New Canaan, Connecticut
Town of New Canaan
Coordinates: 41°08′48.48″N 73°29′41.64″W / 41.1468000°N 73.4949000°W / 41.1468000; -73.4949000Coordinates: 41°08′48.48″N 73°29′41.64″W / 41.1468000°N 73.4949000°W / 41.1468000; -73.4949000
Country United States
U.S. state Connecticut
CountyFairfield
Metropolitan areaBridgeport-Stamford
Settled1731
Government
 • TypeSelectman-town council
 • First SelectmanKevin J. Moynihan (R)
 • SelectmanNicholas R. Williams (R)
 • SelectwomanKathleen Corbet (D)
Area
 • Total22.5 sq mi (58.3 km2)
 • Land22.1 sq mi (57.3 km2)
 • Water0.4 sq mi (0.9 km2)
Elevation
344 ft (105 m)
Population
 (2010)[1]
 • Total19,738
 • Density877.2/sq mi (338.7/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP code
06840
Area code(s)203/475
FIPS code09-50580
GNIS feature ID0213468
Websitewww.newcanaan.info

New Canaan (/ˈknən/) is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 19,738 according to the 2010 census.[1]

About an hour's train ride from Manhattan, the town is considered part of Connecticut's Gold Coast. The town is bounded on the south by Darien, on west by Stamford, on the east by Wilton, on the southeast by Norwalk, and on the north by Lewisboro and Pound Ridge in Westchester County, New York.

New Canaan is known for its wide range of architecture and vast public parks such as Waveny Park, and a signature town center with classic boutiques. Residents carol on God's Acre every Christmas Eve, a town tradition since 1916.[2]

Additionally, New Canaan is consistently listed as one of the wealthiest towns in the country, appearing in multiple rankings of the nation’s richest zip codes.[3] It is also known for its public school system, which in 2018 was ranked as the top public school system in Connecticut, and in 2008 the third-best in the country.[4][5]

History

East view of Church Hill, the central part of New Canaan (1836) by John Warner Barber
East view of Church Hill, the central part of New Canaan (1836) by John Warner Barber
New Canaan Train Station
New Canaan Train Station

In 1731, Connecticut's colonial legislature established Canaan Parish as a religious entity in northwestern Norwalk and northeastern Stamford. The right to form a Congregational church was granted to the few families scattered through the area. As inhabitants of Norwalk or Stamford, Canaan Parish settlers still had to vote, pay taxes, serve on juries, and file deeds in their home towns. Because Canaan Parish was not planned as a town when it was first settled in 1731, when New Canaan was incorporated in 1801, it found itself without a central common, a main street, or a town hall.[6]

Until the Revolutionary War, New Canaan was primarily an agricultural community; after the war, its major industry was shoemaking. As New Canaan's shoe business gathered momentum early in the 19th century, instead of a central village, regional settlements of clustered houses, mill, and school developed into distinct district centers. Some of the districts were centered on Ponus Ridge, West Road, Oenoke Ridge, Smith Ridge, Talmadge Hill, and Silvermine, a pattern that the village gradually outgrew.[6]

With the 1868 advent of the railroad to New Canaan, many of New York City's wealthy residents discovered the pastoral beauty of the area and built summer homes. Eventually, many of the summer visitors settled year-round, commuting to their jobs in New York City.[6][dead link]

Lewis Lapham, a founder of Texaco and great-grandfather of long-time Harper's Magazine editor Lewis H. Lapham, spent summers with his family at their estate that is now 300-acre (1.2 km2) Waveny Park next to Talmadge Hill and the Merritt Parkway.

In the 1890s, editor Will Kirk of the Messenger wrote an editorial in response to area editors who chided him, saying New Canaan was the "next station to hell." An alleged remark by a parched Civil War veteran marching in the Decoration Day Parade on an unusually hot day prompted the exchange. The remark was found untrue and Kirk, after enduring the comments of others, wrote about a "dream" of approaching the Pearly Gates in the company of his fellow editors. All others were turned away, but he, Will Kirk, was welcomed, because he, in fact, was from the "Next Station to Heaven."[7] Since then, the name has been controversial, with residents affectionately using the latter, and local critics of New Canaan still using the original nickname.

