ^ Callihan, Ryan (September 29, 2018). "Confederate monument activists say Manatee government is being shady. Records say otherwise". Bradenton Herald.
  152. ^ Hughes, Brian (November 3, 2015). "Crestview's Confederate battle flag comes down Saturday". Northwest Florida Daily News. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  153. ^ a b Hughes, Brian (January 27, 2016). "Civil War historian questions Lundy's legend". Northwest Florida Daily News. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  154. ^ Spring, Mike (August 18, 2017). "Daytona Beach: Confederate plaques removed from Riverfront Park". WFTV 9 ABC. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  155. ^ Scott, Brian (August 18, 2017). "Daytona Beach removes Confederate monuments – Story | WOFL". Fox35Orlando.com. Retrieved October 12, 2017. Three Confederate monuments were removed from a city park in Daytona Beach Friday morning.
  156. ^ Moyer, Crystal. "Most Confederate statues in Central Florida have been relocated". WKMG-TV (clickorlando.com).
  157. ^ Smith, Bill; DeLuca, Dan (March 12, 2019). "Robert E. Lee bust toppled in Fort Myers; police call it apparent act of vandalism". Fort Myers News-Press.
  158. ^ "Robert E. Lee Bust". Artswfl.com.
  159. ^ "FPAN - Destination: Civil War - Photo Gallery - Robert e. Lee Monument | Dedication of monument". Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  160. ^ Smith, Bill (May 21, 2018). "Fort Myers City Council takes no action on Robert E. Lee monuments". Fort Myers News-Press.
  161. ^ Smith, Bill (May 15, 2018). "Supporters, foes of Robert E. Lee monument clash in downtown Fort Myers". Fort Myers News-Press.
  162. ^ Tinker, Cleveland. "County votes to offer 'Old Joe' to United Daughters of Confederacy". Gainesville Sun. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  163. ^ Caplan, Andrew. "Confederate statue removed from downtown Gainesville". Gainesville Sun.
  164. ^ Bryan, Susannah (April 3, 2018). "Hollywood's Confederate street signs finally coming down". Sun-Sentinel.
  165. ^ Mask, Deidre (April 2, 2020). "Confederacy in the 'hood. Why did a predominantly black district have streets named after Southern generals? In Hollywood, Florida, one man thought it was time for change". 1843 Magazine.
  166. ^ "Florida high school at last breaks ties with Confederate past". Tampa Bay Times. December 17, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  167. ^ Strauss, Valerie (December 16, 2013). "School named after KKK grand wizard to be renamed — finally". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  168. ^ Pearson, Michael (December 17, 2013). "Florida school will drop Confederate Nathan B. Forrest's name". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  169. ^ a b Moore, Kimberly C. (January 29, 2019). "US District judge dismisses lawsuit filed by Confederate rights groups over moving Munn Park monument in Lakeland". The Ledger (Lakeland, Florida).
  170. ^ Elmhorst, Rick (May 7, 2018). "Lakeland commissioners OK move of Munn Park Confederate statue". Bay News 9. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  171. ^ Moore, Kimberly C. "Monument supporters, including former Mayor Howard Wiggs, chastise Lakeland commission over plan to use red-light camera ticket money to pay for move". The Ledger. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  172. ^ Guinn, Allison (February 4, 2019). "Commission gives go-ahead on Confederate monument move". The Ledger (Lakeland, Florida).
  173. ^ Davis, Corey (March 22, 2019). "Crews move Lakeland Confederate monument". WFLA-TV.
  174. ^ Kelly, Jason (July 4, 2017). "Watch: Crews remove Confederate statue from Lake Eola Park". WFTV. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  175. ^ "Crews begin preps to remove Confederate statue from Lake Eola Park". WESH. June 15, 2017. Retrieved October 2, 2017. When the statue is moved, it will be placed in the Confederate section of Greenwood Cemetery.
  176. ^ "Putnam County Confederate Memorial". Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  177. ^ Abbott, Jim (August 26, 2020). "Putnam's Confederate monument to get a new home. But where?". The Daytona Beach News-Journal.
  178. ^ Spencer, Brandon (June 11, 2020). "Gadsden County removes Confederate statue in Quincy". WCTV. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  179. ^ "William Wing Loring Monument". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  180. ^ "University of Florida removes confederate monument in St. Augustine". WCJB. August 24, 2020.
  181. ^ Frago, Charlie (August 15, 2017). "Kriseman removes Confederate marker from St. Pete's waterfront". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  182. ^ "St. Pete Mayor Orders Removal Of Confederate Marker". WUSF. August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  183. ^ Clark, Kristen M. (October 19, 2015). "Florida Senate jettisons Confederate battle flag from seal". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  184. ^ "Flsenate Archive: Information Center > About the Legislature". Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  185. ^ "These 5 states still use Confederate symbols in their flags". MSNBC. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  186. ^ a b c Contorno, Steve (June 17, 2017). "For Tampa's Confederate monument, racist history clouds claims of heritage". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  187. ^ "Electrical fire, [Hurricane] Irma blamed for Lee Elementary fire". Tampa Bay Times. October 5, 2017. p. T5 – via newspapers.com.
  188. ^ a b White, D'Ann Lawrence (March 22, 2018). "Confederate Statue Gets New Home In Brandon Family Cemetery". Brandon Patch.
  189. ^ Marrero, Tony (September 4, 2017). "How to move a 14-ton, century old Confederate monument". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  190. ^ a b c Marrero, Tony (September 5, 2017). "Hillsborough judge denies request for injunction to halt removal of Confederate monument in Tampa". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  191. ^ DiNatale, Sara (August 19, 2017). "Southern heritage groups sue to keep Confederate monument at old Tampa courthouse". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  192. ^ "Hillsborough judge denies request for injunction to halt removal of Confederate monument in Tampa". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  193. ^ Dawson, Anastasia (June 2, 2020). "Giant Confederate flag lowered after threats to set it on fire". Tampa Bay Times.
  194. ^ Kleinberg, Eliot (August 23, 2017). "West Palm removes Confederate monument from city cemetery". The Palm Beach Post.
  195. ^ Bentzai, Maxine (August 22, 2017). "Confederate Monument Removed from Cemetery in West Palm Beach". Sun-Sentinel.
  196. ^ Hunash, Lisa J. (August 21, 2017). "Confederate statue to be removed from West Palm Beach cemetery". Sun-Sentinel.
  197. ^ "Confederate monument removal begins in West Palm Beach". WPTV. August 22, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  198. ^ Isger, Sonja (June 30, 2015). "PBC board dropped Jeff Davis' name from school 10 years ago this week | Extra Credit". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
  199. ^ Bluestein, Greg (September 23, 2016). "Confederate holidays booted from state calendar". Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  200. ^ "Confederate Memorial Day is still celebrated in these states". USA Today. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  201. ^ a b Roll, Nick (August 28, 2017). "Confederate Round-Up". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  202. ^ Shearer, Lee (August 10, 2020). "Removal of downtown Athens Confederate monument begins Monday". Athens Banner-Herald. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  203. ^ Allen, Stephanie (June 25, 2021). "Athens Confederate monument being reassembled in its new location". Athens Banner-Herald. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  204. ^ "These Atlanta neighbors no longer wanted to live on Confederate Avenue. Here's what they did about it". CNN.
