Guilford, Connecticut
Town of Guilford
Guilford Square
Guilford Square
Official seal of Guilford, Connecticut
"Discover A Piece Of Connecticut History"[1]
Coordinates: 41°17′N 72°41′W / 41.283°N 72.683°W / 41.283; -72.683
Country United States
U.S. state Connecticut
CountyNew Haven
RegionSouth Central CT
SettledMay 19, 1639
EstablishedOctober 15, 1644
Named forGuildford, Surrey
 • TypeSelectman-town meeting
 • First selectmanMatthew T. Hoey III (D)[2]
 • SelectmanLouis Federici (D)
 • SelectmanSandra Ruoff (D)
 • SelectmanCharles Havrda (R)
 • SelectmanSusan Renner (R)
 • Total49.7 sq mi (128.7 km2)
 • Land47.1 sq mi (121.9 km2)
 • Water2.7 sq mi (6.9 km2)
56 ft (17 m)
 • Total22,073
 • Density440/sq mi (170/km2)
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Code
Area code(s)203/475
FIPS code09-34950
GNIS feature ID0213438

Guilford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, that borders Madison, Branford, North Branford and Durham, and is situated on I-95 and the Connecticut coast. The town is part of the South Central Connecticut Planning Region. The population was 22,073 at the 2020 census.[3]


Guilford, c. 1900

Guilford was named after the town of Guildford, in England,[4] the native home of a share of its first settlers.[5] In early maps of the Connecticut Colony, the town is seen on several maps as Gilford.

First settled by Europeans in 1639 after a treaty with the “Sachem Squaw” Shaumpishuh. Guilford is considered by some to have the third largest collection of historic homes in New England, with important buildings from the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.[6] There are five historic house museums, including Dudley Farm and the Henry Whitfield House (1639), the oldest dwelling house in Connecticut and the oldest stone house built by English settlers in North America. The Comfort Starr House (1695) is one of the oldest wooden framed private dwellings in Connecticut, and one of the few houses remaining of the original signers who settled Guilford.[7]

In June 1781, during the American Revolution, a skirmish was fought on Leete's Island between the Associated Loyalists and local militia under Captain Peter Vail.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 49.7 square miles (129 km2), of which 47.0 square miles (122 km2) is land and 2.7 square miles (6.9 km2 or 5.39%) is water.

The primary settlement in Guilford, known as Guilford Center, is located in the southern part of town around the intersection of U.S. Route 1 and Connecticut Route 77. It is served by three exits of Interstate 95, which passes just north of the town center. The Guilford Center census-designated place had a population of 2,597 at the 2010 census.[8]

The northwest side of Guilford is flanked by the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border. Important features of the Metacomet ridge in Guilford include Totoket Mountain; its most notable peak, Bluff Head; and two eastern high points on the Totoket Mountain ridge named East Sugarloaf and West Sugarloaf. The 50-mile (80 km) Mattabesett Trail traverses Bluff Head; a shorter network of trails criss-cross the Sugarloaves. Guilford also contains the Westwoods Trail System which covers 39 miles (63 km) of trails on 1,200 acres (4.9 km2) of land.


Guilford train station is served by Shore Line East

The Shore Line East train stops at Guilford station with service to Branford, East Haven, New Haven and New London, and the Connecticut Transit S bus travels between Guilford and New Haven several times each day.

Principal communities

Other minor communities and geographic features in Guilford are Guilford Lakes, Indian Cove, and Old Quarry.


See also: List of Connecticut locations by per capita income

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[10]

As of the census[11] of 2000, there were 21,398 people, 8,151 households, and 6,039 families residing in the town. The population density was 454.8 inhabitants per square mile (175.6/km2). There were 8,724 housing units at an average density of 185.4 per square mile (71.6/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 96.04% White, 0.93% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.41% from other races, and 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.13% of the population.

