Cariprazine
Cariprazine.svg
Cariprazine ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation/kəˌripˈrəzn/
Trade namesVraylar, Reagila
Other namesRGH-188
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
License data
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Drug classAtypical antipsychotic
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityHigh
Protein binding91–97%
MetabolismLiver via CYP3A4 and to a lesser extent CYP2D6
MetabolitesDesmethylcariprazine
Elimination half-life2–5 days (2–3 wks for active metabolite, desmethylcariprazine)
ExcretionUrine (21%), bile
Identifiers
  • N'-[trans-4-[2-[4-(2,3-Dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]cyclohexyl]-N,N-dimethylurea
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H32Cl2N4O
Molar mass427.41 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • CN(C)C(=O)N[C@H]1CC[C@H](CCN2CCN(CC2)c2cccc(Cl)c2Cl)CC1
  • InChI=1S/C21H32Cl2N4O/c1-25(2)21(28)24-17-8-6-16(7-9-17)10-11-26-12-14-27(15-13-26)19-5-3-4-18(22)20(19)23/h3-5,16-17H,6-15H2,1-2H3,(H,24,28)/t16-,17- checkY
  • Key:KPWSJANDNDDRMB-QAQDUYKDSA-N checkY

Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar and Reagila among others, is an atypical antipsychotic originated by Gedeon Richter,[7] which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania,[8] bipolar depression,[9] and major depressive disorder.[5] It acts primarily as a D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, with a preference for the D3 receptor. Cariprazine is also a partial agonist at the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and acts as an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A receptors, with high selectivity for the D3 receptor.[10] It is taken by mouth.[5]

Cariprazine was approved for medical use in the United States in September 2015.[11] It is available as a generic medication.[12]

Medical uses

Cariprazine is used to treat patients with schizophrenia and manic, depressive, or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. In the United States it is approved for schizophrenia in adults, acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adults and treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (bipolar depression).[13][5][14]

Cariprazine consistently improved depressive symptoms across a spectrum of patients with bipolar I depression.[15][16] In Australia, the United Kingdom, and the European Union it is approved only for treating schizophrenia.[4][6][17]

Side effects

Side effects may first appear on the first day after starting cariprazine.[5] The most prevalent side effects for cariprazine include akathisia, and insomnia. Cariprazine does not appear to impact prolactin levels, and unlike many other antipsychotics, does not increase the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG). In short term clinical trials extrapyramidal effects, sedation, akathisia, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, anxiety, and constipation were observed. One review characterized the frequency of these events as "not greatly different from that seen in patient treated with placebo"[18] but a second called the incidence of movement-related disorders "rather high".[19][20]

Regarding these side effects, the label of cariprazine states, "The possibility of lenticular changes or cataracts cannot be excluded at this time."[5]

Because cariprazine and its active metabolites have long half-lives, many healthcare professionals monitor for adverse effects up to several weeks after starting cariprazine. A longer monitoring period is also indicated for dosage changes, whether they represent an increase or a decrease, because elimination may take several weeks.[21]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

See also: Atypical antipsychotic § Pharmacodynamics, and Antipsychotic § Comparison of medications

Cariprazine[22][13][23]
Site Ki (nM) IA (%) Action
5-HT1A 2.6 ~??% Partial agonist
5-HT2A 18.8 Antagonist
5-HT2B 0.58 Antagonist
5-HT2C 134 Inverse agonist
5-HT7 111 Antagonist
α1A 155 Antagonist
D2L 0.49 ~40% Partial agonist
D2S 0.69 ~40% Partial agonist
D3 0.085 ~60% Partial agonist
H1 23.2 Antagonist
mACh >1,000 Antagonist
The smaller the Ki value, the more strongly the drug binds to the site. IA=intrinsic activity.