The "Harvard Five" and modern homes

New Canaan was an important center of the modern design movement from the late 1940s through roughly the 1960s, when about 80 modern homes were built in town. About 20 have been torn down since then.[8]

"During the late 1940s and '50s, a group of students and teachers from the Harvard Graduate School of Design migrated to New Canaan ... and rocked the world of architectural design", according to an article in PureContemporary.com, an online architecture design magazine. "Philip Johnson, Marcel Breuer, Landis Gores, John M. Johansen and Eliot Noyes – known as the Harvard Five – began creating homes in a style that emerged as the complete antithesis of the traditional build. Using new materials and open floor plans, best captured by Johnson's Glass House, these treasures are being squandered as buyers are knocking down these architectural icons and replacing them with cookie-cutter new builds."[9]

"Other architects, well-known (Frank Lloyd Wright, for example) and not so well known, also contributed significant modern houses that elicited strong reactions from nearly everyone who saw them and are still astonishing today ... New Canaan came to be the focus of the modern movement's experimentation in materials, construction methods, space, and form", according to an online description of The Harvard Five in New Canaan: Mid-Century Modern Houses, by William D. Earls.[10]

Some other New Canaan architects designing modern homes were Victor Christ-Janer, John Black Lee, Allan Gelbin, and Hugh Smallen.[8]

The film The Ice Storm (1997) shows many of New Canaan's modern houses, both inside and out. The film (and Rick Moody's novel of the same name, upon which it's based) takes place in New Canaan; a mostly glass house situated on Laurel Road is prominently featured.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.5 square miles (58 km2), of which 22.1 square miles (57 km2) are land and 0.3 square mile (0.78 km2), or 1.56%, is covered by water. New Canaan is the only municipality on the Connecticut Panhandle that does not border the coast. Such proximity to New York City proved worthy of its own connection to the New Haven Railroad, being the only town to do so. New Canaan station and Talmadge Hill station are both on the New Canaan Branch of the New Haven Line, and transfer is possible in Stamford south to Manhattan. Many New Canaan residents commute to New York regularly, with travel time to Grand Central Terminal around 65 minutes. New Canaan is also heavily served by the historic Merritt Parkway, as the third municipality when driving through Connecticut from New York City.

Amenities

The downtown area consists of many restaurants, an old Bow Tie Cinemas movie theater, library, the Victorian train station, antique shops, a book store, a saddlery boutique, and various fine clothing and interior decorating shops. In addition to the many local boutiques and businesses, many national chain stores can be found in the downtown area, including Ralph Lauren and Ralph Lauren Children, Ann Taylor, J. McLaughlin, Papyrus, Vineyard Vines, Le Pain Quotidien, and Starbucks, among others. Furthermore, there are several churches in the town (Catholic and various Protestant denominations), as well as the historic Roger Sherman Inn, established in 1740. Most major banks and many wealth management firms have a presence in New Canaan, including JPMorgan Chase, Merrill Lynch, Wells Fargo, UBS, Citibank, and Bank of America. Several hedge funds are also based in New Canaan.

The town includes the following sections: New Canaan Town Center, Talmadge Hill, Ponus Ridge, West, Oenoke Ridge, Smith Ridge, and part of Silvermine (which extends into Norwalk and Wilton).

