This is a list of mobile phones with open-source operating systems.
Some hardware components used in phones require drivers (or firmware) to run. For many components, only proprietary drivers are available (open source phones usually seek components with open drivers.) If firmware is not updatable and does not have control over any other part of the phone, it might be considered equivalent to part of the hardware. However, these conditions do not hold for cellular modems.
As of 2019[update], all available mobile phones have a proprietary baseband chip (GSM module, cellular modem), except for the Necuno, which has no such chip and communicates by peer-to-peer VOIP. The modem is usually integrated with the system-on-a-chip and the memory. This presents security concerns; baseband attacks can read and alter data on the phone remotely.
The Librem 5 mobile segregates the modem from the system and memory, making it a separate module, a configuration rare in modern cellphones. There is an open-source baseband project, OsmocomBB.
Generally, the phones included on this list contain copyleft software other than the Linux kernel, and minimal closed-source component drivers (see section above).
Note that it is often possible to install a wide variety of open-source operating systems on any open-source phone; the higher-level software is designed to be largely interchangeable and independent of the hardware.
|Model||Organization||Mobile operating system||Operating system support||Date released
|Current state||List Price|
|Clockwork uConsole||Clockwork||Debian, Ubuntu, or Raspberry Pi OS||Yes||2022||pre-order||$189|
|Volla Phone 22||Hallo Welt Systeme UG||Volla OS (based on Android Open Source Project), Ubuntu Touch||Yes||2022||Shipping||€ 452,00|
|PinePhone Pro||Pine64||Manjaro Linux with KDE's Plasma Mobile by default;||Yes. 20+ other (mostly Linux) operating systems should be able to be swapped in by swapping an SD card.||2021-12||shipping beta; As of August 2022, PostmarketOS warns: "At present the PinePhone Pro should be considered a development platform".||$399|
|F(x)tec Pro1 X||FX Technology Limited.||Ubuntu Touch, LineageOS or Android||?||2022-07||shipping||$899|
|Volla Phone X||Hallo Welt Systeme UG||Volla OS (based on Android Open Source Project), Ubuntu Touch||Yes||2021||Shipping|
|Fairphone 4||Fairphone||/e/OS, CalyxOS, DivestOS, IodéOS, LineageOS, PostmarketOS, Ubuntu Touch||||4Q 2020||Shipping||€529.00|
|DragonBox Pyra Mobile Edition||OpenPandora GmbH ||Debian||Yes||2020-12 / 2021-01?||Shipping|
|Volla Phone||Hallo Welt Systeme UG||Volla OS (based on Android Open Source Project), Ubuntu Touch or Sailfish OS||Yes||2020-11||Shipping|
|Fairphone 3+||Fairphone||/e/OS, DivestOS, LineageOS, Ubuntu Touch||||3Q 2020||Shipping|
|Librem 5||Purism||PureOS, a Debian derivative developed by Purism for their mobiles||PureOS has a lifetime support guarantee||2019-11||Shipping|
|PinePhone||Pine64||Beta "Braveheart" Edition had a choice of user-installed OS; Later "Community Editions" sold from June 15, 2020 to February 2, 2021, each of which donated $10/phone to the developer community that wrote the OS it shipped with. Subsequently, Pinephones all shipped with Manjaro and Plasma Mobile.||Yes. Twenty-odd different operating systems can be user-installed as of March 2021[update]; OS can be swapped by swapping out an SD card.||2019-11||Shipping||$199|
|Fairphone 3||Fairphone||/e/OS, DivestOS, LineageOS, Ubuntu Touch||||3Q 2019||selling discontinued, but supported|
|Gemini PDA||Planet Computers||Android, Debian, Sailfish OS||2018||shipping|
|GTA04 based motherboard, fitting inside the shell of a Nokia N900.||Neo900||QtMoko, Debian, SHR (Stable Hybrid Release), Replicant||2018-03 (last updated)||Stalled|
|Pop Mirage Cyanogen||Alcatel Mobile||CyanogenMod||Discontinued||01-11-2016||Discontinued|