Unlike many antipsychotics that are D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, cariprazine is a D2 and D3 partial agonist. It also has a higher affinity for D3 receptors. The D2 and D3 receptors are important targets for the treatment of schizophrenia, because the overstimulation of dopamine receptors has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia.[24] Cariprazine acts to inhibit overstimulated dopamine receptors (acting as an antagonist) and stimulate the same receptors when the endogenous dopamine levels are low. Cariprazine's high selectivity towards D3 receptors could prove to reduce side effects associated with the other antipsychotic drugs, because D3 receptors are mainly located in the ventral striatum and would not incur the same motor side effects (extrapyramidal symptoms) as drugs that act on dorsal striatum dopamine receptors.[25] Cariprazine also acts on 5-HT1A receptors, though the affinity is considerably lower than the affinity to dopamine receptors (seen in monkey and rat brain studies).[25][26] In the same studies, cariprazine has been noted to produce pro-cognitive effects, the mechanisms of which are currently under investigation. An example of pro-cognitive effects occurred in pre-clinical trials with rats: rats with cariprazine performed better in a scopolamine-induced learning impairment paradigm in a water labyrinth test. This may be due to the selective antagonist nature of D3 receptors, though further studies need to be conducted.[25] This result could be very useful for schizophrenia, as one of the symptoms includes cognitive deficits.

Cariprazine has partial agonist as well as antagonist properties depending on the endogenous dopamine levels. When endogenous dopamine levels are high (as is hypothesized in schizophrenic patients), cariprazine acts as an antagonist by blocking dopamine receptors. When endogenous dopamine levels are low, cariprazine acts more as an agonist, increasing dopamine receptor activity.[27] In monkey studies, the administration of increasing doses of cariprazine resulted in a dose-dependent and saturable reduction of specific binding. At the highest dose (300 μg/kg), the D2/D3 receptors were 94% occupied, while at the lowest dose (1 μg/kg), receptors were 5% occupied.[26] Dopamine D2 and D3 receptor occupancy in humans has been summarized as, "In healthy volunteers, single-dose cariprazine of 0.5 mg occupied up to 12% of striatal D2/D3 receptors, while striatal D2/D3 occupancy after multiple dosing up to cariprazine 1.0 mg/d ranged from 63 to 79% [39]. In an open-label, fixed-dose, 2-week trial in eight males with schizophrenia, PET scans of dorsal striatal regions (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) showed maximum occupancy (‡ 90%) at a 3-mg target dose of cariprazine following 14 d of treatment [40,41]. After 14 d of cariprazine 1.5 mg/d, receptor occupancy was 69% in the caudate nucleus, 69% in the nucleus accumbens, and 75% in the putamen".[27]

Mechanism of cariprazine action as antagonist or agonist.
Mechanism of cariprazine action as antagonist or agonist.

Pharmacokinetics

Cariprazine has high oral bioavailability and can cross the blood brain barrier easily in humans because it is lipophilic.[28] In rats, the oral bioavailability was 52% (with a dose of 1 mg/kg).[20]

Cariprazine is metabolized primarily by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme (CYP3A4), with some minor metabolism by CYP2D6. Cariprazine does not induce the production of CYP3A4 or CYP1A2 in the liver, and weakly, competitively inhibits CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.[13]

Research

Positive Phase III study results were published for schizophrenia and mania in early 2012, and for bipolar disorder I depression from a Phase II trial in 2015.[29][28]

Cariprazine is also potentially useful as an add-on therapy in major depressive disorder.[30] It is being developed jointly by AbbVie and Gedeon Richter Plc, with AbbVie responsible for commercialization in the U.S., Canada, Japan, Taiwan and certain Latin American countries (including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela). In February 2022, AbbVie requested approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder.[31] Approval was granted by the FDA in December 2022, for cariprazine to be used as an adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder.[32]