Government

Taxes

In 2017, the mill rate of New Canaan was 16.669.[11]

Emergency services

Emergency medical services

The New Canaan Volunteer Ambulance Corps is a free, all-volunteer ambulance corps with three ambulances and two paramedic fly-cars. Founded in 1975, the unit is located at 182 South Avenue and offers regular EMT courses.[12] EMTs are all volunteers, while paramedic services are contracted to Norwalk Hospital. The New Canaan Emergency Medical Services Unit and the Norwalk Hospital Unit were featured on Rescue 911, as they saved the life of a fire captain who was suffering a heart attack.[13]

Fire department

The New Canaan Fire Department employs the professional firefighters of the New Canaan Fire Department and the volunteers of the New Canaan Fire Company, No. 1. Founded in 1881, the New Canaan Fire Department is a combination professional/volunteer fire department that operates out of a fire station located near the center of town, with a fire apparatus fleet of engines and other vehicles. The New Canaan Fire Department responded to 886 calls for service in 2009. The New Canaan Fire Department was featured on Rescue 911 when they saved a fire captain who was suffering a heart attack.

Police department

The New Canaan Police (NCPD) are headquartered at 174 South Avenue.[14] The Department has forty-five sworn officers, five full-time civilians and two school crossing guards. The primary mission of the NCPD and its officers is the protection of all persons and properties within its jurisdiction. The NCPD responded to 16,741 calls during 2012.[15]

Politics

New Canaan was one of five towns in Connecticut that backed former Governor John Kasich of Ohio over Donald J. Trump in the 2016 Republican presidential primary. Kasich received 1,362 votes (47.84%) ahead of Trump, who garnered 1,168 votes (41.03%). U.S. Senator Ted Cruz of Texas finished third with 262 votes (9.20%).[16]

New Canaan town vote
by party in presidential elections[17]
Year Democratic Republican Third Parties
2020 59.02% 7,298 39.26% 4,855 1.72% 212
2016 52.59% 5,767 41.41% 4,541 6.00% 658
2012 35.02% 3,804 64.13% 6,966 0.85% 92
2008 46.61% 5,187 52.81% 5,877 0.58% 64
2004 38.32% 4,180 60.67% 6,618 1.01% 110
2000 33.93% 3,516 62.73% 6,501 3.34% 346
1996 32.37% 3,087 61.77% 5,890 5.86% 559
1992 30.72% 3,438 56.21% 6,292 13.07% 1,463
1988 27.14% 2,831 72.09% 7,520 0.77% 80
1984 23.66% 2,564 76.12% 8,249 0.22% 24
1980 19.87% 2,102 67.31% 7,120 12.82% 1,356
1976 28.17% 2,887 71.52% 7,329 0.31% 32
1972 29.50% 2,915 69.85% 6,903 0.66% 65
1968 31.96% 2,802 66.12% 5,796 1.92% 168
1964 52.50% 4,022 47.50% 3,639 0.00% 0
1960 27.95% 1,970 72.05% 5,079 0.00% 0
1956 20.33% 1,213 79.67% 3,771 0.00% 0
1952[18] 24.98% 1,276[19] 73.81% 4,755[20] 1.21% 62[21]
Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 29, 2019[22]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
Republican 5,795 703 6,498 42.87%
Democratic 3,005 440 3,445 22.73%
Unaffiliated 4,311 701 5,012 33.07%
Minor parties 172 30 202 1.33%
Total 13,283 1,874 15,157 100%

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18101,599
18201,6895.6%
18301,8308.3%
18502,600
18602,7716.6%
18702,497−9.9%
18802,6737.0%
18902,7011.0%
19002,9689.9%
19103,66723.6%
19203,8956.2%
19305,45640.1%
19406,22114.0%
19508,00128.6%
196013,46668.3%
197017,45129.6%
198017,9312.8%
199017,864−0.4%
200019,3958.6%
201019,7381.8%
202020,6224.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[23]

See also: List of Connecticut locations by per capita income

As of the census[24] of 2000, 19,395 people, 6,822 households, and 5,280 families were residing in the town. The population density was 876.5 people per square mile (338.4/km2). The 7,141 housing units averaged 322.7 per square mile (124.6/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 95.27% White, 1.04% African American, 0.04% Native American, 2.29% Asian, 0.39% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.74% of the population.

Of the 6,822 households, 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.2% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.6% were not families. About 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83, and the average family size was 3.26.