  205. ^ "The Tide: Brunswick's Confederate monument finally comes down". The Current. May 17, 2022.
  206. ^ "Confederate obelisk removed from Georgia square amid cheers". Associated Press. June 19, 2020.
  207. ^ Silverman, Hollie (February 7, 2021). "2 Confederate statues were removed in Georgia within 3 days". CNN. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  208. ^ "Macon-Bibb Commission approves moving two Confederate monuments for downtown improvements". WMAZ. July 21, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  209. ^ Johnston, Micah; Slinkard, Caleb (June 22, 2022). "Crews begin moving two Macon Confederate monuments after years of legal battles". The Telegraph.
  210. ^ Christen, Mike (September 18, 2018). "SCV reward grows to $10,000 for vandalized Confederate statue". Columbia Daily Herald.
  211. ^ Autry, Enoch (August 31, 2018). "Confederate monument destroyed in Sylvania; reward offered". Augusta Chronicle.
  212. ^ "Confederate flag permanently out of Veterans Memorial Park". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  213. ^ Tanner, Beccy (November 9, 2015). "Confederate flag permanently out of Veterans Memorial Park". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  214. ^ "Concerns spur officials to remove Confederate marker in Kentucky". WKRN. Associated Press. August 26, 2020.
  215. ^ Reinert, Melissa (August 21, 2017). "New 'Rebels' logo replaces Confederate mascot at Boone Co. High School". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  216. ^ Holloway, Kali (October 31, 2015). "10 confederate memorials that are somehow still standing". Salon.
  217. ^ Brammer, Jack (August 5, 2015). "Panel votes to keep statue of Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Kentucky Capitol". Lexington Herald Leader. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  218. ^ Loftus, Tom (August 16, 2017). "Some leading Republicans call for removal of Davis statue". The Courier Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
  219. ^ Sidery, Sara (June 13, 2020). "Crews remove Jefferson Davis statue from Kentucky Capitol". WDRB.
  220. ^ a b c Musgrave, Beth (May 26, 2017). "New Orleans relocated its Confederate monuments. What will Lexington do?". Lexington Herald Leader.
  221. ^ "Lexington, Ky. approves plan to move Confederate monuments". CBS News. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  222. ^ "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States. Here's a List". The New York Times. August 28, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  223. ^ a b "In a surprise move, Lexington removes controversial Confederate statues". Lexington Herald Leader. October 17, 2017.
  224. ^ a b "City relocates Confederate statues to Lexington Cemetery". WKYT. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  225. ^ "Confederate statue removed from University of Louisville campus rededicated in Kentucky". Fox News. May 30, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  226. ^ Musgrave, Beth (August 12, 2017). "Lexington mayor says Confederate statues at courthouse will be moved". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
  227. ^ a b c Ratterman, Lexie. "Castleman statue removed from Cherokee Triangle". WDRB. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  228. ^ Jacobs, David (October 3, 2017). "Will Confederate Landmarks in Baton Rouge Become the Subject of Controversy?". 225 Magazine.
  229. ^ Mele, Christopher (April 24, 2017). "New Orleans Begins Removing Confederate Monuments, Under Police Guard". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  230. ^ Robertson, Campbell (May 19, 2017). "From Lofty Perch, New Orleans Monument to Confederacy Comes Down". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  231. ^ Turque, Bill (July 24, 2017). "Confederate statue moved from Rockville courthouse over the weekend". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  232. ^ Landrieu, Mitch (March 24, 2018). "What I learned from my fight to remove Confederate monuments". The Guardian.
  233. ^ "A monumental challenge: What to do about statues of the heroes of Dixie – and defenders of slavery [unsigned editorial]". Los Angeles Times. May 4, 2017. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  234. ^ "Monumental Task Committee". monumentaltask.org. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  235. ^ Applebome, Peter (May 24, 2017). "New Orleans Mayor's Message on Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  236. ^ Litten, Kevin (May 12, 2018). "2 Confederate monuments should stay in New Orleans, committee recommends to Mayor Cantrell". The Times-Picayune.
  237. ^ Litten, Kevin (May 12, 2018). "2 Confederate monuments should stay in New Orleans, committee recommends to Mayor Cantrell". Times-Picayune.
  238. ^ Mele, Christopher (April 24, 2017). "New Orleans Begins Removing Confederate Monuments, Under Police Guard". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  239. ^ Serrano, Alicia (June 29, 2015). "Who Are the other Confederate Soldiers Honored with Statues on Jefferson Davis Parkway in Mid-City?". Midcity Messenger. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  240. ^ "Jefferson Davis statue coming down overnight, parents at nearby school told". NOLA.com.
  241. ^ Stole, Bryn (December 23, 2020). "Edward Douglass White statue removed from steps of Louisiana Supreme Court". The Times-Picayune/The New Orleans Advocate. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  242. ^ LaRose, Greg (December 23, 2020). "E.D. White statue moved inside Louisiana Supreme Court building". WDSU.
  243. ^ Rainey, Richard (June 29, 2015). "Before Lee Circle, New Orleans schools soul-searched their own ties to slavery". Times-Picayune. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  244. ^ Jaschik, Scott (August 21, 2017). "Off the Pedestal". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  245. ^ Neuman, Scott (May 20, 2021). "Maryland Repeals State Song That Called Lincoln A Tyrant". NPR. NPR.
  246. ^ "US: Maryland repeals Confederate call to arms as state song". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  247. ^ Cox, Erin; Wiggins, Ovetta (June 15, 2020). "Plaque honoring Confederate soldiers to be removed from Maryland State House". The Washington Post.
  248. ^ Campbell, Colin (October 15, 2015). "With injunction lifted, Maryland to recall Confederate license plates". The Baltimore Sun.
  249. ^ Prudente, Tim (August 14, 2017). "Confederate monument in Baltimore drenched with red paint". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  250. ^ a b c Grierson, Jamie (August 16, 2017). "Baltimore takes down Confederate statues in middle of night". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  251. ^ Perl, Larry (September 28, 2015). "Baltimore County renaming Robert E. Lee Park as Lake Roland". The Baltimore Sun.
  252. ^ Singman, Brooke (August 24, 2017). "Nancy Pelosi's dad helped dedicate Confederate statue". The New York Post. Retrieved October 16, 2017. It was May 2, 1948, when, according to a Baltimore Sun article from that day, "3,000" looked on as then-Gov. William Preston Lane Jr. and Pelosi's father, the late Thomas D'Alesandro Jr., spoke at the dedication of a monument to honor Confederate Gens. Robert E. Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson.
