Ergotamine
Clinical data
Trade namesErgomar, others
Other names2'-Methyl-5'α-benzyl-12'-hydroxy-3',6',18-trioxoergotaman; 9,10α-Dihydro-12'-hydroxy-2'-methyl-5'α-(phenylmethyl)ergotaman-3',6',18-trione
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
License data
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityIntravenous: 100%,[6]
Intramuscular: 47%,[7]
Oral: <1%[8] (Enhanced by co-administration of caffeine[6])
MetabolismLiver[7]
Elimination half-life2 hours[7]
Excretion90% Bile duct[7]
Identifiers
  • (6aR,9R)-N-((2R,5S,10aS,10bS)-5-Benzyl-10b-hydroxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxooctahydro-2H-oxazolo[3,2-a]pyrrolo[2,1-c]pyrazin-2-yl)-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.003.658 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC33H35N5O5
Molar mass581.673 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • C[C@@]1(C(=O)N2[C@H](C(=O)N3CCC[C@H]3[C@@]2(O1)O)CC4=CC=CC=C4)NC(=O)[C@H]5CN([C@@H]6CC7=CNC8=CC=CC(=C78)C6=C5)C
  • InChI=1S/C33H35N5O5/c1-32(35-29(39)21-15-23-22-10-6-11-24-28(22)20(17-34-24)16-25(23)36(2)18-21)31(41)38-26(14-19-8-4-3-5-9-19)30(40)37-13-7-12-27(37)33(38,42)43-32/h3-6,8-11,15,17,21,25-27,34,42H,7,12-14,16,18H2,1-2H3,(H,35,39)/t21-,25-,26+,27+,32-,33+/m1/s1 checkY
  • Key:XCGSFFUVFURLIX-VFGNJEKYSA-N checkY
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Ergotamine, sold under the brand name Ergomar among others, is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.[9] It is structurally similar to several neurotransmitters, and it acts as a vasoconstrictor. It is used for acute migraines, sometimes with caffeine as the combination ergotamine/caffeine.[10][11]

Medicinal use of ergot fungus began in the 16th century, for the induction of childbirth; but dosage uncertainty discouraged its use. It has been used to prevent post-partum hemorrhage (bleeding after childbirth). It was first isolated from the ergot fungus by Arthur Stoll, at Sandoz in 1918, and was marketed as Gynergen in 1921.[12]

Medical uses

Ergotamine is indicated as therapy to abort or prevent vascular headache.[2][13]

Availability

Ergotamine is available as a suppository and as a tablet, sometimes in combination with caffeine.[2][5][10][11]

Contraindications

Contraindications include: atherosclerosis, Buerger's syndrome, coronary artery disease, hepatic disease, pregnancy, pruritus, Raynaud's syndrome, and renal disease.[14] It's also contraindicated if patient is taking macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), certain HIV protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, nelfinavir, indinavir), certain azole antifungals (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole) delavirdine, efavirenz, or a 5-HT1 receptor agonist (e.g., sumatriptan).[15]

Side effects

Side effects of ergotamine include nausea and vomiting. At higher doses, it can cause raised arterial blood pressure, vasoconstriction (including coronary vasospasm) and bradycardia or tachycardia. Severe vasoconstriction may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication.[16][13]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Ergotamine interacts with serotonin, adrenergic, and dopamine receptors.[17][18] It is an agonist of serotonin receptors including the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 subtypes.[17] Ergotamine is an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor and has been associated with cardiac valvulopathy.[19] Despite acting as a potent 5-HT2A receptor agonist, ergotamine is said to be non-hallucinogenic similarly to lisuride.[20][21] This is thought to be due to functional selectivity at the 5-HT2A receptor.[20][21]

