This is a list of topics that have, either currently or in the past, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers. Detailed discussion of these topics may be found on their main pages. These characterizations were made in the context of educating the public about questionable or potentially fraudulent or dangerous claims and practices—efforts to define the nature of science, or humorous parodies of poor scientific reasoning.

Criticism of pseudoscience, generally by the scientific community or skeptical organizations, involves critiques of the logical, methodological, or rhetorical bases of the topic in question.[1] Though some of the listed topics continue to be investigated scientifically, others were only subject to scientific research in the past and today are considered refuted, but resurrected in a pseudoscientific fashion. Other ideas presented here are entirely non-scientific, but have in one way or another impinged on scientific domains or practices.

Many adherents or practitioners of the topics listed here dispute their characterization as pseudoscience. Each section here summarizes the alleged pseudoscientific aspects of that topic.

Physical sciences

Astronomy and space sciences

  • Anunnaki from Nibiru (Sitchin) (variant) – proposed by Zecharia Sitchin in his series The Earth Chronicles, beginning with The 12th Planet (1976), it revolves around Sitchin's unique interpretation of ancient Sumerian and Middle Eastern texts, megalithic sites, and artifacts from around the world. He hypothesizes that the gods of old Mesopotamia were actually astronauts from the planet "Nibiru", which Sitchin claims the Sumerians believed was a remote "12th planet" (counting the Sun, Moon and Pluto as planets) associated with the god Marduk. According to Sitchin, Nibiru continues to orbit our Sun on a 3,600-year elongated orbit.[5]
  • Ancient astronauts from the Sirius star-system (Temple) (variant) – Robert K. G. Temple's proposal in his book The Sirius Mystery (1976) argues that the Dogon people of northwestern Mali preserved an account of extraterrestrial visitation from around 5,000 years ago. He quotes various lines of evidence, including supposed advanced astronomical knowledge inherited by the tribe, descriptions, and comparative belief systems with ancient civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Sumer.[6]
  • The Face on Mars is a rock formation in Cydonia Mensae on Mars asserted to be evidence of intelligent, native life on the planet. High-resolution images taken recently show it to appear less face-like.[9] It features prominently in the works of Richard C. Hoagland and Tom Van Flandern.[10][11] This effect can also be explained by the psychological phenomenon pareidolia, whereby one assigns meaning (such as facial perception) to an otherwise ambiguous or meaningless stimulus.

Earth sciences

Physics

  • Water-fueled cars – an instance of perpetual motion machines. Such devices are claimed to use water as fuel or produce fuel from water on board with no other energy input. Many such claims are part of investment frauds.[35][36][37]
  • Gasoline pill, which was claimed to turn water into gasoline.[38]
  • Hongcheng Magic Liquid – a scam in China where Wang Hongcheng (Chinese: 王洪成; pinyin: Wáng Hóngchéng), a bus driver from Harbin with no scientific education, claimed in 1983 that he could turn regular water into a fuel as flammable as petrol by simply dissolving a few drops of his liquid in it.[39]

Applied sciences

Agriculture

Architecture

Finance

Health and medicine

See also: List of diagnoses characterized as pseudoscience and List of forms of alternative medicine

Pseudoscientific medical practices are often known as quackery. In contrast, modern medicine is (or seeks to be) evidence-based.

Social sciences

History

Psychology

Racial theories

See also: Historical race concepts

Sociology

Paranormal and ufology

Paranormal subjects[1][229][487][488] have been subject to critiques from a wide range of sources including the following claims of paranormal significance:

Numerology

Religious and spiritual beliefs

Spiritual and religious practices and beliefs, according to astronomer Carl Sagan, are normally not classified as pseudoscience.[533] However, religion can sometimes nurture pseudoscience, and "at the extremes it is difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from rigid, doctrinaire religion", and some religions might be confused with pseudoscience, such as traditional meditation.[533] The following religious/spiritual items have been related to or classified as pseudoscience in some way:

Creation science

Creation science or scientific creationism is a branch of creationism that claims to provide scientific support for the Genesis creation narrative in the Book of Genesis and disprove or reexplain the scientific facts, theories and scientific paradigms about geology, cosmology, biological evolution, archaeology, history and linguistics.[544][failed verification]

  • Irreducible complexity – claim that some biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler systems. It is used by proponents of intelligent design to argue that evolution by natural selection alone is incomplete or flawed, and that some additional mechanism (an "Intelligent Designer") is required to explain the origins of life.[556][557][558][559][560]
  • Specified complexity – claim that when something is simultaneously complex and specified, one can infer that it was produced by an intelligent cause (i.e., that it was designed) rather than being the result of natural processes.[454][555]