  253. ^ Campbell, Colin; Broadwater, Luke (August 16, 2017). "Citing 'safety and security,' Pugh has Baltimore Confederate monuments taken down". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2017. A group of protesters had pledged to tear down a monument to Lee and fellow Confederate Gen. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson at Wyman Park Dell near the Johns Hopkins University themselves on Wednesday if the city did not.
  254. ^ DeVille, Taylor; Clary, Craig (October 17, 2020). "Post office mural depicting slavery is covered". The Washington Post.
  255. ^ Zauzmer, Julie (October 26, 2019). "He's on a one-man quest to take down Confederate monuments in Maryland". The Washington Post.
  256. ^ Waldrop, Theresa (March 14, 2022). "Maryland removes its last courthouse Confederate statue". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
  257. ^ Khan, Saliqa A. (August 22, 2017). "Confederate memorial outside Howard County courthouse removed". WBAL. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  258. ^ Mann, Alex; San Felice, Selene (July 3, 2020). "Confederate statue at Lothian church torn down, vandalized, Anne Arundel police say". Capital Gazette.
  259. ^ a b City of Rockville (September 10, 2015). "Historic District Commission Staff Report: Certificate of Approval HDC2016-00756, 29 Courthouse Square".
  260. ^ a b Browne, Allen (March 26, 2017). "The Confederate Monument in Rockville".
  261. ^ Meyer, Eugene L. (March 17, 2017). "Montgomery County decides to hide, instead of confront, its ugly history". The Washington Post.
  262. ^ a b Turque, Bill (July 24, 2017). "Confederate statue moved from Rockville courthouse over the weekend". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  263. ^ Bunow, Miriam (July 16, 2015). "The History and Future of the Rockville Confederate Soldier Statue". Peerless Rockville Historic Preservation Ltd.
  264. ^ Turque, Bill (August 3, 2015). "Montgomery boxes Confederate statue to protect it from vandalism". The Washington Post.
  265. ^ Turque, Bill (February 28, 2017). "New spot for Confederate statue: site of historic ferry". The Washington Post.
  266. ^ Loewen, James W. (March 22, 2017). "ROCKVILLE'S CONFEDERATE MONUMENT BELONGS AT WHITE'S FERRY". History News Network.
  267. ^ Campbell, Douglas E.; Sherman, Thomas B. (2014). On the Potomac River. Lulu. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-304-69872-8.
  268. ^ "Massachusetts Is Finally Removing Its Confederate Monument". Boston Magazine. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  269. ^ "Civil War plaques are on display". Mvtimes.com. July 15, 2019. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  270. ^ "Robert E. Lee show boat". Lowell Chamber of Commerce. January 4, 2017.
  271. ^ "State Representative Dave Hildenbrand Acquires Funding for Lowell Confederate Show Boat". WZZM. June 20, 2017.
  272. ^ "Michigan Tax Payer's Fund Confederate Boat". Great Lakes Beacon. June 28, 2017.
  273. ^ Tunison, John (August 9, 2017). "Council Man Resigns After Comments". MLive.
  274. ^ Bailey, David (August 17, 2017). "Demolition of Robert E. Lee show boat". Detroit Free Press.
  275. ^ Booth, DeJanay (February 28, 2019). "Demolition of Robert E. Lee show boat". Detroit Free Press.
  276. ^ "These 5 states still use Confederate symbols in their flags". MSNBC. June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  277. ^ Pettus, Emily Wagster (June 30, 2020). "With a pen stroke, Mississippi drops Confederate-themed flag". Associated Press. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  278. ^ Avery, Dan (November 3, 2020). "Mississippi voters decide to replace Confederate-themed state flag". NBC News. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  279. ^ Amy, Jeff (June 18, 2018). "Protesters burn Mississippi flag, say it symbolizes racism". Associated Press. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  280. ^ Svrluga, Susan (October 26, 2015). "Ole Miss takes down its state flag with Confederate emblem". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  281. ^ Willingham, Leah (August 8, 2021). "What Follows Confederate Statues? 1 Mississippi City's Fight". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 30, 2021.
  282. ^ "This Mississippi school named for Jefferson Davis is being renamed after Obama". Mother Jones. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  283. ^ a b c d Anderson, Melinda D. (November 7, 2017). "Attending a School Named for a Confederate General". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  284. ^ Rowe, Keisha (December 16, 2020). "Two Jackson schools now named for civil rights leaders instead of Confederate soldiers". The Clarion-Ledger. Mississippi Clarion Ledger. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  285. ^ Mangan, Katherine (June 25, 2015). "Removing Confederate Symbols Is a Step, but Changing a Campus Culture Can Take Years". Chronicle of Higher Education.
  286. ^ Ganucheau, Adam (October 18, 2018). "Protect the values we hold dear': A closer look inside the Ed Meek, Ole Miss race controversy". Mississippi Today.
  287. ^ McKinney, Roger (May 14, 2018). "Columbia Board of Education renames Lee Elementary". Columbia Tribune.
  288. ^ Benson, Charlie; Keegan, Lisa; 41 Action News Staff (August 25, 2017). "Watch: City crews remove Confederate monument on Ward Parkway". KSHB. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  289. ^ "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States. Here's a List". The New York Times. August 28, 2017. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
  290. ^ Bott, Celeste (June 28, 2017). "Remaining pieces of Confederate Monument removed from Forest Park". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  291. ^ Fenske, Sarah (August 22, 2017). "City of St. Louis Plows Over Confederate Drive". Riverfront Times. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  292. ^ "Protesters arrested as city of Helena removes Confederate fountain". Independent Record. Associated Press. Retrieved August 20, 2017 – via the Billings Gazette.
  293. ^ "Statue defaced as U.S. Confederate monument protests grow". Reuters. August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  294. ^ Kuglin, Tom. "Equity Fountain installed where Helena's Confederate monument once stood". Helena Independent Record.
  295. ^ "University of Nevada Las Vegas Official Athletic Site". unlvrebels.com. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  296. ^ "Hey Reb! and "Rebels" Nickname | Campus Life". University of Nevada, Las Vegas. June 21, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  297. ^ Oxford, Andrew (June 11, 2018). "Confederate monuments removed from New Mexico highways". Santa Fe New Mexican.
  298. ^ Hallman, J. C. (November 1, 2017). "[Essay] | Monumental Error, by J. C. Hallman". Harper's Magazine. November 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  299. ^ "The Cry of Alice | J.C. Hallman". The Baffler. November 11, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  300. ^ Sayej, Nadja (April 21, 2018). "J Marion Sims: controversial statue taken down but debate still rages". The Guardian. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  301. ^ "Religious leaders remove Brooklyn plaques honoring Robert E. Lee". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  302. ^ a b Jaeger, Max. "Cuomo orders Confederate busts removed from CUNY Hall of Fame". New York Post. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  303. ^ "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States. Here's a List". The New York Times. August 28, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  304. ^ Asmelash, Leah; Sutton, Joe (February 2, 2021). "North Carolina discontinues license plates with Confederate battle flag". CNN. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  305. ^ a b Kepley-Steward, Kristy; Santostasi, Stephanie (July 10, 2020). "Confederate monuments in downtown Asheville removed or covered". Asheville, NC: WLOS. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  306. ^ Le, John (July 14, 2020). "Buncombe County Confederate marker removed, remnants of resentment left behind". Asheville, NC: WLOS. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  307. ^ Wicker, Mackenzie (July 14, 2020). "Confederate monument removed from Buncombe Courthouse property". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  308. ^ "William L. Saunders (1835–1891) and Carolina Hall". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  309. ^ Stancill, Jane (August 20, 2018). "Protesters topple Silent Sam Confederate statue at UNC". News and Observer.