References

  1. ^ a b https://www.tga.gov.au/resources/auspar/auspar-cariprazine-hydrochloride
  2. ^ "Vraylar Product information". Health Canada. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  3. ^ "Summary Basis of Decision - Vraylar". Health Canada. 26 August 2022. Archived from the original on 29 September 2022. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Reagila 1.5 mg hard capsules - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 9 August 2018. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Vraylar- cariprazine capsule, gelatin coated Vraylar- cariprazine kit". DailyMed. 18 May 2019. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Reagila EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  7. ^ Laszlovszky, István; Barabássy, Ágota; Németh, György (2021). "Cariprazine, A Broad-Spectrum Antipsychotic for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Pharmacology, Efficacy, and Safety". Advances in Therapy. 38 (7): 3652–3673. doi:10.1007/s12325-021-01797-5. ISSN 1865-8652. PMC 8279990. PMID 34091867.
  8. ^ Agai-Csongor E; Domány G; Nógrádi K; Schmidt E; Galambos J; Vágó I; Keserű GM; Greiner I; Laszlovszky I; Gere A; Schmidt E; Kiss B; Vastag M; Tihanyi K; Sághy K; Laszy J; Gyertyán I; Zájer-Balázs M; Gémesi L; Kapás M; Szombathelyi Z (2012). "Discovery of cariprazine (RGH-188): a novel antipsychotic acting on dopamine D3/D2 receptors". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22 (10): 3437–3440. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.03.104. PMID 22537450.
  9. ^ Earley W1; Burgess MV1; Rekeda L1; Dickinson R1; Szatmári B1; Németh G1; McIntyre RS1; Sachs GS1; Yatham LN1 (2019). "Cariprazine Treatment of Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Study". American Journal of Psychiatry. 176 (6): 439–448. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18070824. PMID 30845817.
  10. ^ Kiss B; Horváth A; Némethy Z; Schmidt E; Laszlovszky I; Bugovics G; Fazekas K; Hornok K; Orosz S; Gyertyán I; Agai-Csongor E; Domány G; Tihanyi K; Adham N; Szombathelyi Z (2010). "Cariprazine (RGH-188), a dopamine D(3) receptor-preferring, D(3)/D(2) dopamine receptor antagonist-partial agonist antipsychotic candidate: in vitro and neurochemical profile". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 333 (1): 328–340. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160432. PMID 20093397. S2CID 42933132.
  11. ^ "FDA approves new drug to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 17 September 2015. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  12. ^ "First Generic Drug Approvals". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 17 October 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  13. ^ a b c Citrome, L (February 2013). "Cariprazine: chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability". Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. 9 (2): 193–206. doi:10.1517/17425255.2013.759211. PMID 23320989. S2CID 36750662.
  14. ^ Do, André; Keramatian, Kamyar; Schaffer, Ayal; Yatham, Lakshmi (2021). "Cariprazine in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: Within and Beyond Clinical Trials". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 12: 769897. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.769897. ISSN 1664-0640. PMC 8712443. PMID 34970166.
  15. ^ Patel, Mehul; Jain, Rakesh; Tohen, Mauricio; Maletic, Vladimir; Earley, Willie R.; Yatham, Lakshmi N. (1 March 2021). "Efficacy of cariprazine in bipolar I depression across patient characteristics: a post hoc analysis of pooled randomized, placebo-controlled studies". International Clinical Psychopharmacology. 36 (2): 76–83. doi:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000344. ISSN 1473-5857. PMC 7846289. PMID 33230026.
  16. ^ Tohen, Mauricio (2021). "Cariprazine as a Treatment Option for Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar 1 Disorder in Adults: An Evidence-Based Review of Recent Data". Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 15: 2005–2012. doi:10.2147/DDDT.S240860. ISSN 1177-8881. PMC 8126799. PMID 34012253.
  17. ^ "Cariprazine hydrochloride for schizophrenia". Australian Prescriber. 44 (5): 170–171. 2021. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2021.047. PMC 8542486. PMID 34728883.