Activities of ergotamine at various sites[18][22][23][24][25]
Site Affinity (Ki/IC50 [nM]) Efficacy (Emax [%]) Action
5-HT1A 0.17–0.3 ? Full agonist
5-HT1B 0.3–4.7 ? Agonist
5-HT1D 0.3–6.0 ? Agonist
5-HT1E 19–840 ? ?
5-HT1F 170–171 ? ?
5-HT2A 0.64–0.97 ? Full agonist
5-HT2B 1.3–45 ? Partial agonist
5-HT2C 1.9–9.8 ? Partial agonist
5-HT3 >10,000
5-HT4 65 ? ?
5-HT5A 14 ? Agonist
5-HT5B 3.2–16 ? ?
5-HT6 12 ? ?
5-HT7 1,291 ? Agonist
α1A 15–>10,000
α1B 12–>10,000
α1D ? ? ?
α2A 106 ? ?
α2B 88 ? ?
α2C >10,000
β1 >10,000
β2 >10,000
D1 >10,000
D2 4.0–>10,000 Agonist
D3 3.2–>10,000
D4 12–>10,000
D5 170 ? ?
H1 >10,000
H2 >10,000
M1 862 ? ?
M2 911 ? ?
M3 >10,000
M4 >10,000
M5 >10,000
Notes: All receptors are human except 5-HT5A (mouse/rat) and 5-HT5B (mouse/rat—no human counterpart).[18] No affinity for histamine H1 or H2, cannabinoid CB1, GABA, glutamate, or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, nor the monoamine transporters (all >10,000 nM).[18]

Pharmacokinetics

The bioavailability of ergotamine is around 2% orally, 6% rectally, and 100% by intramuscular or intravenous injection.[17] The low oral and rectal bioavailability is due to low gastrointestinal absorption and high first-pass metabolism.[17]

Biosynthesis

Ergotamine is a secondary metabolite (natural product) and the principal alkaloid produced by the ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and related fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae.[26][unreliable medical source?] Its biosynthesis in these fungi requires the amino acid L-tryptophan and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. These precursor compounds are the substrates for the enzyme, tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase, catalyzing the first step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, i.e., the prenylation of L-tryptophan. Further reactions, involving methyltransferase and oxygenase enzymes, yield the ergoline, lysergic acid. Lysergic acid (LA) is the substrate of lysergyl peptide synthetase, a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, which covalently links LA to the amino acids, L-alanine, L-proline, and L-phenylalanine. Enzyme-catalyzed or spontaneous cyclizations, oxygenations/oxidations, and isomerizations at selected residues precede, and give rise to, formation of ergotamine.[27]

Society and culture

Legal status

Ergotamine is a List I regulated chemical in the United States.[28]