  310. ^ Drew, Johnathan (August 20, 2018). "Confederate statue on UNC campus toppled by protesters". Associated Press. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
  311. ^ Quam, Casey (August 28, 2018). "Is Silent Sam going back up within 90 days? This law might hold the answer". The Daily Tarheel. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  312. ^ Folt, Carol (January 14, 2019). "Chancellor Folt announces resignation, orders Confederate Monument pedestal to be removed intact". University Communications, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.
  313. ^ Grubb, Tammy (October 16, 2018). "A Chapel Hill highway no longer honors a Confederate leader. But what about the sign?". Herald Sun.
  314. ^ Harrison, Steve (November 24, 2015). "Charlotte uses technicality to move Confederate monument". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  315. ^ Smith, LaVendrick (August 16, 2017). "Charlotte police are keeping an eye on the city's Confederate monuments". The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  316. ^ Dunn, Andrew (August 16, 2017). "Could Charlotte move its Confederate monuments?". Charlotte Agenda. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  317. ^ Canal, Nick de la (July 10, 2020). "Confederate Marker Removed From Charlotte's Grady Cole Center". Charlotte, NC: WFAE. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  318. ^ Bonner, Lynn (July 12, 2020). "Clinton, NC, removes Confederate statue after it was toppled overnight". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  319. ^ talent, gloria rodriguez, abc11 anchors, wtvd anchors, abc11 reporters, wtvd reporters, wtvd (August 17, 2017). "8 now charged in destruction of Confederate statue". abc11.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  320. ^ Graham, David A. "Arrests Begin Following Durham Confederate Statue Toppling". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  321. ^ "All Charges Dropped in Case of Toppled Confederate Monument". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 20, 2018.
  322. ^ Katz, Jonathan M. (August 17, 2017). "4 Surrender in Toppling of Confederate Statue in North Carolina". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  323. ^ Drew, Jonathan (January 8, 2019). "N.C. county: Put crumpled Confederate statue in indoor display". Boston Globe.
  324. ^ Bonner, Lynn (August 11, 2020). "3 years after protesters took down a Durham Confederate statue, its base is hauled away". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  325. ^ Ballentine, Claire; Moorthy, Neelesh (August 15, 2017). "Tracing the history of Duke Chapel's Robert E. Lee statue". The Duke Chronicle. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  326. ^ Simpson, Ian (August 18, 2017). "Statue defaced as U.S. Confederate monument protests grow". Reuters. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  327. ^ Roll, Nick (August 18, 2017). "Robert E. Lee Statue Vandalized at Duke". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  328. ^ Staff Reports (August 19, 2017). "Robert E. Lee statue removed from campus". Duke Chronicle. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  329. ^ Drew, Jonathan (August 19, 2017). "Duke University removes Robert E. Lee statue from chapel". Associated Press. Retrieved August 19, 2017 – via Winston-Salem Journal.
  330. ^ Kueber, Gary (2013). "CENTRAL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL / JULIAN S. CARR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL". Open Durham. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  331. ^ "North Carolina public school system bans Confederate flag, Ku Klux Klan symbols and swastikas". WYFF. Associated Press. August 25, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  332. ^ "Crews remove Confederate monument in Fayetteville". Raleigh, NC: WRAL-TV. June 27, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  333. ^ "1902 Confederate Monument, Fayetteville". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. March 19, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  334. ^ Escobar, Estephany (August 4, 2020). "Gaston Co. Commissioners Support Relocation of Confederate Monument". Raleigh, NC: Spectrum News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  335. ^ Hodgin, Carrie (July 7, 2020). "Greensboro Confederate statue vandalized, removed from Green Hills Cemetery". Greensboro, NC: WFMY-TV. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  336. ^ "Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina - Pitt County Confederate Soldiers Monument, Greenville". March 19, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  337. ^ "Pitt County Board of Commissioners vote to remove Confederate statue". Washington, NC: WITN-TV. June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  338. ^ "Pitt County Board of Commissioners vote to remove Confederate statue". Washington, NC: WITN-TV. June 23, 2020. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  339. ^ Gronberg, Ray (July 6, 2020). "Vance County's Confederate monument is down". The Daily Dispatch. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  340. ^ Williams, Chris (July 20, 2020). "Time Capsule Found Underneath Removed Confederate Statue". Raleigh, NC: Spectrum News. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  341. ^ Grubb, Tammy (July 14, 2015). "Hillsborough board supports removing museum's 'Confederate' marker". News & Observer.
  342. ^ "Lexington Confederate monument removed overnight into Friday". WXII 12. October 17, 2020. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  343. ^ Quillin, Martha (June 23, 2020). "Confederate statue has literally divided NC town's Main Street for years. But no more". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  344. ^ Quillin, Martha (June 30, 2020). "NC town takes first step in relocating Confederate monument, removing soldier from top". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  345. ^ "Granville County Confederate monument removed following 'credible threat'". Raleigh, NC: WNCN. June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  346. ^ "Confederate Monument, Pittsboro | NCpedia". Ncpedia.org. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  347. ^ Horner, Zachary (August 5, 2019). "UDC: Confederate statue 'should not be illegally moved or altered'". Chatham News + Record.
  348. ^ Grubb, Tammy (August 14, 2019). "Daughters of Confederacy rejects Chatham County monument talks. What's next for statue". News & Observer.
  349. ^ "Confederate statue removed from historic North Carolina courthouse". The Guardian. Associated Press. November 20, 2019.
  350. ^ Harris, Paul (March 30, 2013). "North Carolina takes down Confederate Civil War battle flag after protest". The Guardian.
