|, D2DR, D2R, dopamine receptor D2|
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene. After work from Paul Greengard's lab had suggested that dopamine receptors were the site of action of antipsychotic drugs, several groups, including those of Solomon Snyder and Philip Seeman used a radiolabeled antipsychotic drug to identify what is now known as the dopamine D2 receptor. The dopamine D2 receptor is the main receptor for most antipsychotic drugs. The structure of DRD2 in complex with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone has been determined.
This gene encodes the D2 subtype of the dopamine receptor, which is coupled to Gi subtype of G protein-coupled receptor. This G protein-coupled receptor inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity.
In mice, regulation of D2R surface expression by the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) in the dentate gyrus is involved in exploration, synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Studies have shown potential roles for D2R in retrieval of fear memories in the prelimbic cortex and in discrimination learning in the nucleus accumbens.
In flies, activation of the D2 autoreceptor protected dopamine neurons from cell death induced by MPP+, a toxin mimicking Parkinson's disease pathology.
While optimal dopamine levels favor D1R cognitive stabilization, it is the D2R that mediates the cognitive flexibility in humans.
Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms.
The long form (D2Lh) has the "canonical" sequence and functions as a classic post-synaptic receptor. The short form (D2Sh) is pre-synaptic and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates the levels of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. Agonism of D2sh receptors inhibits dopamine release; antagonism increases dopaminergic release. A third D2(Longer) form differs from the canonical sequence where 270V is replaced by VVQ.
D2R conformers are equilibrated between two full active (D2HighR) and inactive (D2LowR) states, while in complex with an agonist and antagonist ligand, respectively.
The monomeric inactive conformer of D2R in binding with risperidone was reported in 2018 (PDB ID: 6CM4). However, the active form which is generally bound to an agonist, is not available yet and in most of the studies the homology modeling of the structure is implemented. The difference between the active and inactive of G protein-coupled receptor is mainly observed as conformational changes at the cytoplasmic half of the structure, particularly at the transmembrane domains (TM) 5 and 6. The conformational transitions occurred at the cytoplasmic ends are due to the coupling of G protein to the cytoplasmic loop between the TM 5 and 6.
It was observed that either D2R agonist or antagonist ligands revealed better binding affinities inside the ligand-binding domain of the active D2R in comparison with the inactive state. It demonstrated that ligand-binding domain of D2R is affected by the conformational changes occurring at the cytoplasmic domains of the TM 5 and 6. In consequence, the D2R activation reflects a positive cooperation on the ligand-binding domain.
In drug discovery studies in order to calculate the binding affinities of the D2R ligands inside the binding domain, it's important to work on which form of D2R. It's known that the full active and inactive states are recommended to be used for the agonist and antagonist studies, respectively.
Any disordering in equilibration of D2R states, which causes problems in signal transferring between the nervous systems, may lead to diverse serious disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism and Parkinson's disease. In order to control these disorders, equilibration between the D2R states is controlled by implementing of agonist and antagonist D2R ligands. In most cases, it was observed that the problems regarding the D2R states may have genetic roots and are controlled by drug therapies. So far, there is no certain treatment for these mental disorders.
There is an orthosteric binding site (OBS), as well as a secondary binding pocket (SBP) on the dopamine 2 receptor, and interaction with the SBP is a requirement for allosteric pharmacology. The compound SB269652 is a negative allosteric modulator of the D2R.
It was observed that D2R exists in dimeric forms or higher order oligomers. There are some experimental and molecular modeling evidences that demonstrated the D2R monomers cross link from their TM 4 and TM 5 to form dimeric conformers.
Some researchers have previously associated the polymorphism Taq 1A (rs1800497) to the DRD2 gene. However, the polymorphism resides in exon 8 of the ANKK1 gene. DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism has been reported to be associated with an increased risk for developing motor fluctuations but not hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. A splice variant in Dopamine receptor D2(rs1076560) was found to be associated with limb truncal Tardive dyskinesia and diminished expression factor of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in schizophrenia subjects.
Most of the older antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol are antagonists for the dopamine D2 receptor, but are, in general, very unselective, at best selective only for the "D2-like family" receptors and so binding to D2, D3 and D4, and often also to many other receptors such as those for serotonin and histamine, resulting in a range of side-effects and making them poor agents for scientific research. In similar manner, older dopamine agonists used for Parkinson's disease such as bromocriptine and cabergoline are poorly selective for one dopamine receptor over another, and, although most of these agents do act as D2 agonists, they affect other subtypes as well. Several selective D2 ligands are, however, now available, and this number is likely to increase as further research progresses.
The dopamine receptor D2 has been shown to interact with EPB41L1, PPP1R9B and NCS-1.
The D2 receptor forms receptor heterodimers in vivo (i.e., in living animals) with other G protein-coupled receptors; these include:
The D2 receptor has been shown to form hetorodimers in vitro (and possibly in vivo) with DRD3, DRD5, and 5-HT2A.
This original observation of TAAR1 and DA D2R interaction has subsequently been confirmed and expanded upon with observations that both receptors can heterodimerize with each other under certain conditions ... Additional DA D2R/TAAR1 interactions with functional consequences are revealed by the results of experiments demonstrating that in addition to the cAMP/PKA pathway (Panas et al., 2012) stimulation of TAAR1-mediated signaling is linked to activation of the Ca++/PKC/NFAT pathway (Panas et al.,2012) and the DA D2R-coupled, G protein-independent AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway (Espinoza et al., 2015; Harmeier et al., 2015), such that concurrent TAAR1 and DA DR2R activation could result in diminished signaling in one pathway (e.g. cAMP/PKA) but retention of signaling through another (e.g., Ca++/PKC/NFA)
Interaction of TAAR1 with D2R altered the subcellular localization of TAAR1 and increased D2R agonist binding affinity.