Clinical data
Trade namesMirapex, Mirapexin, Sifrol, others
License data
Routes of
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding15%
Elimination half-life8–12 hours
ExcretionUrine (90%), Feces (2%)
  • (S)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazole-2,6-diamine
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.124.761 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass211.33 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • n1c2c(sc1N)C[C@@H](NCCC)CC2
  • InChI=1S/C10H17N3S/c1-2-5-12-7-3-4-8-9(6-7)14-10(11)13-8/h7,12H,2-6H2,1H3,(H2,11,13)/t7-/m0/s1 checkY

Pramipexole, sold under the brand Mirapex among others, is medication used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).[6] In Parkinson's disease it may be used alone or together with levodopa.[6] It is taken by mouth.[6] Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class.[6]

Pramipexole was approved for medical use in the United States in 1997.[6] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is of unclear safety.[1] It is available as a generic medication.[7] In 2019, it was the 166th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 3 million prescriptions.[8][9]

Medical uses

Pramipexole is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).[6] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is of unclear safety.[1]

Side effects

Common side effects of pramipexole may include:[10][2][3]


The activity profile of pramipexole at various sites has been characterized as follows:

Activities of pramipexole at various sites[20][21]
Site Affinity (Ki, nM) Efficacy (Emax, %) Action
D2S 3.9 130 Full agonist
D2L 2.2 70 Partial agonist
D3 0.5 70 Partial agonist
D4 5.1 42 Partial agonist
Notes: Pramipexole also possesses lower affinity (500–10,000 nM) for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, and α2-adrenergic receptors.[20][22] It has negligible affinity (>10,000 nM) for the D1, D5, 5-HT2, α1-adrenergic, β-adrenergic, H1, and mACh receptors.[20][22] All sites were assayed using human materials.[20][21]

While pramipexole is used clinically (see below), its D3-preferring receptor binding profile has made it a popular tool compound for preclinical research. For example, pramipexole has been used (in combination with D2- and or D3-preferring antagonists) to discover the role of D3 receptor function in rodent models and tasks for neuropsychiatric disorders.[23] Of note, it appears that pramipexole, in addition to having effects on dopamine D3 receptors, may also affect mitochondrial function via a mechanism that remains less understood. A pharmacological approach to separate dopaminergic from non-dopaminergic (e.g. mitochondrial) effects of pramipexole has been to study the effects of the R-stereoisomer of pramipexole (which has much lower affinity to the dopamine receptors when compared to the S-isomer) side by side with the effects of the S-isomer.[24]

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the substantia nigra, a component of the basal ganglia. The substantia nigra has a high quantity of dopaminergic neurons, which are nerve cells that release the neurotransmitter known as dopamine. When dopamine is released, it may activate dopamine receptors in the striatum, which is another component of the basal ganglia. When neurons of the substantia nigra deteriorate in Parkinson's disease, the striatum no longer properly receives dopamine signals. As a result, the basal ganglia can no longer regulate body movement effectively and motor function becomes impaired. By acting as an agonist for the D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptors, pramipexole may directly stimulate the underfunctioning dopamine receptors in the striatum, thereby restoring the dopamine signals needed for proper functioning of the basal ganglia.

Society and culture

Brand names

Brand names include Mirapex, Mirapex ER, Mirapexin, Sifrol, Glepark, and Oprymea.[citation needed]


Pramipexole has been evaluated for the treatment of sexual dysfunction experienced by some users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants.[25] Pramipexole has shown effects on pilot studies in a placebo-controlled proof of concept study in bipolar disorder.[26][27][28] It is also being investigated for the treatment of clinical depression and fibromyalgia.[29][30][31]


  1. ^ The term "augmentation" has different meanings depending on the context. In the context of the pharmacological management of psychiatric disorders, for example, it means enhancing treatment effects by adding a second drug (or other treatment intervention). In the present context, augmentation has the meaning given above (in the body of the article).


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  3. ^ a b "Mirapex ER- pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet, extended release". DailyMed. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Sifrol EPAR". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  5. ^ "Mirapexin EPAR". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
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  7. ^ British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. pp. 417–418. ISBN 9780857113382.
  8. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". ClinCalc. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  9. ^ "Pramipexole - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  10. ^ "MedlinePlus Drug Information: Pramipexole (Systemic)". United States National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
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  12. ^ Napier, T. Celeste; Kirby, Alana; Persons, Amanda L. (2020). "The role of dopamine pharmacotherapy and addiction-like behaviors in Parkinson's disease". Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 102: 109942. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.109942. PMID 32272129. S2CID 215237629. ... features of ICSDs [impulsive-compulsive spectrum disorders] during D2/D3R treatment are consistent with the pharmacological profile of the drugs, the known role of D2/D3R in these behaviors, and the neuroanatomical substrates of D2/D3R-expressing brain systems of ICSDs as shown by modern human imaging studies. While we pose that D2/D3R agonist treatment is sufficient to mediate ICSDs, there likely are many factors that overlay this profile, e.g., genetic vulnerabilities, brain disease state, and maladaptations to the chronic therapy.
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  16. ^ Winkelmann, Juliane; Allen, Richard P.; Högl, Birgit; Inoue, Yuichi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Salminen, Aaro V.; Winkelman, John W.; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Sampaio, Cristina (2018). "Treatment of restless legs syndrome: Evidence-based review and implications for clinical practice (Revised 2017)§". Movement Disorders. 33 (7): 1077–1091. doi:10.1002/mds.27260. ISSN 1531-8257. PMID 29756335. S2CID 21669996. … the specific goals of the current review were to … separately identify the RLS-specific side effect, which is augmentation.
  17. ^ "Pramipexole Monograph for Professionals". Retrieved 11 December 2020. Augmentation of symptoms of restless legs syndrome (e.g., earlier onset of symptoms in the evening or afternoon, increase in symptoms, spread of symptoms to involve other extremities) reported; incidence increased with increasing duration of pramipexole treatment.
  18. ^ Winkelman, John W.; Armstrong, Melissa J.; Allen, Richard P.; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Ondo, William; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Zee, Phyllis C.; Gronseth, Gary S.; Gloss, David; Zesiewicz, Theresa (2016). "Practice guideline summary: Treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults". Neurology. 87 (24): 2585–2593. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000003388. ISSN 0028-3878. PMC 5206998. PMID 27856776.
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  22. ^ a b Millan MJ, Maiofiss L, Cussac D, Audinot V, Boutin JA, Newman-Tancredi A (November 2002). "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the binding profiles of 14 drugs at 21 native and cloned human receptor subtypes". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 303 (2): 791–804. doi:10.1124/jpet.102.039867. PMID 12388666. S2CID 6200455.
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