In the town, the population was distributed as 31.2% under the age of 18, 3.3% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 26.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.7 males.

Per the 2000 Census, the median income for a household in the town was $141,788, and for a family was $175,331. Males had a median income of $100,000 versus $53,924 for females. The per capita income for the town was $82,049. About 1.4% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.2% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over.

Education

New Canaan High School
Saxe Middle School
Saxe Middle School

The New Canaan Public Schools system is considered[by whom?] to be one of the best in Connecticut. It has also gained national recognition for its high performance; for example, a recent edition of Forbes rated New Canaan as the third-ranked school district in the United States "for home value" for communities with a median home price of $800,000 or greater.[25] In 2019, New Canaan High School was ranked the sixth-best public high school in Connecticut behind Darien and Weston, and one of the top in the nation.[26]

In 2009, the district was the highest-performing school district in the state based on the frequency of top-tier performances on the Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMTs), which are administered to all third- through eighth-graders, and the Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPTs), which are given to 10th-graders.[27] In 2008, the median SAT score (verbal, math and writing) for district students was 1804, the highest in Connecticut.[28]

In its November 2009 edition, Connecticut magazine rated New Canaan's school system first among 29 towns with a population of 15,000–25,000.[29] That category included Darien, Wilton, Ridgefield, Avon, Simsbury, Farmington, Southbury, Guilford, and other high-performing districts. The ranking was based on 2007–2009 CMTs, results from the 2007–2009 CAPTs, local SAT scores for 2006–2008, and the percentage of 2007 high school graduates who enrolled in college.[30]

Twenty-two students in the New Canaan High School class of 2009 were National Merit Commended Scholars. In addition, four students were National Merit Scholars, four were National Merit Semifinalists, and one was an Hispanic National Recognition Scholar.[31]

Of the New Canaan High School graduates who enrolled in college in the fall of 2009, 30% did so at a college designated "Most Competitive" by Barron's magazine, 24% enrolled at an institution considered "Highly Competitive", and 26% entered a college deemed to be "Very Competitive".[32]

The New Canaan High School Library was the recipient of the 2010 National School Library Program of the Year Award, given by the American Library Association. In addition to the award, the high school also received a $10,000 prize donated by Follet Library Resources.[33]

The New Canaan school system is also notable for its achievements in extracurricular activities. In 2010, the New Canaan High School won the FCIAC Cup, given to the most successful athletic program among the 19 high schools competing in the Fairfield County Interscholastic Athletic Conference. The New Canaan High School drama program won seven awards at the 2010 Connecticut High School Musical Theatre Awards.[33]

New Canaan is one of the few school systems in Connecticut to offer foreign-language instruction to students before middle school, as a Spanish program exists for all grades to expose students to a foreign language earlier in their lives.[34] Grades 6–12 have language offerings including French, Latin, Mandarin Chinese, and Spanish.

In June 2012, 24/7 Wall St. ranked New Canaan as the eighth-wealthiest school district in the United States.[35]

New Canaan has five public schools:

New Canaan also has three private schools:

Points of interest

Moreno Clock located on Elm Street where it meets with South Avenue in New Canaan, Connecticut.
Moreno Clock located on Elm Street where it meets with South Avenue in New Canaan, Connecticut.

On the National Register of Historic Places

The Glass House

Seasonal events

New Canaan Nature Center Fall Fair: The fair offers activities for all ages from hay mazes to Old Faithful Antique Fire Truck rides to apple sling shots.[39]

All Hallows Eve (Halloween) Parade: No matter your costume, children of all ages and their dogs can receive a goody bag and march in the Parade led by Old Faithful Antique Fire Truck which is sponsored by the New Canaan Chamber of Commerce.[40]

Holiday Stroll: Hosted by The Chamber of Commerce, downtown New Canaan celebrates with Christmas carolers, the lighting of the trees along Elm Street, the arrival of Santa Claus, and extended store hours.[41]