  18. ^ Citrome L (February 2013). "Cariprazine in schizophrenia: clinical efficacy, tolerability, and place in therapy". Adv Ther. 30 (2): 114–26. doi:10.1007/s12325-013-0006-7. PMID 23361833.
  19. ^ Veselinović T, Paulzen M, Gründer G (November 2013). "Cariprazine, a new, orally active dopamine D2/3 receptor partial agonist for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania and depression". Expert Rev Neurother. 13 (11): 1141–59. doi:10.1586/14737175.2013.853448. PMID 24175719. S2CID 23557344.
  20. ^ a b Newman-Tancredi, A.; Kleven, MS. (August 2011). "Comparative pharmacology of antipsychotics possessing combined dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor properties". Psychopharmacology. 216 (4): 451–73. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2247-y. PMID 21394633. S2CID 5835943.
  21. ^ Stahl, Stephen M., ed. (2020), "Cariprazine", Prescriber's Guide: Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology (7 ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 137–146, doi:10.1017/9781108921275.024, ISBN 978-1-108-92601-0, retrieved 11 October 2022
  22. ^ Roth, BL; Driscol, J. "PDSP Ki Database". Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  23. ^ Herman, Anna; El Mansari, Mostafa; Adham, Nika; Kiss, Béla; Farkas, Bence; Blier, Pierre (December 2018). "Involvement of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptors but Not α 2-Adrenoceptors in the Acute Electrophysiological Effects of Cariprazine in the Rat Brain In Vivo". Molecular Pharmacology. 94 (6): 1363–1370. doi:10.1124/mol.118.113290. ISSN 1521-0111. PMID 30322874. S2CID 53096758.
  24. ^ Seeman, P.; Kapur, S. (July 2000). "Schizophrenia: more dopamine, more D2 receptors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (14): 7673–5. Bibcode:2000PNAS...97.7673S. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.14.7673. PMC 33999. PMID 10884398.
  25. ^ a b c Gyertyán, I.; Kiss, B.; Sághy, K.; Laszy, J.; Szabó, G.; Szabados, T.; Gémesi, LI.; Pásztor, G.; et al. (November 2011). "Cariprazine (RGH-188), a potent D3/D2 dopamine receptor partial agonist, binds to dopamine D3 receptors in vivo and shows antipsychotic-like and procognitive effects in rodents". Neurochemistry International. 59 (6): 925–35. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2011.07.002. PMID 21767587. S2CID 140205658.
  26. ^ a b Seneca, N.; Finnema, SJ.; Laszlovszky, I.; Kiss, B.; Horváth, A.; Pásztor, G.; Kapás, M.; Gyertyán, I.; et al. (December 2011). "Occupancy of dopamine D2 and D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors by the novel antipsychotic drug candidate, cariprazine (RGH-188), in monkey brain measured using positron emission tomography". Psychopharmacology. 218 (3): 579–87. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2343-z. PMC 3210913. PMID 21625907.
  27. ^ a b Citrome, L (February 2013). "Cariprazine in Schizophrenia: Clinical Efficacy, Tolerability, and Place in Therapy". Advances in Therapy. 30 (2): 114–126. doi:10.1007/s12325-013-0006-7. PMID 23361833.
  28. ^ a b Gründer G (2010). "Cariprazine, an orally active D2/D3 receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania and depression". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 11 (7): 823–832. PMID 20571978.
  29. ^ Durgam, Suresh; Earley, Willie; Lipschitz, Alan; Guo, Hua; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György; Vieta, Eduard; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Yatham, Lakshmi N. (2016). "An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Cariprazine in Patients with Bipolar I Depression". American Journal of Psychiatry. 173 (3): 271–281. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15020164. PMID 26541814.
  30. ^ "Safety and Efficacy of Cariprazine As Adjunctive Therapy In Major Depressive Disorder". ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  31. ^ "AbbVie Submits Supplemental New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for cariprazine (major depressive disorder) for the Adjunctive Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder". AbbVie (Press release). Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  32. ^ "U.S. FDA Approves Vraylar (cariprazine) as an Adjunctive Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder" (Press release). AbbVie. 16 December 2022. Retrieved 3 January 2023 – via PR Newswire.