  351. ^ Brosseau, Carli; Leiker, Emily; Sessoms, Ben; Kasakove, Sophie; Wagner, Adam; Hajela, Ashad (June 19, 2020). "Protesters remove 2 Confederate statues from Capitol, hanging 1 from Raleigh lightpost". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  352. ^ Bridges, Virginia; Shaffer, Josh; Doran, Will; Johnson, Anna (June 20, 2020). "NC governor orders Confederate monuments removed at Capitol after statues toppled". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  353. ^ "Governor Cooper orders crews remove two Confederate monuments at Capitol building". Raleigh, NC: WRAL-TV. June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  354. ^ Bridges, Virginia; Shaffer, Josh (June 21, 2020). "Workers dismantling 75-foot Confederate monument at NC Capitol". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  355. ^ Carter, Andrew (June 23, 2020). "Witnessing 'a new history.' Confederate statue comes down in NC after 125 years". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  356. ^ Ingram, Hunter (June 29, 2020). "Confederate cannons removed from Raleigh now at Fort Fisher". Star-News. Wilmington, NC. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  357. ^ "New Confederate statue goes up in Reidsville". myfox8.com. December 12, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  358. ^ "Rocky Mount mayor says city council votes to remove Confederate monument at local park". Raleigh, NC: WRAL-TV. June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  359. ^ "United Daughters of the Confederacy sign agreement to move 'Fame' monument in Salisbury". Charlotte, NC: WBTV. June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  360. ^ Bergeron, Josh (July 7, 2020). "111 years after its dedication, 'Fame' hoisted away from West Innes Street". Salisbury Post. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  361. ^ Wood, Charles (July 8, 2020). "Confederate statue removed from Anson courthouse". Richmond County Daily Journal. Rockingham, NC. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  362. ^ Band, Gary (June 24, 2020). "Confederate statue removed from Anson courthouse". The Warren Record. Warrenton, NC. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  363. ^ @CityofWilm (June 25, 2020). "In accordance with NC law..." (Tweet). Retrieved June 25, 2020 – via Twitter.
  364. ^ Jasper, Simone (June 25, 2020). "Confederate statues removed from NC city after officers were fired for racist remarks". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  365. ^ John, Staton (June 25, 2020). "Wilmington removes Confederate monuments overnight". Star-News. Wilmington, NC. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  366. ^ "Confederate Soldiers Monument, Winston-Salem". Documenting the American South. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. March 19, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  367. ^ Foreman, Tom Jr.; Drew, Jonathan (March 12, 2019). "Confederate statue removed from historic N Carolina court". Associated Press. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  368. ^ Daniel, Fran (December 26, 2018). "Downtown Winston-Salem Confederate Soldiers Monument vandalized". Winston-Salem Journal.
  369. ^ Hildyard, Carly (August 22, 2017). "County leaders, NAACP address Confederate statue at Alamance County Courthouse". WGHP (MyFox8).
  370. ^ O’Donnell, Lisa (January 1, 2019). "Remove Confederate statue or face possible legal action, Winston-Salem tells United Daughters of the Confederacy". News and Record.
  371. ^ Green, Jordan (January 9, 2019). "Courthouse property owner asks UDC to remove Confederate monument". Triad City Beat.
  372. ^ Young, Wesley (June 20, 2020). "UDC files new lawsuit over Confederate statue removed from downtown Winston-Salem". Winston-Salem Journal.
  373. ^ Young, Wesley (January 1, 2021). "UDC appeals Winston-Salem Confederate statue ruling to state supreme court". Winston-Salem Journal.
  374. ^ Ferenchik, Mark. "Repaired statue of Confederate soldier reinstalled at Camp Chase cemetery". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  375. ^ Sewell, Dan (August 26, 2017). "Little Ohio city swept into national battle over monuments". APNews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved August 27, 2017. It brought sudden attention to Franklin's 90-year-old rock marker, depicting Lee astride his horse, Traveller, and situated aside the "Dixie Highway", a roads network running from Miami to Michigan.
  376. ^ "Passer-by snags makeshift sign placed at former Franklin Confederate monument". Daytondailynews.com. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  377. ^ "Ohio high school getting rid of Confederate mascot". Cincinnati.com. August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  378. ^ Gearino, Dan. Confederate general's historic marker removed in Worthington. Columbus Dispatch August 19, 2017. [1] Accessed August 24, 2017.
  379. ^ "Confederate Memorial Museum and Cemetery". Civil War Album. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  380. ^ "Atoka Museum and Civil War Cemetery". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  381. ^ Hardiman, Samuel (August 20, 2018). "Lee School renamed Council Oak Elementary School just in time for start of semester". Tulsa World.
  382. ^ Deppen, Colin (December 15, 2021). "Pennsylvania revises Confederate markers, recasts forces as 'enemy' soldiers". Yahoo News.
  383. ^ Firestone, David (May 19, 2000). "South Carolina Votes to Remove Confederate Flag From Dome". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  384. ^ Garnier, Terace (August 24, 2017). "South Carolina judge dismisses case to keep Confederate flag in courtroom". Fox News. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  385. ^ Hughes, Rosana (July 13, 2017). "NAACP begins effort to remove Confederate statue from Hamilton County Courthouse". Times Free Press. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  386. ^ Rosenberg, Eli (March 7, 2018). "A school's Confederate flag gym mural appeared to depict a lynching, until it got painted over". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  387. ^ a b Sauber, Elaina (October 4, 2017). "Franklin golf course drops Confederate general from name". The Tennessean. p. W2. Retrieved December 1, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  388. ^ "SB2138 – Tennessee 2015–2016 – Historical Sites and Preservation – As enacted, enacts the "Tennessee Heritage Protection Act of 2016." – Amends TCA Title 4, Chapter 1, Part 4. – TrackBill". trackbill.com.
  389. ^ Johnson, Eugene J. and Robert D. Russell, Jr., Memphis: An Architectural Guide, The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1990 pp. 50–51
  390. ^ Stanglin, Doug (February 6, 2013). "Memphis Changes Names of 3 Confederate-Themed Parks". USA Today.
  391. ^ Sainz, Adrian (February 5, 2013). "Memphis renames 3 parks that honored Confederacy". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  392. ^ "Memphis City Council votes on ordinance to remove Confederate statues". WREG. September 5, 2017.
  393. ^ a b Poe, Ryan (August 14, 2017). "Strickland: 'No place' for hate groups in Memphis; city expects to sue state over Confederate monuments". The Tennessean. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  394. ^ a b c Jones, Yolanda (August 15, 2017). "Nathan Bedford Forrest statue in Memphis draws protesters overnight". The Tennessean. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  395. ^ Poe, Ryan (December 20, 2017). "Memphis to remove Confederate statues overnight following sale of public parks". USA Today. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  396. ^ Allison, John (1905). Notable Men of Tennessee. Personal and Genealogical With Portraits. Vol. 2. Atlanta, Georgia: Southern Historical Association. pp. 45–51. Retrieved January 13, 2016. Her efficiency activity [on] behalf of the Forrest monument, now erecting at Memphis, gave her a wide and highly favorable reputation with the Southern soldiers of the war between the states.
  397. ^ Barbash, Fred (December 21, 2017). "Memphis to Jefferson Davis: 'Na na na na, hey, hey, goodbye'". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  398. ^ Poe, Ryan (December 21, 2017). "Removing Confederate statues 'only the beginning' for Memphis Greenspace". Memphis Commercial Appeal. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  399. ^ "Judge rules Confederate statues removal by Memphis is legal". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. May 16, 2018.
  400. ^ The remains of Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest and his wife are being removed from a Memphis park
  401. ^ Peagler, Annette (December 27, 2017). "Family With Memphis Ties Wants Bust Of Captain J. Harvey Mathes, Confederate Soldier, Returned". Memphis Commercial Appeal.
