gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1
NCBI gene2550
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LocusChr. 6 p21.3
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gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2
Alt. symbolsGPR51
NCBI gene9568
Other data
LocusChr. 9 q22.1-22.3
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GABAB receptors (GABABR) are G-protein coupled receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), therefore making them metabotropic receptors, that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.[1] The changing potassium concentrations hyperpolarize the cell at the end of an action potential. The reversal potential of the GABAB-mediated IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential) is −100 mV, which is much more hyperpolarized than the GABAA IPSP. GABAB receptors are found in the central nervous system and the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system.[2]

The receptors were first named in 1981 when their distribution in the CNS was determined, which was determined by Norman Bowery and his team using radioactively labelled baclofen.[3]


GABABRs stimulate the opening of K+ channels, specifically GIRKs, which brings the neuron closer to the equilibrium potential of K+. This reduces the frequency of action potentials which reduces neurotransmitter release.[citation needed] Thus GABAB receptors are inhibitory receptors.

GABAB receptors also reduces the activity of adenylyl cyclase and Ca2+ channels by using G-proteins with Gi/G0 α subunits.[4]

GABAB receptors are involved in behavioral actions of ethanol,[5][6] gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB),[7] and possibly in pain.[8] Recent research suggests that these receptors may play an important developmental role.[9]

Receptor dimer, inactive apo state, cartoon representation


GABAB Receptors are similar in structure to and in the same receptor family with metabotropic glutamate receptors.[10] There are two subunits of the receptor, GABAB1 and GABAB2,[11] and these appear to assemble as obligate heterodimers in neuronal membranes by linking up by their intracellular C termini.[10] In the mammalian brain, two predominant, differentially expressed isoforms of the GABAB1 are transcribed from the Gabbr1 gene, GABAB(1a) and GABAB(1b), which are conserved in different species including humans.[12] This might potentially offer more complexity in terms of the function due to different composition of the receptor.[12] Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the full length GABAB receptor in different conformational states from inactive apo to fully active have been obtained. Unlike Class A and B GPCRs, phospholipids bind within the transmembrane bundles and allosteric modulators bind at the interface of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]





Positive Allosteric Modulators



See also


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