|Meizu PRO 5 Ubuntu Edition||Meizu||Ubuntu Touch||UBports, community-driven||2016-02||In stores in Egypt, Russia, Ukraine, and Asia Pacific; online in Egypt, Russia, India and Sri Lanka.|
|Fairphone 2||Fairphone||Fairphone Open OS, /e/OS, LineageOS, Ubuntu Touch||||3Q 2015||selling discontinued, but supported|
|Meizu MX4 Ubuntu Edition||Meizu||Ubuntu Touch||UBports, community-driven||2015-07||In stores in Egypt, Russia, Ukraine, and Asia Pacific; online in Egypt, Russia, India and Sri Lanka.|
|BQ Aquaris E5 HD Ubuntu Edition||BQ||Ubuntu Touch||UBports, community-driven||2015-06||Discontinued|
|BQ Aquaris E4.5 Ubuntu Edition||BQ||Ubuntu Touch||UBports, community-driven||2015-02||Discontinued|
|BQ Aquaris X5 Cyanogen Edition||BQ||CyanogenMod, PostmarketOS||PostmarketOS, community driven||2015||Discontinued|
|Wileyfox Swift||Wileyfox||CyanogenModPostmarketOS||PostmarketOS, community-driven||2015||Discontinued|
YU Yureka Plus
|YU Televentures (Micromax Informatics)||CyanogenMod||Discontinued||2015||Discontinued|
|YU Yuphoria||YU Televentures (Micromax Informatics)||CyanogenMod||Discontinued||2015||Discontinued|
|GeeksPhone Revolution||GeeksPhone||Firefox OS||Discontinued; formerly developed by the Mozilla Foundation under the Mozilla Public License, later proprietized as KaiOS||2014||Discontinued|
|GeeksPhone Peak+||GeeksPhone||Firefox OS||Discontinued; formerly developed by the Mozilla Foundation under the Mozilla Public License, later proprietized as KaiOS||2013-11 (cancellation)||Cancelled|
|Alcatel One Touch Fire||Alcatel||Firefox OS||Discontinued; formerly developed by the Mozilla Foundation under the Mozilla Public License, later proprietized as KaiOS||2013-07||Discontinued|
|ZTE Open||ZTE||Firefox OS||2013-07||Discontinued|
|GeeksPhone Keon||GeeksPhone||Firefox OS||2013-04-23||Discontinued|
|GeeksPhone Peak||GeeksPhone||Firefox OS||2013-04-23||Discontinued|
|GTA04||Golden Delicious||QtMoko, Debian, SHR (Stable Hybrid Release), Replicant||2012-04||"Currently not in stock"|
|Developer phone||Aava mobile||MeeGo||Discontinued||2011||Discontinued (was available to developers only)|
|N950||Nokia||MeeGo 1.2 Harmattan||Discontinued; formerly hosted by the Linux Foundation||2011||Discontinued (available to developers only)|
|N9||Nokia||MeeGo 1.2 Harmattan||Discontinued; formerly hosted by the Linux Foundation||2011||Discontinued|
|N900||Nokia||Maemo 5 (Fremantle)
(some proprietary components until Maemo Leste)
|Neo FreeRunner (code name GTA02)||OpenMoko||Openmoko/QTMoko Linux, Debian, SHR (Stable Hybrid Release), Gentoo (all Linux-based), Inferno[clarification needed]||2008-06-24||Discontinued|
|Neo 1973 (code name GTA01)||OpenMoko||Openmoko Linux (Linux-based)||2007-07-09||Discontinued|
|Eten G500||E-TEN||GPE Palmtop Environment||2006||Discontinued, developer phone|
|Greenphone||Trolltech||Qtopia||2006||Discontinued, developer phone|
|Model||Organization||Mobile operating system||Operating system support||Date released
|SHIFT6mq||SHIFT||Shift-OS (Android), PostmarketOS||partial mainline Linux support||2021||shipping|
|XFone Mobile Pro
(re-launched Xiaomi Redmi Note 8 Pro with Ubuntu Touch)
|SageTea||Ubuntu Touch||UBports, community-driven||2022-01-19 (originally 2019)||Shipping|
(re-launched Google Pixel 3a with Ubuntu Touch)
|SageTea||Ubuntu Touch||UBports, community-driven||2021-06-19 (originally 2019)||Shipping|
|OnePlus 6, OnePlus 6T||OnePlus||multiple||partial mainline Linux support||2018-05-21||Discontinued, used market|
|Pocophone F1||Xiaomi||multiple||partial mainline Linux support||2018-08-22||Discontinued, used markets|
|Snapdragon 410/412 based phones||multiple||postmarketos||partial mainline Linux support||Discontinued|
postmarketOS, Ubports, and KDE Neon are open-source distributions running on existing smartphones originally running Android. Maemo Leste is available for Nokia N900 and Motorola Droid 4.