There were 8,151 households, out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.9% were non-families. Of all households 21.6% were made up of individuals, and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the town, the population was spread out, with 25.4% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 31.2% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $76,843, and the median income for a family was $87,045 (these figures had risen to $90,026 and $104,852 respectively as of a 2007 estimate[12]). Males had a median income of $60,623 versus $40,307 for females. The per capita income for the town was $37,161. About 2.3% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over.

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 30, 2014[13]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
Democratic 4,743 551 5,294 33.05%
Republican 3,183 333 3,516 21.95%
Unaffiliated 5,995 1113 7,108 44.38%
Minor parties 94 5 99 0.62%
Total 14,015 2,002 16,017 100%

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 61.02% of the town vote, against 38.06% for Republican John McCain.[14] In 2016, Democrat Hillary Clinton carried the town with 59.2% over Republican Donald Trump with 37.1%.[15]


American Cruise Lines has its headquarters in Guilford.[16][17] There are many small businesses throughout the town, including the shops on the Guilford Green.

List of town parks

The town government operates these parks:[18]

Notable locations

Guilford, Connecticut is noted for its rolling farmland, its avoidance of the density and sprawl that has occurred from land use regulations of its neighboring communities, and its numerous historic homes and sites.[19]

National Historic Places and other historic sites

The Comfort Starr House
The Henry Whitfield House, built in 1639, is the oldest stone house in New England [22]

Historic sites in or near Guilford, which may be listed on the National Register of Historic Places, include:

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "The Town of Guilford Connecticut". The Town of Guilford Connecticut. Archived from the original on September 23, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  2. ^ "Board of Selectmen". Town of Guilford, Connecticut. Retrieved November 28, 2021.
  3. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: Guilford town, New Haven County, Connecticut". Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 146.
  5. ^ The Connecticut Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly. Connecticut Magazine Company. 1903. p. 332.
  6. ^ The Connecticut Nutmegger, Connecticut Society of Genealogists (Connecticut Society of Genealogists, 1981).
  7. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1938). Connecticut. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 978-1-60354-007-0.
  8. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Guilford Center CDP, Connecticut". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
  9. ^ Smith, Ralph (1877). The History of Guilford Connecticut. Albany, N.Y.: J. Munsell. pp. 46–47.
  10. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  12. ^ "American FactFinder - Community Facts". Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  13. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 30, 2014" (PDF). Connecticut Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2006. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  14. ^ "Connecticut Election 2008 - Presidential Results Margin of Victory" (PDF). Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  15. ^ "Connecticut Election Results 2016". The New York Times. August 2017.
  16. ^ "General Information" Archived January 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. American Cruise Lines. Retrieved on January 15, 2012. "American Cruise Lines, Inc. operates from headquarters in Guilford, Connecticut[...]"
  17. ^ "Cruise News". (Archive) American Cruise Lines. Retrieved on January 15, 2012. "741 Boston Post Road ٠ Suite 200 ٠ Guilford, CT"
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j,0,3814997.story Web page titled "Guilford" at Hartford Courant Web site, dated August 16, 2006, accessed January 14, 2007
  19. ^ Hughes, C. J., Guilford, Conn.: Proud of Its Place in New England, the New York Times, September 29, 2019
  20. ^ Guilford Green
  21. ^ Guilford Land Conservation Trust
  22. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program (NHL)". Archived from the original on October 5, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  23. ^ Guilford-Acadians website retrieved on 2009-05-13
  24. ^ "Historic Buildings of Connecticut » Blog Archive » Benton-Beecher House (1740)". October 8, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
  25. ^ "Harriet Beecher Stowe's Life". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
  26. ^ "Abraham Baldwin (1754–1807)" Archived March 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, New Georgia Encyclopedia (January 6, 2009), Retrieved on July 21, 2013
  27. ^ Roberts, Sam (May 29, 2016). "Frank Modell, Longtime New Yorker Cartoonist, Dies at 98". The New York Times.
  28. ^ "Becki Newton". IMDb. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  29. ^ "Jennifer Westfeldt biography at IMDB". Retrieved May 26, 2015.