Scientology

Other

Idiosyncratic ideas

The following concepts have only a very small number of proponents, yet have become notable:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry, 2007: "Psychoanalysis has existed before the turn of the 20th century and, in that span of years, has established itself as one of the fundamental disciplines within psychiatry. The science of psychoanalysis is the bedrock of psychodynamic understanding and forms the fundamental theoretical frame of reference for a variety of forms of therapeutic intervention, embracing not only psychoanalysis itself but also various forms of psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and related forms of therapy using psychodynamic concepts."[462]
  2. ^ Robert Michels, 2009: "Psychoanalysis continues to be an important paradigm organizing the way many psychiatrists think about patients and treatment. However, its limitations are more widely recognized and it is assumed that many important advances in the future will come from other areas, particularly biologic psychiatry. As yet unresolved is the appropriate role of psychoanalytic thinking in organizing the treatment of patients and the training of psychiatrists after that biologic revolution has born fruit. Will treatments aimed at biologic defects or abnormalities become technical steps in a program organized in a psychoanalytic framework? Will psychoanalysis serve to explain and guide supportive intervention for individuals whose lives are deformed by biologic defect and therapeutic interventions, much as it now does for patients with chronic physical illness, with the psychoanalyst on the psychiatric dialysis program? Or will we look back on the role of psychoanalysis in the treatment of the seriously mentally ill as the last and most scientifically enlightened phase of the humanistic tradition in psychiatry, a tradition that became extinct when advances in biology allowed us to cure those we had so long only comforted?"[463]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Pollak, Melissa (13 January 2000). "Chapter 8: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding". In Bradburn, Norman M.; Lehming, Rolf; Carlson, Lynda; Frase, Mary J.; et al. (eds.). Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
  2. ^ Stuart, David (2011). The Order of Days: The Maya World and the Truth about 2012. Harmony Books. ISBN 978-0-385-52726-2.
  3. ^ "2012: Beginning of the End or Why the World Won't End?". 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011.
  4. ^ Harrold (1986). "Noah's Ark and Ancient Astronauts: Pseudoscientific Beliefs About the Past Among a Sample of College Students". The Skeptical Inquirer. Vol. 11 no. 1. Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. p. 61. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  5. ^ Carroll, Robert T (1994–2009). "The Skeptic's Dictionary". Zecharia Sitchin and The Earth Chronicles. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  6. ^ Temple, Robert (1999). The Sirius mystery : new scientific evidence of alien contact 5, 000 years ago. London: Arrow. ISBN 0-09-925744-0. OCLC 60154574.
  7. ^ a b Zarka, Philippe (2011). "Astronomy and astrology". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 5 (S260): 420–25. Bibcode:2011IAUS..260..420Z. doi:10.1017/S1743921311002602. ISSN 1743-9213.
  8. ^ Hendel, Ronald (2013). The book of Genesis : a biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 35–37. ISBN 978-0-691-14012-4. OCLC 788265521.
  9. ^ "The Face on Mars". NASA. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  10. ^ Hoagland, Richard (2001). The monuments of Mars : a city on the edge of forever. Berkeley, Calif: Frog Distributed by North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-054-9. OCLC 48613681.
  11. ^ Flandern, Tom (1998). "24". Dark matter, missing planets, and new comets : paradoxes resolved, origins illuminated. Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-268-2. OCLC 37992969.
  12. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (12 August 2011). "Full Moon and Lunar Effects". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  13. ^ Dure, Beau (20 January 2016). "Flat-Earthers are back: 'It's almost like the beginning of a new religion'". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  14. ^ Numbers, Ronald (1993). The creationists. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-520-08393-8. OCLC 28025595.
  15. ^ Plait, Philip (2002). Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing 'hoax. New York: Wiley. pp. 154–173. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. OCLC 48885221.
  16. ^ Nancy Lieder. "Nancy Lieder's biography". ZetaTalk. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  17. ^ Mukunda, H. S.; Deshpande, S. M.; Nagendra, H. R.; Prabhu, A. & Govindraju, S. P. (1974). "A critical study of the work 'Vyamanika Shastra'" (PDF). Scientific Opinion: 5–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  18. ^ Dalakov, Georgi. "Biography of Tito Livio Burattini (1617–1682)". History of Computers. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  19. ^ Page, Chester H.; Vigoureux, Paul (20 May 1975). "The International Bureau of Weights and Measures 1875–1975" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. US Department of Commerce. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  20. ^ "The Case of the Bermuda Triangle". NOVA / Horizon. 27 June 1976. PBS.
  21. ^ National Center for Science Education 2010: "The first pillar of climate change denial—that climate change is bad science—attacks various aspects of the scientific consensus about climate change...there are climate change deniers:
    • who deny that significant climate change is occurring
    • who...deny that human activity is significantly responsible