Christmas Carolling on God's Acre. Since 1919 New Canaan residents have been gathering on God's Acre every Christmas Eve to sing Christmas carols with the New Canaan Town Band. The New Canaan town band was founded in 1831 and is the second oldest town band in the United States.[42]

Easter Egg Hunt: At the Annual Town Easter Egg Hunt, sponsored by the Young Women's League of New Canaan, children are able to collect candy-filled Easter eggs, get their faces painted, take pictures with the Easter bunny, and many other festive activities.[43]

Saint Mark's May Fair: carnival rides and May Fair's famous strawberry shortcake.[44]

Family Fourth Fireworks: Town residents gather at Waveny Town Park for picnicking, live music, bounce houses, and fireworks.[45]

Gallery

Institutions and organizations

Grace Farms, a nondenominational church in New Canaan, CT.
Grace Farms, a nondenominational church in New Canaan, CT.

Media

New Canaan is served by a town newspaper, New Canaan News. Two daily newspapers also serve the surrounding area: Connecticut Post and Greenwich Time. Moreover, Newcanaanite and the New Canaan Patch produce online news for residents.

Major news stories

In August 2018, two New Canaan High School cafeteria workers were arrested for stealing over $500,000 over a five-year period. The school received nationwide attention for the arrests.[50]

In October 2018, an EF-2 tornado struck the town after a tornado watch was issued.[51]

In May 2019, new resident Jennifer Dulos was reported missing. After footage was recorded from the Merritt Parkway of Dulos' husband throwing away blood-stained sponges and clothing in numerous dumpsters, he was arrested. Blood stains were later found in the garage of Dulos' home. The couple, Jennifer and Fotis Dulos, had been in a custody dispute, and after Folis and his girlfriend, Michelle Troconis, were arrested, both were found guilty of the murder of Jennifer Dulos. In late January, 2020, Fotis Dulos committed suicide through carbon monoxide poisoning at his home while under house arrest.[52]

In June 2019, a New Canaan man was charged with the operation of a drug factory, including a marijuana growing operation. [53]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from New Canaan, Connecticut

New Canaan in media

In film

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Movies at least partially filmed in, or involving, New Canaan:

Music

Books

In popular culture

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Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), New Canaan town, Connecticut". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 9, 2011.
  2. ^ "'A Sacred and Treasured New Canaan Tradition': A History of Christmas Caroling at God's Acre". Newcanaanite.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  3. ^ "'New Canaan ranks 19th in America richest zip codes'". Patch.com. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  4. ^ Engel, John (2018-11-21). "Op-Ed: Advertiser, Hersams served New Canaan for a century". New Canaan Advertiser. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  5. ^ "New Canaan Public Schools Ranked Tops in CT; 19th Best in the Country | Patch". New Canaan, CT Patch. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  6. ^ a b c d [1][permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Where did the nickname — "Next Station to Heaven" — originate? | New Canaan Answerbook". Newcanaananswerbook.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  8. ^ a b "Fairfield County Business Authority | Westfair Communications".
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2016-02-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) PureContemporary.com accessed July 2, 2006
  10. ^ results, search (17 July 2006). The Harvard Five in New Canaan: Midcentury Modern Houses by Marcel Breuer, Landis Gores, John Johansen, Philip Johnson, Eliot Noyes, and Others. W. W. Norton & Company. Retrieved 3 December 2018 – via Amazon.
  11. ^ "New Canaan Board of Finance sets mill rate". Newcanaan.info. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  12. ^ "Home - New Canaan Volunteer Ambulance Corps". Ncvac.org. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  13. ^ "New Canaan Fire Company – New Canaan, CT". Newcanaanfire.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  14. ^ "New Canaan - Police Commission". Newcanaan.info. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  15. ^ "New Canaan Police Department Annual Report" (PDF). Newcanaanpoliceorg.c.presscdn.com. 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  16. ^ https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/StatementOfVote_PDFs/April2016RepublicanPPPSOVpdf.pdf?la=en
  17. ^ "General Elections Statement of Vote 1922".
  18. ^ https://authoring.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/StatementOfVote_PDFs/1952SOVpdf.pdf?la=en
  19. ^ https://authoring.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/StatementOfVote_PDFs/1952SOVpdf.pdf?la=en
  20. ^ https://authoring.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/StatementOfVote_PDFs/1952SOVpdf.pdf?la=en
  21. ^ https://authoring.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/StatementOfVote_PDFs/1952SOVpdf.pdf?la=en
  22. ^ (PDF) https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/SOTS/ElectionServices/Registration_and_Enrollment_Stats/Nov19RE.pdf?la=en. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  24. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  25. ^ See Settimi, Christina, "Best Schools for Your Home Value," Forbes magazine, April 26, 2010.
  26. ^ "Darien named top high school in Connecticut by U.S. News & World Report". May 2019.
  27. ^ [2][permanent dead link]
  28. ^ Connecticut Department of Education; see also Brady, Andrew and Grandjean, Patricia, "Rating the Towns," Connecticut magazine, November 2009 edition (Vol. 72, No. 11), at pp. 47–55.
  29. ^ [3][permanent dead link]
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-10. Retrieved 2010-03-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ New Canaan Public Schools' Superintendent's Annual Report, 2008–2009, at p. 31.
  32. ^ New Canaan Public Schools Superintendent's Annual Report, 2008–2009, at p. 48.
  33. ^ a b Schmelkin, Carrie, "Public Schools Remain Tops," New Canaan Advertiser, June 24, 2010, p. 1.
  34. ^ [4][permanent dead link]
  35. ^ Liebeskind, Ken (6 June 2012). "Weston Is Second Wealthiest U.S. School District". The Weston Daily Voice. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-07-28. Retrieved 2006-08-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program (NHL)". 5 April 2007. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  38. ^ [5][dead link]
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2015-04-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Halloween Parade". Newcanaanchamber.com. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  41. ^ "Holiday Stroll". Newcanaanchamber.com. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  42. ^ "Christmas Eve on God's Acre - The Congregational Church of New Canaan". 10 April 2015. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  43. ^ [6][dead link]
  44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2015-04-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ "Family Fourth Fireworks - New Canaan Chamber". 28 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  46. ^ Feinstein, Estelle (1976). Stamford From Puritan to Patriot: The Shaping of a Connecticut Community, 1641-1774 (1st ed.). Stamford: Stamford Bicentennial Corp.
  47. ^ Mason, Post. "Harmony Lodge #67". Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  48. ^ Hubbard, Frederick A. (1922). Masonry In Greenwich. Greenwich, Connecticut. ISBN 978-1258186159.
  49. ^ a b King, Mary Louise (1931). Portrait of New Canaan (1st ed.). Chester, PA: John Spencer, Inc. pp. 144, 147, 275. ISBN 0-939958-00-7.
  50. ^ "Lunch Lady Sisters Accused of Stealing Nearly $500,000 From School Cafeterias". Time.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  51. ^ "Tornado confirmed in New Canaan, survey team studying Norwalk damage". Msn.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  52. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/07/nyregion/fotis-dulos-jennifer-dulos.html https://abcnews.go.com/US/connecticut-mystery-timeline-disappearance-mom-jennifer-dulos/story?id=63500830
  53. ^ "New Canaan Man, 49, Charged with Operation of a Drug Factory".
  54. ^ Wurtz, Bill (May 6, 2014). "song: new canaan".
  55. ^ "Moviequotes.com Repository - Movie Quote From Gentleman's Agreement - 1947". Moviequotes.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  56. ^ Lawrence, Jerome; Lee, Robert E. (1999). Auntie Mame. Dramatists Play Service Inc. p. 91. ISBN 0822217309. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
  57. ^ Smith, Warren Allen (2012). Unforgettable New Canaanites. Lulu.com. p. 77. ISBN 978-1105647437. Retrieved 2015-04-15.[self-published source]