There exists a database listing which older phones will run which open-source operating systems.
It is possible to home-build a phone from partially open hardware and software. The Arduinophone (touchscreen) and the MIT DIY Cellphone (segmented display) both use the Arduino open-hardware single-board computer, with added components. Circuitmess Ringo (previously MakerPhone) is another DIY Arduino phone with open source firmware and available schematics, focusing on education. The PiPhone, ZeroPhone and OURphone are similar, but based on the Raspberry Pi.
The main components to make an open mobile phone are:
the software of Android versions 1 and 2 was mostly developed by Google; Google released it under the Apache 2.0 license, which is a lax free software license without copyleft. ... The version of Linux included in Android is not entirely free software, since it contains non-free "binary blobs"... Android is very different from the GNU/Linux operating system because it contains very little of GNU.
Every mobile device that is connected to a cellular network runs some kind of baseband processor with highly proprietary and closed-source firmware.
Purism actually couldn't find an open provider for the cellular modem, so the best it could do was isolate it from the rest of the system in an M.2 slot.
The cellular modem is arguably the most complex part of a mobile phone. The modem is the component that has to implement all the familiar protocols you would associate with a phone (like 2G, 3G, 4G and the upcoming 5G). It does so by running its own proprietary black box operating system. The cellular modem is also covered by thousands of patents held by hundreds of patent owners. Now imagine this… This cellular modem sits right on the same RAM bus as the SoC! Non-free software not only has access to the data flowing to and from the SoC, but also has the ability to modify it. Because this modem operating system is a propreitary black box, we have no idea what this component does or what kind of vulnerabilities it has... The situation is further complicated by the fact that during our research into cellular modems, we realized that there are only a handful of silicon vendors in the world that make these chipsets and nearly all of them integrate their model with the SoC on the same bus. In addition, you historically need to acquire a license to run the proprietary firmware to power the modem on SoCs.. This left us with only one choice: to use ready-made modem "modules" and our own layout that isolates the modem from the SoC. There are a number of these modem modules available in different form factors with various available options in speed, bands, etc. By going the module route we can both provide supplier choice in modems that meet our strict standards, and also allow modem isolation from the RAM and host CPU.(text is CC-by-SA 4.0)
Even though the Android phones of today are considerably less bad than Apple or Windows smartphones, they cannot be said to respect your freedom.
The mobile edition adds mobile internet, and also has telephony services (making the Pyra a phone)
As for software, the phone arrives preloaded with a factory test image rather than an end-user operating system. This preloaded factory test suite is running on Linux – postmarketOS to be precise – which allows you to test various features of the phone and run an automated test. ... I assume that everyone getting a Braveheart PinePhone understand that it's up to them to find the operating system build they are interested in, flash it and take part in the community discussion and ongoing development. Most builds are available on the PinePhone Wiki