|Version of the macOS operating system|
|Source model||Closed, with open source components|
|March 24, 2001|
|Latest release||10.0.4 / June 22, 2001|
|Kernel type||Hybrid (XNU)|
|License||Apple Public Source License (APSL) and Apple end-user license agreement (EULA)|
|Succeeded by||Mac OS X 10.1|
|Official website||Apple - Mac OS X at the Wayback Machine (archived June 29, 2001)|
|Historical, unsupported as of November 13, 2006|
|Part of a series on|
Mac OS X 10.0 (code named Cheetah) is the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system. It was released on March 24, 2001, for a price of $129 after a public beta.
Mac OS X was Apple's successor to the classic Mac OS. It was derived from NeXTSTEP and FreeBSD, and featured a new user interface called Aqua, as well as improved stability and security due to its new Unix foundations. It introduced the Quartz graphics rendering engine for hardware-accelerated animations. Many technologies were ported from the classic Mac OS, including Sherlock and the QuickTime framework. The core components of Mac OS X were open sourced as Darwin.
Boxed releases of Mac OS X 10.0 also included a copy of Mac OS 9.1, which can be installed alongside Mac OS X 10.0, through the means of dual booting (which meant that reboots are required for switching between the two OSes). This was important for compatibility reasons; while many Mac OS 9 applications could be run under Mac OS X in the Classic environment, some, such as applications that directly accessed hardware, could only run under Mac OS 9.
Six months after its release, Mac OS X 10.0 was succeeded by Mac OS X 10.1, code named Puma.
The development of Mac OS X 10.0 began in 1998, after Apple acquired NeXT Computer, which was founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple in the mid-1980s.
The initial development of Mac OS X was led by Avie Tevanian, who had previously worked at NeXT and had played a key role in the development of NeXTSTEP. The development team faced significant challenges in merging the classic Mac OS with the new Unix-based architecture, as well as in creating a modern user interface that would be familiar to Mac users.
Mac OS X 10.0 was released to the public on March 24, 2001, after several months of beta testing. The release was met with mixed reviews, with some users praising the new features and stability, while others criticized the lack of compatibility with older Mac applications.
Some of the key features of Mac OS X 10.0 included the Aqua user interface, which introduced translucent menus, drop shadows, and other visual effects; the Dock, a new way of launching and switching between applications; and a new file system called HFS+. The operating system also included built-in support for networking protocols such as TCP/IP and PPP, as well as for USB and FireWire devices.
In the years following the release of Mac OS X 10.0, Apple continued to refine and improve the operating system, releasing updates and new versions that added new features and improved performance and compatibility. Mac OS X was renamed OS X in 2011 to macOS in 2016; the latest version is macOS Ventura, which was released in October 2022.
The features of the release include the Dock which was a new way of organizing one's Mac OS X applications on a user interface, and a change from the classic method of Application launching in previous Mac OS systems. It included the Terminal, it was a feature that allowed access to Mac OS X's underpinnings, namely the Unix core; Mac OS had previously had the distinction of being one of the few operating systems with no command line interface at all. Also, it included the Mail email client, its features included the ability to configure the software to receive all of a user's email accounts in the one list, ability to file emails into folders, ability to search for emails, and ability to automatically append signatures to outgoing emails. The Address Book was a new application which had features including exporting and importing cards to and from vCard format, API to interface with other applications, change of address notifications, contact groups, auto-merge when importing vCards, customizable fields and categories, the automatic formatting of phone numbers. TextEdit replaced the SimpleText application with new features. PDF support was added, it allows the user to create PDFs from any application. The OS introduced the new Aqua UI. Several features of Mac OS 9 were ported to Mac OS X, including the Sherlock desktop and web search engine.
Mac OS X is built on Darwin, a Unix-like operating system derived from FreeBSD. Darwin includes a new kernel, XNU, derived from Mach and BSD, as a replacement for the Mac OS nanokernel used in classic Mac OS.
