Oxilofrine
Oxilofrin Structural Formulae V.1.svg
Clinical data
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: uncontrolled
Identifiers
  • (1S*,2R*)-(±)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-methylamino-propyl)phenol
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.006.067 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC10H15NO2
Molar mass181.235 g·mol−1
  • InChI=1S/C10H15NO2/c1-7(11-2)10(13)8-3-5-9(12)6-4-8/h3-7,10-13H,1-2H3 checkY
  • Key:OXFGTKPPFSCSMA-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Oxilofrine (also known as methylsynephrine, hydroxyephrine, oxyephrine, and 4-HMP) is a stimulant drug[1] and is an amphetamine chemically related to ephedrine and to synephrine.

Oxilofrine is currently a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited substance when used in competition.[2] It has been found as an adulterant in some dietary supplements.[3][4] Even after receiving warning letters from the FDA,[5] some sports and weight loss supplement companies continue to use oxilofrine as an undeclared ingredient in their products despite it being prohibited.[6]

History

Oxilofrine was originally developed in the 1930s as a cardiac stimulant. Trade names included Suprifen (Bayer) and, combined with an adenosine-containing standardized organ extract, Carnigen (Hoechst AG).[3]

In combination with normethadone, it was marketed as a cough suppressant under the trade name Ticarda. As of 2021, this formulation was still manufactured in Canada by Valeant and sold as Cophylac.[7]

Several other stimulants and vasodilators were developed as chemical derivatives of oxilofrine, such as buphenine.[8][9]

Society and culture

Several doping cases involving oxilofrine have been publicized, including:

References

  1. ^ Fourcroy JL (2008). Pharmacology, doping and sports: a scientific guide for athletes, coaches, physicians, scientists and administrators. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-42845-3.
  2. ^ "Substances Prohibited In-Competition". WADA. Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
  3. ^ a b Cohen PA, Avula B, Venhuis B, Travis JC, Wang YH, Khan IA (January 2017). "Pharmaceutical doses of the banned stimulant oxilofrine found in dietary supplements sold in the USA". Drug Testing and Analysis. 9 (1): 135–142. doi:10.1002/dta.1976. PMID 27062112.
  4. ^ Zovko Končić M (April 2018). "Getting More Than You Paid For: Unauthorized "Natural" Substances in Herbal Food Supplements on EU Market". Planta Medica. 84 (6–07): 394–406. doi:10.1055/s-0044-100042. PMID 29341031.
  5. ^ "Products & Ingredients - Methylsynephrine in Dietary Supplements". Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 22 October 2020.
  6. ^ Cohen PA, Wen A, Gerona R (December 2018). "Prohibited Stimulants in Dietary Supplements After Enforcement Action by the US Food and Drug Administration". JAMA Internal Medicine. 178 (12): 1721–1723. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4846. PMC 6583602. PMID 30422217.
  7. ^ "Prescribing Information Including Patient Medication Information – Cophylac® Drops" (PDF). Valeant Canada. 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  8. ^ Külz F, Schneider M (1950). "Über neue gefäßerweiternde Sympathomimetika" [On new vasodilating sympathomimetics]. Klin Wochenschr (in German). 28 (31–32): 535–7. doi:10.1007/BF01481535. PMID 14775050.
  9. ^ Freedman L (1955). "Arlidin: a new vasodilative sympathomimetic drug". Angiology. 6 (1): 52–8. doi:10.1177/000331975500600106. PMID 14350296. S2CID 46317963.
  10. ^ Pelkey C (2010-04-13). "Oliveira suspended for two years". Velonews. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
  11. ^ Pelkey C (2011-02-24). "Court of Arbitration for Sport reduces Flavia Oliveira suspension". Velonews. Archived from the original on 2015-12-23.
  12. ^ "Dính doping, lực sỹ Hoàng Anh Tuấn bị cấm thi đấu 2 năm". dantri.com.vn.
  13. ^ "Jamaicans Powell, Simpson test positive - SuperSport - Athletics". SuperSport. Reuters. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
  14. ^ "Jamaican Sprinter Asafa Powell slapped 18-month ban for doping". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  15. ^ "Asafa Powell banned for 18 months for doping". BBC Sport. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 9 May 2014.
  16. ^ "Jamaican sprinters Asafa Powell and Sherone Simpson have doping bans cut". The Guardian. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  17. ^ Wild D (16 July 2015). "Red Sox No. 10 prospect Kopech suspended". MiLB.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  18. ^ Worsell E (12 October 2018). "The ins and outs of Billy Joe Saunders, oxilofrine and VADA". Boxing News.