  402. ^ Carney, Court (August 2001). "The Contested Image of Nathan Bedford Forrest" (PDF). Journal of Southern History. Vol. 67, no. 3. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  403. ^ Tamburin, Adam (August 16, 2016). "Daughters of the Confederacy reluctantly accepts Vanderbilt deal". The Tennessean. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  404. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (February 12, 2005). "Colleges suffer identity crisis". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on February 28, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  405. ^ Bliss, Jessica (June 5, 2020). "Nashville school pledges to remove statue of confederate soldier from its campus". The Tennessean. Nashville, TN. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  406. ^ Jorge, Kaylin (June 5, 2020). "Nashville school to remove Confederate soldier Sam Davis statue". Nashville, TN: WZTV. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  407. ^ "Crews remove Forrest statue from along I-65". WKRN News 2. December 7, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  408. ^ Danaher, William (June 27, 2015). "Confederate flag's history is 'sick' and 'twisted'". Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  409. ^ Smith, Fleming (March 22, 2016). "Sewanee, Polk, and the Old South". The Sewanee Purple. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  410. ^ Huang, Jasmine (September 11, 2018). "NEW MONUMENT TO BE ERECTED IN PLACE OF KIRBY-SMITH MEMORIAL". The Sewanee Purple.
  411. ^ "How Six Flags Over Texas overreacted to the Confederate controversy". The Dallas Morning News. August 23, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  412. ^ a b c d Ayala, Eva-Marie (June 18, 2020). "Is this North Texas school district finally ready to shed its Confederate imagery?". Dallas News.
  413. ^ Weber, Paul J. (January 11, 2019). "Texas set to remove Confederate plaque from state Capitol". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019.
  414. ^ "Lawmaker: Confederate plaque removed from Texas Capitol". The Washington Post. Associated Press. January 13, 2019. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019.
  415. ^ Flynn, Meagan (September 20, 2017). "Speaker Joe Straus Calls for Removal of Confederate Plaque on Capitol Grounds". Houston Press.
  416. ^ Samuels, Alex (September 19, 2017). "Texas House Speaker Joe Straus Calls For Removal Of 'Inaccurate' Confederate Plaque". Texas Tribune. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  417. ^ Silver, Johnathan (July 20, 2018). "40 Texas lawmakers in favor of removing Confederate plaque; Abbott mum". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  418. ^ "A Guide to Confederate Monuments in Austin". Austin Chronicle. August 18, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  419. ^ "Guide to Confederate Monuments in Austin". Austin Chronicle. August 18, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  420. ^ a b Weber, Andrew (July 27, 2018). "Equity Office proposes renaming 7 Confederate streets – and even the city itself". Austin Monitor.
  421. ^ "UT student government votes to remove Jefferson Davis statue". KXAN.com. March 26, 2015.
  422. ^ Tom McCarthy, "Drive to call time on Confederate flag sweeps south – 150 years after civil war", The Guardian, June 23, 2015.
  423. ^ Associated Press, "'Emancipate UT': Confederate statue defaced at University of Texas", The Guardian, May 9, 2015.
  424. ^ "Jefferson Davis Statue to be Relocated to Educational Exhibit at History Center". UT News – The University of Texas at Austin. August 13, 2015.
  425. ^ a b "Sons of Confederate Veterans take UT statue case to Texas high court".
  426. ^ Associated Press, "Texas university removes Confederate president statue from campus", The Guardian, August 30, 2015.
  427. ^ Haurwitz, Ralph K.M. (August 17, 2017). "UT removing Confederate statues from South Mall". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  428. ^ Weber, Andrew (August 12, 2015). "The Long, Controversial History of UT's Confederate Statues". KUT 90.5. Moody College of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  429. ^ Bromwich, Jonah Engel (August 21, 2017). "University of Texas at Austin Removes Confederate Statues in Overnight Operation". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  430. ^ Cunningham, Chelsea (December 7, 2018). "Former Texas Gov. James Hogg statue to have new home on UT Austin campus". KVUE.
  431. ^ Jechow, Andy (July 2, 2018). "IDEA Allan school sheds name after learning of Confederate origin". KXAN.
  432. ^ Noble, Don (May 5, 2014). "Review of Brother Sid: A Novel of Sidney Lanier". NPR. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  433. ^ KUT, Claire McInerny (March 26, 2019). "Austin School Board Votes To Change Lanier High School's Name To Juan Navarro High School". kut.org.
  434. ^ Smith, Corbett (February 13, 2019). "Dallas City Council votes to take down Confederate War Memorial". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  435. ^ Wilonsky, Robert (July 2, 2019). "Appeals court rules Dallas can't remove Confederate War Memorial 'until further notice'". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  436. ^ Norimie, Hayat (June 11, 2020). "Dallas asks Court of Appeals for permission to remove Pioneer Park's Confederate War Memorial". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  437. ^ Hoyt, Joseph; Marfin, Catherine (June 24, 2020). "Workers remove last of Confederate monument in downtown Dallas". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas, Texas. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  438. ^ "Robert E. Lee Park – TX | The Cultural Landscape Foundation". tclf.org. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  439. ^ "Court halts Robert E. Lee statue's removal in Dallas after near-unanimous City Council vote". The Dallas Morning News. September 6, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  440. ^ "WATCH: Statue of Robert E. Lee comes down in Dallas, Texas". NBC News. September 14, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017 – via Twitter.
  441. ^ Wilonsky, Robert (April 24, 2018). "Trip to Texas Civil War Museum shows why Dallas should never send its Robert E. Lee statue there". Dallas News.
  442. ^ "New sign goes up at former Stonewall Jackson Elementary in Dallas". WFAA. June 13, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  443. ^ "Dallas ISD Begins Stripping Confederate Names From Three Schools". June 12, 2018.
  444. ^ Haag, Matthew (September 7, 2017). "Dallas Can Remove Robert E. Lee Statue, Judge Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  445. ^ "Dallas Task Force Votes to Keep Fair Park Confederate Images". NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
  446. ^ "Lee Park Renamed, Task Force Recommends Same for Streets". NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
  447. ^ a b Kennedy, Bud (June 7, 2018). "Look away: Fort Worth has removed and disposed of two Confederate historical markers, one for a Klansman". Star-Telegram.
  448. ^ Leszcynski, Ray (August 11, 2015). "Superintendent removes Confederate symbols from South Garland High". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  449. ^ Smith, Corbett. "High school mascots are a point of pride". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  450. ^ "Houston's Dowling Street To Be Renamed Emancipation Avenue". Houston Public Media. Associated Press. January 12, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  451. ^ a b "District renames seven schools". Austin American-Statesman. May 14, 2016. p. B5.
  452. ^ Watkins, Matthew; Busch, Mallory; Daniel, Annie (July 1, 2015). "At Majority-Minority Schools, Confederate Names Remain". Big Country Homepage. Nexstar Broadcasting, Inc. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  453. ^ Mellon, Ericka (April 15, 2014). "Four Houston schools get new, non-offensive mascots". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  454. ^ Kennedy, Bud (August 17, 2017). "A Confederate flag display comes down. But it was a tiny one, and the mayor wonders — why now?". Star-Telegram.
