Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
  • 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-phenethylamine
  • 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine
  • LE-25
3D model (JSmol)
  • InChI=1S/C11H17NO2/c1-8-6-11(14-3)9(4-5-12)7-10(8)13-2/h6-7H,4-5,12H2,1-3H3 checkY
  • InChI=1/C11H17NO2/c1-8-6-11(14-3)9(4-5-12)7-10(8)13-2/h6-7H,4-5,12H2,1-3H3
  • O(c1cc(c(OC)cc1CCN)C)C
Molar mass 195.262 g·mol−1
Melting point 213 to 214 °C (415 to 417 °F; 486 to 487 K) (hydrochloride)
Legal status
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

2C-D (2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine or 2C-M) is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family that is sometimes used as an entheogen. It was first synthesized in 1970 by a team from the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences,[1] and its activity was subsequently investigated in humans by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL, Shulgin lists the dosage range as being from 20 to 60 mg.[2] Lower doses of 10 mg or less have been explored for microdosing.[3]

Not much information is known about the toxicity of 2C-D, as no major studies have been conducted. According to Shulgin, the effects of 2C-D typically last for 4–6 hours.[2] Shulgin himself referred to this substance as a “pharmacological tofu,” meaning that when mixed with other substances, it can extend or potentiate their effects without coloring the experience too much, in a manner similar to how tofu absorbs the flavors of sauces or spices it is cooked with. Hanscarl Leuner, working in Germany, explored the use of 2C-D under the name LE-25 in psychotherapeutic research.[citation needed]

Drug prohibition laws


As of October 2015 2C-D is a controlled substance in China.[4]


As of October 31, 2016; 2C-D is a controlled substance (Schedule III) in Canada.[5]


2C-D is added to the list of Schedule B controlled substances.[6]


Listed in the government decree on psychoactive substances banned from the consumer market.[7][8]


2C-D is an Anlage I controlled drug.


Sveriges riksdags health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut [sv] classified 2C-D as "health hazard" under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor [sv] (Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of Mar 1, 2005, in their regulation SFS 2005:26 listed as "2,5-dimetoxi-4-metylfenetylamin (2C-D)", making it illegal to sell or possess.[9]

United States

2C-D became a Schedule I Controlled Substance in the United States as of July 9, 2012, with the signing of Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act.[10] On a state level, both Oklahoma and Pennsylvania list 2C-D under schedule I.


  1. ^ Ho BT, Tansey LW, Balster RL, An R, McIsaac WM, Harris RT (January 1970). "Amphetamine analogs. II. Methylated phenethylamines". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (1): 134–5. doi:10.1021/jm00295a034. PMID 5412084.
  2. ^ a b 2C-D Entry in PiHKAL
  3. ^ Nez, Hosteen (2015). "Erowid 2C-D Vault : Smart Pills". www.erowid.org. Archived from the original on 2001-07-09. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  4. ^ "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Canada Gazette – Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Part J — 2C-phenethylamines)". 4 May 2016.
  6. ^ "Retsinformation".
  7. ^ "FINLEX ® - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: Valtioneuvoston asetus kuluttajamarkkinoilta… 1130/2014".
  8. ^ "FINLEX ® - Säädökset alkuperäisinä: Valtioneuvoston asetus kuluttajamarkkinoilta… 733/2021".
  9. ^ Johansson, Morgan. "Svensk författningssamling" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  10. ^ "S. 3187". Archived from the original on 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2012-07-11.