Unlike Mac OS 9, Mac OS X has protected memory and preemptive multitasking. This means that if an application's memory becomes corrupted due to a bug, the application will crash without the entire system crashing and needing to be rebooted.
Mac OS X also had support for OpenGL, AppleScript, and the Carbon and Cocoa APIs.
Mac OS X 10.0 began a short era (that ended with Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar's release) where Apple offered two types of installation CDs: 1Z and 2Z CDs. The difference in the two lay in the extent of multilingual support.
Input method editors of Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, and Korean were only included with the 2Z CDs. They also came with more languages (the full set of 15 languages), whereas the 1Z CDs came only with about eight languages and could not actually display simplified Chinese, traditional Chinese and/or Korean (except for the Chinese characters present in Japanese Kanji). A variant of 2Z CDs were introduced when Mac OS X v10.0.3 was released to the Asian market (this variant could not be upgraded to version 10.0.4). The brief period of multilingual confusion ended with the release of v10.2. Currently, all Mac OS X installer CDs and preinstallations include the full set of 15 languages and full multilingual compatibility.
Mac OS X 10.0 was not externally marketed with its codename, a practice which began with Mac OS X Jaguar.
On March 23, 2001, the night before the launch day, Apple hosted a launch party in a Micro Anvika store located at Tottenham Court Road, London. Attendees were provided with live music, along with food and alcoholic beverages. The first 50 Mac OS X 10.0 customers of the participating stores in the UK, including the store hosting the launch party, would receive a free Apple Pro Mouse, while the next 100 customers would be given a commemorative Mac OS X T-shirt. These participating stores also provided demonstrations and offers for Mac products. Similarly, an Apple Authorized Service Provider (known back then as Apple Specialist), in Cupertino, California, held a launch party at midnight. The first 100 Mac OS X 10.0 customers would receive a free commemorative Mac OS X T-shirt. On the day, the store was completely packed with customers and fans of Apple products. Steve Wozniak, one of the co-founders of Apple, also attended the launch party.
In the US, multiple Apple authorized resellers also held events on the 24 and 25 of March 2001, to coincide with Mac OS X's launch.
A store located in Minneapolis reported that over 60% of their available Mac OS X stock were sold on launch day.
On April 3, 2001, Apple launched an bi-weekly email newsletter service named Mac OS X Product News that showcases the latest software for Mac OS X.
The release of Mac OS X 10.0 saw mixed reviews. ZDNet called the new OS "underdone" due to poor performance, kernel panics, with main applications such as Finder causing system freezes. CNET rated Mac OS X 10.0, a 6 out of 10, calling it "more stable than previous Mac OSs", along with compliments on its UI, memory management and speed, but isn't "ready for the masses", due to issues such as the lack of native third-party applications for the platform, missing DVD playback and hard to use user interfaces. David Pogue stated in a New York Times tech column, that while he felt Mac OS X was better looking and easier to use than Mac OS 9 with superior features and menus, it is not yet ready for the average user, as it's not as polished, with missing features such as CD burning (at launch), automated shutdown scheduling, Labels menu.
|10.0||4K78||March 24, 2001||1.3||Original retail CD-ROM release|
|10.0.1||4L13||April 14, 2001||1.3.1||Apple: Mac OS X 10.0: Software Update 1.3.1, 10.0.1 Update, and Epson Printer Driver Update Provide Feature Enhancement, Address Issues|
|10.0.2||4P12||May 1, 2001|
|10.0.3||4P13||May 9, 2001||Update and Before You Install Information|
|10.0.4||4Q12||June 21, 2001||Apple: 10.0.4 Update and Before You Install Information|
|4R14||July 18, 2001||For Quicksilver Power Mac G4|
|4S10||August 20, 2001||For Quicksilver Power Mac G4 (Dual 800 MHz)|
|Timeline of Mac operating systems|