Skeletal formula
Space-filling model
Clinical data
Other namesTozalinone, Thozalinon
Routes of
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
  • (RS)-2-(Dimethylamino)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4(5H)-one
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass204.229 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
ChiralityRacemic mixture
  • O=C2\N=C(/OC2c1ccccc1)N(C)C
  • InChI=1S/C11H12N2O2/c1-13(2)11-12-10(14)9(15-11)8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h3-7,9H,1-2H3 checkY
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Thozalinone (USAN) (brand name Stimsen; former developmental code name CL-39808) is a psychostimulant that has been used as an antidepressant in Europe.[1][2][3][4][5] It has also been trialed as an anorectic.[6] Thozalinone is described as a "dopaminergic stimulant",[7] and likely acts via inducing the release of dopamine and to a minimal extent norepinephrine; similar to analogue pemoline, it is reportedly devoid of abuse potential unlike other dopaminergic psychostimulants.[2][7][8]


Synthesis: [9][10]

Sodium hydride is used as a strong base to abstract the alcohol proton in ethyl mandelate [774-40-3] (1); addition of the oxyanion to dimethylcyanamide [1467-79-4] gives the intermediate (2). Intramolecular cyclization then occurs giving Thozalinone (3).


See also


  1. ^ Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 435–. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  2. ^ a b Greenblatt EN, Osterberg AC (July 1965). "Some pharmacologic properties of thozalinone, a new excitant". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 7 (4): 566–78. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(65)90042-6. PMID 4378772.
  3. ^ Dictionary of organic compounds. London: Chapman & Hall. 1996. ISBN 0-412-54090-8. Archived from the original on 2021-05-31. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  4. ^ Merck index on CD-ROM: Windows. London: Chapman & Hall EPD. 1998. ISBN 0-412-82910-X.
  5. ^ Gallant DM, Bishop MP, Scrignar CB, Hornsby L, Moore B, Inturrisi BB (December 1966). "A double-blind study of thozalinone (C1 39,808) in depressed outpatients". Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental. 8 (12): 621–2. PMID 4962734.
  6. ^ Leite AC, Liepen LL, Costa VP (September 1971). "[Clinical trial of Stimsem Thozalinone in the treatment of obese patients]". Revista Brasileira de Medicina (in Portuguese). 28 (9): 475–8. PMID 5139648.
  7. ^ a b Yen-Koo HC, Balazs T (1980). "Detection of dopaminergic supersensitivity induced by neuroleptic drugs in mice". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 3 (2): 237–47. doi:10.3109/01480548009108286. PMID 6112126.
  8. ^ Yen-Koo HC, Davis DA, Balazs T (1985). "Inhibition of dopaminergic agonist-induced gnawing behavior by neuroleptic drugs in mice". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 8 (6): 495–502. doi:10.3109/01480548509041072. PMID 2868876.
  9. ^ Howell CF, Quinones NQ, Hardy Jr RA (May 1962). "2-Amino-2-oxazolin-4-ones. I. Synthesis". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 27 (5): 1679–1685. doi:10.1021/jo01052a047.
  10. ^ Lindberg UH, Pedersen J (February 1968). "Compounds related to pemoline. 2-amino-5-aryl-4-oxo-2-oxazolines". Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica. 5 (1): 15–22. PMID 4386169.
  11. ^ Bernstein BM, Latimer CN (1968). "Behavioral facilitation: The interaction of imipramine and desipramine with amphetamine, alpha-pipradrol, methylphenidate, and thozalinone". Psychopharmacologia. 12 (4): 338–345. doi:10.1007/BF00401412. PMID 4385109. S2CID 31096140.