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Space advocacy is supporting or advocating for space exploration, space colonization and private spaceflight. There are many different individuals and organizations dedicated to space advocacy. They are usually active in educating the public[1] on space related subjects, lobbying governments[2][3] for increased funding in space-related activities or supporting private space activities. They also recruit members, fund projects, and provide information for their membership and interested visitors. They are sub-divided into three categories depending on their primary work: practice, advocacy, and theory.


The idea that space flight was possible and necessary was introduced to the world by groups of thinkers, primarily members of the Russian,[4] American, British, and German[5][6] science communities. Starting in the 1930s, these groups began to share their individual plans for a future in space to their respective governments and the public.[7]

Influential books and other media began to emerge which included works containing illustrations by Chesley Bonestell (based on Wernher von Braun's designs) such as The Conquest of Space (1949) and magazine articles including the "Man Will Conquer Space Soon!" series of article in Colliers magazine between 1952 and 1954. Television shows included Walt Disney's Man in Space and Man and the Moon in 1955, and Mars and Beyond in 1957.

Space movement

The space movement seeks the betterment of humanity and a greater future for everyone. According to Mark Hopkins from the National Space Society, each space organization has a different priority and short-term objective, but all organizations share the ultimate goal of building space settlements.[8] Most of the leading non-profit space organizations joined together to form the Space Exploration Alliance. The Alliance was formed to "advocate for the exploration and development of outer space" to members of Congress. The Alliance organizes the annual Legislative Blitz to lobby members of Congress for space exploration, and every space enthusiast is encouraged to participate in the Legislative Blitz by calling, emailing, or personally visiting their Congressperson's office.[9]

List of organizations

Actively involved

Organizations that are directly involved in space exploration, having their own active projects.

Organisation Founded Purpose and goals Pursuits Website
SETI Institute 1960, United States to search for extraterrestrial intelligent life Runs SETI Official website
The Planetary Society 1980, United States to explore the Solar System, search for near-Earth objects, and search for extraterrestrial life Launched Cosmos 1 Official website
Artemis Project was a private venture to establish a permanent, self-supporting base on the Moon by 2002 Official website
Space Studies Institute 1977, United States (2012:) to organize and implement The Great Enterprise Initiative, a road map outlining the technologies and capabilities necessary for space settlement. Current projects include "G-Lab, a space-based variable or partial gravity laboratory [and] E-Lab, a terrestrial 'systems-of-systems' integration lab that will bring together promising closed environment life support technologies into a comprehensive life support solution for space settlement."[10] Runs Space Manufacturing conferences Official website


Organizations that focus mainly on lobbying government agencies and businesses to step up their efforts.

Organisation Founded Purpose and goals Website
British Interplanetary Society 1933, United Kingdom to support and promote astronautics and space exploration Official website
American Astronautical Society 1954, United States dedicated to the advancement of space science and exploration Official website
National Space Institute 1974–1987, United States to help maintain public support for the US space program (later became the National Space Society)
L5 Society 1975–1987, United States to promote the space colony ideas of Dr. Gerard K. O'Neill (later became the National Space Society)
Citizens' Advisory Council on National Space Policy 1980, United States was a group of prominent American citizens concerned with US space policy
Students for the Exploration and Development of Space 1980, United States to promote space exploration and development through educational and engineering projects Official website
Space Frontier Foundation 1988, United States to promote large-scale settlement of the inner Solar System, under strong free market capitalism Official website
Mars Society 1998, International to encouraging the exploration and settlement of Mars Official website
California Space Authority 2001, United States "to foster the development of specified activities in California related to space flight." Official website
Space Exploration Alliance 2004, United States An alliance of major non-profit space organizations. Official website
Coalition for Deep Space Exploration United States "aerospace industry companies that are collaborating to advance the cause of space exploration." Official website
Penny4NASA 2012, United States to advocate for the increase of the NASA budget to 1% of the federal budget, or one penny of every tax dollar Official website
SpacePAC 2014, United States Political action committee committed to electing pro-space candidates to office. Official website
Alliance for Space Development 2015, United States An alliance of major non-profit space organizations. Official website

Educating and publicizing

Organisations involved in educating the public, to boost their understanding and enthusiasm about space.

Organisation Founded Purpose and goals Website
Canadian Space Society 1983, Canada to sponsor, promote and engage in activities designed to promote increased knowledge of space Official website
National Space Society 1987, United States an organization with the vision of "people living and working in thriving communities beyond the Earth," from the merger of L5 Society and National Space Institute Official website
El Club de los Astronautas 2004, Spain to promote the exploration of space in a wider sense, and to experience the universe Official website
TMRO 2008, United States a multimedia, internet based broadcaster dedicated to getting"...the planet excited about living among the stars." Official website
Space Foundation 1983, United States to advance space-related endeavors to inspire, enable and propel humanity. Official website
Tau Zero Foundation 2004, United States to work together toward practical interstellar flight and to use this quest to teach the about science, technology, and our place in the universe Official website


Organisations that focus on advocating a theory for space exploration or colonization.

Organisation Founded Purpose and goals Website
Alliance to Rescue Civilization devoted to the establishment of an off-Earth "backup" of human civilization Official website
Living Universe Foundation has a detailed plan in which the entire galaxy is colonized. Official website
Red Colony strives to collect and develop theories in Mars colonization and terraformation via contributions and debate from the general public. Official website
The Mars Foundation through its Mars Homestead Project, is developing a unified plan for building the first habitat on Mars by exploiting local materials. Official website
Build the Enterprise theorises the possibility of building a spaceship similar in appearance to the USS Enterprise from Star Trek using current technology within the next two decades. Official website

See also


  1. ^ "Solar System Ambassadors Program". Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  2. ^ "Testimony of Dr. Robert Zubrin to the Senate Commerce Committee, Oct 29, 2003" (PDF). The Mars Society. 2003-10-29. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  3. ^ "Technical Societies Call for Increase to NASA Budget - re> RESTON, Va., June 28". Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  4. ^ "Korolev". Archived from the original on 2017-11-08. Retrieved 2016-02-27. ((cite web)): |archive-date= / |archive-url= timestamp mismatch; 2013-22-00 suggested (help); Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  5. ^ "Biography of Wernher Von Braun". Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  6. ^ "German Civilian Rocketry". Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2007-09-09. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  7. ^ "Space Activism - History". HobbySpace. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  8. ^ "The Space Movement". 2013-03-30. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  9. ^ "Space Exploration Alliance". Space Exploration Alliance. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  10. ^ "The Great Enterprise Initiative". Space Studies Institute. Retrieved 2012-07-09.