  455. ^ Commemorative Air Force. "Our History and Mission". Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  456. ^ Allen, Paula (August 14, 2017). "Who paid to have the Confederate statue in Travis Park made and then placed in the park?". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  457. ^ "Confederate statue removed from Travis Park". KSAT. September 1, 2017. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  458. ^ Bradshaw, Kelsey (September 1, 2017). "San Antonio removes Confederate statue in Travis Park". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  459. ^ Ravani, Sarah (September 1, 2017). "San Antonio removes Confederate statue in Travis Park". MySanAntonio.com. San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  460. ^ Knox, Annie (January 13, 2015). "Dixie State University Returning Controversial 'Rebels' Statue to Artist". The Salt Lake Tribune.
  461. ^ Wilkins, Terell. "The argument returns: How St. George kept its 'Dixie' name and what happens now". The Spectrum. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  462. ^ "Shiloh Hall residents moving out sooner than expected". Dixie Sun News. November 2, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  463. ^ Carmichael, Emma (October 25, 2010). "The Ugly, Racially Charged Fight Over A Confederate Mascot. In Vermont". Deadspin. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  464. ^ "South Burlington's Rebel debate goes back decades". burlingtonfreepress.com. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  465. ^ "South Burlington school budget fails, again". burlingtonfreepress.com. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  466. ^ Leslie, Alexandra (August 14, 2017). "Wolves Logo, Name Unleashed at SBHS Athletic Facilities". mychamplainvalley.com. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  467. ^ Thomas-Lester, Avis (July 7, 2005). "From the archives: State Lives With a Legacy of Terror as Nation Pays Tribute to Victims' Descendants". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  468. ^ Stewart, Caleb. "Va. lawmakers pass bills to end Lee-Jackson Day and make Election Day a holiday". WHSV. Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  469. ^ "SB 601 Legal holidays; Election Day, removes Lee-Jackson Day as state holiday". Virginia's Legislative Information System. March 23, 2020. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  470. ^ a b Sullivan, Patricia (November 20, 2017). "Robert E. Lee portrait is moved from hometown City Hall to a museum". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  471. ^ Bryan, Emily (October 29, 2017). "Statement from the Senior Warden on Memorial Plaques". Christ Church Alexandria. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  472. ^ Fox, Peggy (August 17, 2017). "Alexandria Confederate statue still stands after vote to take it down". WUSA. Archived from the original on February 5, 2019. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  473. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (June 2, 2020). "131-year-old Confederate statue removed from Alexandria intersection". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  474. ^ Zaleski, Andrew (February 18, 2020). "When a county changed a Confederate highway name, some navigation apps were slow to change it". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  475. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (December 16, 2020). "Arlington House, Gen. Robert E. Lee's former home, won't be a symbol of the county for long". The Washington Post.
  476. ^ a b Brady, Erik (April 27, 2018). "A Confederate general makes last stand with high school teams". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  477. ^ Coghill, Taft Jr. (August 26, 2020). "Caroline supervisors must now decide where to relocate Confederate monument". Culpeper Star-Exponent. First published in The Free Lance–Star.
  478. ^ Vozzella, Laura. "White nationalist Richard Spencer leads torch-bearing protesters defending Lee statue". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 28, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  479. ^ Zullo, Robert. "As Confederate monuments come down elsewhere, can Richmond 'offer something else?'". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  480. ^ Fortin, Jacey (August 13, 2017). "The Statue at the Center of Charlottesville's Storm". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  481. ^ "Lee Statue Vandalized Ahead of KKK Rally in Charlottesville". Nbc29.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  482. ^ Brown, Emma (August 22, 2017). "Charlottesville City Council votes to shroud Confederate statues in black". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  483. ^ FOX. "Charlottesville's Confederate statues shrouded in black". fox5ny.com. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  484. ^ "Northam signs bills on Confederate monuments, LGBTQ protections".
  485. ^ "Virginia highest court rules city can remove two Confederate statues".
  486. ^ a b "Charlottesville, Virginia, removes 3rd monument hours after Lee, Jackson statues come down". NBC News.
  487. ^ "Charlottesville Council votes to remove Confederate statue after tense hearing". NBC News. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  488. ^ Ellison, Sarah (August 15, 2017). "Why Charlottesville, Liberal College Town, Became Ground Zero for White Supremacy". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  489. ^ Heim, Joe (September 15, 2017). "U-Va. board votes to remove Confederate plaques, ban open flames". The Guardian.
  490. ^ "Charlottesville: Confederate soldier statue removed". BBC. September 12, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  491. ^ Woo, Megan. "Kings Dominion changes name to beloved roller coaster". Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  492. ^ Shapiro, T. Rees (July 28, 2017). "A school named after a Confederate may be three letters away from compromise". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  493. ^ Truong, Debbie (August 28, 2018). "With Confederate name stripped, classes start at renamed school in Fairfax County". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  494. ^ a b Pereira, Ivan (July 24, 2020). "Robert E. Lee removed from Virginia state house and a school name as courts weigh future of Richmond statue". ABC News. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  495. ^ Hampton City Schools (December 2017). "Renaming of The Campus at Lee (press release)". Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  496. ^ Fisher, Marc (May 30, 2021). "The Confederacy's final resting place". Washington Post.
  497. ^ Faleski, Stephen (May 8, 2021). "Confederate Monument Removed from County Land". Smithfield Times.
  498. ^ a b "Va. city bans public Confederate flag displays". CBS News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  499. ^ a b Adams, Duncan. "Rebel flags barred from Lexington poles". Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  500. ^ "Virginia university to remove Confederate flags from chapel". CNN Wire. July 9, 2014. Archived from the original on September 6, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  501. ^ Shapiro, T. Rees (July 8, 2014). "Washington and Lee University to remove Confederate flags following protests". The Washington Post.
  502. ^ Hendrix, Steve; Hendrix, Steve (August 22, 2017). "The day white Virginia stopped admiring Gen. Robert E. Lee and started worshipping him". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on September 6, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  503. ^ Boorstein, Michelle; Boorstein, Michelle (August 22, 2017). "This is the church where Robert E. Lee declared himself a sinner. Should it keep his name?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  504. ^ Dwyer, McKinley Strother, Shayne (September 4, 2020). "Lexington's Stonewall Jackson Cemetery officially renamed 'Oak Grove Cemetery'". WSLS. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  505. ^ "Virginia Military Institute removing Confederate statue". Politico. Associated Press. December 7, 2020. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  506. ^ "Randolph College removes statue of Confederate solider [sic]". WSLS. August 25, 2017. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  507. ^ a b "Unity Braxton MS & Unity Reed HS - Prince William County Public Schools". Pwcs.edu. June 29, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  508. ^ Rago, Gordon (June 12, 2020). "Norfolk removes Confederate soldier statue from downtown monument". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  509. ^ Remmers, Vanessa (February 7, 2018). "Petersburg School Board votes to remove Confederate names from three schools". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  510. ^ "After $20K donation, 3 schools change Confederate names". WSLS. July 11, 2018. Archived from the original on July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  511. ^ a b "School honoring Confederate general renamed Barack Obama Elementary". WTVR-TV. June 19, 2018. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  512. ^ "Portsmouth Mayor: Move Confederate monument to cemetery". WVEC. August 17, 2017. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  513. ^ Fisher, Marc (June 11, 2020). "Confederate statues: In 2020, a renewed battle in America's enduring Civil War". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  514. ^ "Confederate monument in Virginia covered with trash bags". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  515. ^ Joachim, Zach; Alonso, Johanna (June 10, 2020). "Statue of Jefferson Davis torn down on Monument Avenue". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  516. ^ "Confederate monuments tagged with anti-racist messages – in pictures". The Guardian. June 26, 2015.