References

  1. ^ "Prescribing medicines in pregnancy database". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 21 June 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  2. ^ a b c d "Ergomar- ergotamine tartrate tablet, orally disintegrating". DailyMed. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  3. ^ "Ergotamine (Ergomar) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 6 May 2024. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  4. ^ Anvisa (31 March 2023). "RDC Nº 784 - Listas de Substâncias Entorpecentes, Psicotrópicas, Precursoras e Outras sob Controle Especial" [Collegiate Board Resolution No. 784 - Lists of Narcotic, Psychotropic, Precursor, and Other Substances under Special Control] (in Brazilian Portuguese). Diário Oficial da União (published 4 April 2023). Archived from the original on 3 August 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  5. ^ a b "Ergomar sublingual- ergotamine tartrate tablet". DailyMed. 25 October 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  6. ^ a b Sanders SW, Haering N, Mosberg H, Jaeger H (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of ergotamine in healthy volunteers following oral and rectal dosing". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 30 (3): 331–334. doi:10.1007/BF00541538. PMID 3732370. S2CID 37538721.
  7. ^ a b c d Tfelt-Hansen P, Johnson ES (1993). "Ergotamine". In Olesen J, Tfelt-Hansen P, Welch KM (eds.). The Headaches. New York: Raven Press. pp. 313–22.
  8. ^ Ibraheem JJ, Paalzow L, Tfelt-Hansen P (December 1983). "Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in migraine sufferers". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 16 (6): 695–699. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1983.tb02243.x. PMC 1428366. PMID 6419759.
  9. ^ Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. 2000. pp. 397–. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  10. ^ a b "Cafergot- ergotamine tartrate and caffeine tablet, film coated". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014.
  11. ^ a b "Migergot- ergotamine tartrate and caffeine suppository". DailyMed. 29 November 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  12. ^ A. J. Giannini, A. E. Slaby. Drugs of Abuse. Oradell, New Jersey: Medical Economics Books, 1989.
  13. ^ a b Zajdel P, Bednarski M, Sapa J, Nowak G (April 2015). "Ergotamine and nicergoline - facts and myths". Pharmacological Reports. 67 (2): 360–363. doi:10.1016/j.pharep.2014.10.010. PMID 25712664. S2CID 22768662.
  14. ^ Giannini AJ (1986). Biological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry. Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics Publishing Co.
  15. ^ "Ergotamine: Indications, Side Effects, Warnings". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  16. ^ "Medihaler Ergotamine". drugs.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d Ramírez Rosas MB, Labruijere S, Villalón CM, Maassen Vandenbrink A (August 2013). "Activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine1B/1D/1F receptors as a mechanism of action of antimigraine drugs". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 14 (12): 1599–1610. doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.806487. PMID 23815106. S2CID 22721405.
  18. ^ a b c d PDSP Database – UNC
  19. ^ Cavero I, Guillon JM (2014). "Safety Pharmacology assessment of drugs with biased 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism mediating cardiac valvulopathy". Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 69 (2): 150–161. doi:10.1016/j.vascn.2013.12.004. PMID 24361689.
  20. ^ a b Karaki S, Becamel C, Murat S, Mannoury la Cour C, Millan MJ, Prézeau L, et al. (May 2014). "Quantitative phosphoproteomics unravels biased phosphorylation of serotonin 2A receptor at Ser280 by hallucinogenic versus nonhallucinogenic agonists". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 13 (5): 1273–1285. doi:10.1074/mcp.M113.036558. PMC 4014284. PMID 24637012.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: overridden setting (link)
  21. ^ a b Hanks J, González-Maeso J (2016). "Molecular and Cellular Basis of Hallucinogen Action". In Preedy VR (ed.). Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse. Vol. 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects. pp. 803–812. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800212-4.00075-3. ISBN 978-0-12-800212-4.
  22. ^ Silberstein SD, McCrory DC (February 2003). "Ergotamine and dihydroergotamine: history, pharmacology, and efficacy". Headache. 43 (2): 144–166. doi:10.1046/j.1526-4610.2003.03034.x. PMID 12558771. S2CID 21356727.
  23. ^ Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Savage JE, Rauser L, McBride A, Hufeisen SJ, et al. (December 2000). "Evidence for possible involvement of 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiac valvulopathy associated with fenfluramine and other serotonergic medications". Circulation. 102 (23): 2836–2841. doi:10.1161/01.cir.102.23.2836. PMID 11104741.
  24. ^ Rubio-Beltrán E, Labastida-Ramírez A, Haanes KA, van den Bogaerdt A, Bogers AJ, Zanelli E, et al. (December 2019). "Characterization of binding, functional activity, and contractile responses of the selective 5-HT1F receptor agonist lasmiditan". British Journal of Pharmacology. 176 (24): 4681–4695. doi:10.1111/bph.14832. PMC 6965684. PMID 31418454.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: overridden setting (link)
  25. ^ Pytliak M, Vargová V, Mechírová V, Felšöci M (2011). "Serotonin receptors - from molecular biology to clinical applications". Physiological Research. 60 (1): 15–25. doi:10.33549/physiolres.931903. PMID 20945968.
  26. ^ "Pharmacognosy of Ergot (Argot or St. Anthony's Fire)". pharmaxchange.info. 30 December 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
  27. ^ Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P (2006). "Chapter 2 Ergot Alkaloids – Biology and Molecular Biology". The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology. Vol. 63. pp. 45–86. doi:10.1016/S1099-4831(06)63002-2. ISBN 978-0-12-469563-4. PMID 17133714.
  28. ^ "Lists of: Scheduling Actions, Controlled Substances, Regulated Chemicals" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration, Diversion Control Division, Drug & Chemical Evaluation Section. U.S. Department of Justice. February 2020.