  517. ^ "Stonewall Jackson statue, other Confederate monuments come down along Richmond's Monument Avenue". USA Today. July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  518. ^ "Richmond removes statue of Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart". ABC News. July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  519. ^ Brundidge, W. Fitzhugh (2005). The Southern Past: A Clash of Race and Memory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674018761. Quoted at https://civilwartalk.com/threads/after-the-war-memorials-to-forrest-went-up-while-ft-pillow-victims-were-ignored.134174/, retrieved March 6, 2018.
  520. ^ Hauser, Christine (June 19, 2018). "Virginia School Drops Confederate General's Name in Favor of Obama's". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 9, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  521. ^ Moreno, Sabrina (June 6, 2020). "UPDATE: Protesters pull down Confederate statue in Richmond's Monroe Park". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  522. ^ Prestidge, Holly; Alonso, Johanna (June 16, 2020). "Protesters tear down another Confederate statue in Richmond". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  523. ^ "Crews removing Confederate Soldiers and Sailors statue in Richmond's Libby Hill Park". Richmond Times-Dispatch. July 8, 2020.
  524. ^ Rankin, Sarah (September 8, 2021). "Statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee comes down in Virginia capital". apnews.com. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  525. ^ "Virginia school named for Confederate general to be renamed". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. July 16, 2018.
  526. ^ Butterworth, Alison Wickline, Heather (July 16, 2018). "Roanoke school board decides on name change for Stonewall Jackson Middle". WSLS-TV. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  527. ^ Stewart, Caleb. "Staunton School Board votes on new name for R.E. Lee High School". Archived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  528. ^ Pratt, Denver (August 18, 2017). "Bellingham removes signs on bridge named for Confederate general". The Bellingham Herald.
  529. ^ Pratt, Denver (September 11, 2017). "Commission to research Pickett Bridge history; Pickett House directional signs go back up". The Bellingham Herald.
  530. ^ Berger, Knute (June 22, 2015). "Confederate symbols also blight the Northwest". Crosscut.com. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  531. ^ "Jefferson Davis Park". Sons of Confederate Veterans Pacific NW Division. June 27, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  532. ^ a b Muhlstein, Julie (May 21, 2016). "Highway 99 renamed in honor of Snohomish settler William P. Stewart". The Everett Herald. Everett, Washington: Everett Herald and Sound Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original on September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  533. ^ Verhovek, Sam Howe (February 14, 2002). "Road Named for Jefferson Davis Stirs Spirited Debate". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  534. ^ "Senate Committee Kills Plan To Rename Jefferson Davis Highway". KOMOnews.com. Seattle, Washington: Sinclair Interactive Media. August 30, 2006. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  535. ^ (1) "House Joint Memorial 4010: As Amended by the Senate" (PDF). 64th Legislature: 2016 Regular Session. Washington State Legislature. March 8, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
    (2) "History of the Bill as of Tuesday, September 20, 2016". HJM 4010 – 2015–16: Requesting that state route number 99 be named the "William P. Stewart Memorial Highway". Washington State Legislature. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
    (3) "Stewart, William P. (1839–1907)". African American History in the American West: Online Encyclopedia of Significant People and Places. BlackPast.org. 2015. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  536. ^ Cornfield, Jerry (May 17, 2016). "SR 99 to be renamed for Snohomish black Civil War soldier". The Everett Herald. Everett, Washington: Everett Herald and Sound Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  537. ^ "Road Named for Jefferson Davis Stirs Spirited Debate". The New York Times. February 14, 2002. Retrieved May 8, 2009. Another granite marker proclaiming the road's designation as the Jefferson Davis Highway was erected at the time in Vancouver, Wash., at the highway's southern terminus. It was quietly removed by city officials four years ago and now rests in a cemetery shed there, but publicity over the bill has brought its mothballing to light and stirred a contentious debate there about whether it should be restored.
  538. ^ "History of the Jefferson Davis Park". Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
  539. ^ "Jefferson Davis Park". Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
  540. ^ Banel, Feliks (May 19, 2017). "Wrestling with the ghosts of Confederate monuments". MYNorthwest. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  541. ^ Horcher, Gary (August 19, 2017). "Washington State Confederate monuments face controversy, again". Kiro 7 News. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  542. ^ Carder, Justin (July 5, 2020). "Confederate memorial in Capitol Hill's Lake View Cemetery toppled". Capitol Hill Seattle Blog. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  543. ^ Hair, Steve (August 22, 2017). "Eastmont School Board Receives Input on Robert E Lee School Name Change". ncwlife.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  544. ^ Walters, Daniel (August 15, 2017). "Why East Wenatchee has a "Robert E. Lee Elementary School" – and why it won't be changing its name". Inlander. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  545. ^ Meyer, Madison (January 9, 2018). "Robert E. Lee Elementary changed to Lee Elementary". ifiberone.com. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  546. ^ Heim, Joe (October 16, 2017). "Civil War's legacy hangs over a plaque honoring Confederate soldiers". The Washington Post.
  547. ^ Snyder, Christine (September 17–23, 2017). "Plaque activist: Linda Ballard: Tribute to Confederates wrong for courthouse entrance". Spirit of Jefferson.
  548. ^ Snyder, Christine (October 12, 2017). "Courthouse plaque turnaround". Spirit of Jefferson.
  549. ^ Quinnelly, Katie (November 2018). "Confronting the Confederacy, Again. And Again" (PDF). The Observer. pp. 10–11.
  550. ^ Snyder, Christine (December 12, 2018). "JCC votes 3–2 to boot the plaque". Spirit of Jefferson.
  551. ^ "OPINION: Finally righting a wrong at our historic courthouse". Spirit of Jefferson. December 12, 2018.
  552. ^ a b Plutchak, Dan. "Soglin orders removal of Confederate monuments from Forest Hill Cemetery". Wkow.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  553. ^ "Battle over Confederate history hits Madison". Isthmus.com. August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  554. ^ a b Wroge, Logan (October 3, 2018). "Madison City Council overturns Confederate monument decision, supports removal". Wisconsin State Journal.