    • who...deny the scientific evidence about its significant effects on the world and our society...
    • who...deny that humans can take significant actions to reduce or mitigate its impact.
    Of these varieties of climate change denial, the most visible are the first and the second."
  22. ^ "Why Is It Called Denial?". National Center for Science Education. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  23. ^ Powell 2012, pp. 170–173: "Anatomy of Denial—Global warming deniers...throw up a succession of claims, and fall back from one line of defense to the next as scientists refute each one in turn. Then they start over:
    'The earth is not warming.'
    'All right, it is warming but the Sun is the cause.'
    'Well then, humans are the cause, but it doesn't matter, because it warming will do no harm. More carbon dioxide will actually be beneficial. More crops will grow.'
    'Admittedly, global warming could turn out to be harmful, but we can do nothing about it.'
    'Sure, we could do something about global warming, but the cost would be too great. We have more pressing problems here and now, like AIDS and poverty.'
    'We might be able to afford to do something to address global warming some-day, but we need to wait for sound science, new technologies, and geoengineering.'
    'The earth is not warming. Global warming ended in 1998; it was never a crisis.'
  24. ^ "Questioning 'Flood Geology'". NCSE. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  25. ^ Storr, Will (13 July 2014). "Hollow Earth conspiracy theories: the hole truth". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  26. ^ Philipkoski, Kristen (13 July 1999). "Shedding Light in the Dark". Wired. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
  27. ^ Patent application WO 2009125444, Andrea Rossi, "Method and Apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions", published 2009-10-15 
  28. ^ Zyga, Lisa (11 August 2011). "Controversial energy-generating system lacking credibility (w/ video)". PhysOrg.
  29. ^ Alpha Institute for Advanced Studies (AIAS), retrieved 22 August 2017: "ECE Theory was discovered by chemist, physicist, and mathematician, Myron Wyn Evans...".
  30. ^ 't Hooft, Gerard (2008). "Editorial note". Foundations of Physics. 38 (1): 1–2. Bibcode:2008FoPh...38....1T. doi:10.1007/s10701-007-9187-8. ISSN 0015-9018. S2CID 189843269.
  31. ^ Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired Magazine.
  32. ^ Tajmar, M. (2004). "Biefeld-Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind Phenomena". AIAA Journal. 42 (2): 315–318. Bibcode:2004AIAAJ..42..315T. doi:10.2514/1.9095. S2CID 3776302.
  33. ^ Park, Robert L. (2000). Voodoo Science. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195147100.
  34. ^ Milbank, Dana (18 September 2007). "There's the Red Vote, the Blue Vote…and the Little Green Vote". The Washington Post. …the aliens' advanced technology, which uses nonpolluting fuel, could revolutionize the transport of goods and people on this planet and rejuvenate the biosphere.
  35. ^ Edwards, Tony (1 December 1996). "End of road for car that ran on Water". The Sunday Times. Times Newspapers Limited. p. Features 12. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  36. ^ State of New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety press release, 9 November 2006
  37. ^ Lopez, Allison (20 December 2008). "Inventor, 82, gets 20 years for 'estafa'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 26 December 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  38. ^ "Don't get caught in 'Net gas scams". Daily News. New York. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  39. ^ Wu Xianghong (March 2005). "Paranormal in China". Skeptical Briefs newsletter. CSICOP. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008.
  40. ^ Robert L. Park (26 April 1991). "What's New Friday, 26 April 1991 Washington, DC". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2009. and Robert L. Park (31 October 2008). "What's New Friday, October 31, 2008". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
  41. ^ Dombey, Norman (8 August 2006). "The hydrino and other unlikely states". Physics Letters A. 360 (1): 62–65. arXiv:physics/0608095. Bibcode:2006PhLA..360...62D. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2006.07.069. S2CID 119011776.
  42. ^ Kenneth S. Isaacs (psychoanalyst), 1999: "Orgone—a useless fiction with faulty basic premises, thin partial theory, and unsubstantiated application results. It was quickly discredited and cast away."Isaacs 1999, p. 240.
  43. ^ Robert Blumenfeld (2006), "Chapter 6. Willian Reich and Character Analysis", Tools and techniques for character interpretation: a handbook of psychology for actors, writers, and directors, Limelight Series, Hal Leonard Corporation, pp. 135–137, ISBN 9780879103262
  44. ^ "Lysenkoism". merriam-webster.com.
  45. ^ Birstein, Vadim J. (2004). The Perversion of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813342801.
  46. ^ Ruse M (2013). Pigliucci M, Boudry M (eds.). Chapter 12: Evolution – From Pseudoscience to Popular Science, from Popular Science to Professional Science. Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-226-05182-6.
  47. ^ a b Dukes, Edwin Joshua (1971). The Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. p. 834.
  48. ^ Vierra, Monty (March 1997). "Harried by "Hellions" in Taiwan" (newsletter). Sceptical Briefs.
  49. ^ Johnson, Matthew (29 December 2009). Archaeological Theory: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4051-0015-1.
  50. ^ Quack, Johannes (2012). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780199812608. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  51. ^ Quack, Johannes (2012). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 9780199812608. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  52. ^ Narlikar, Jayant V. (2009). "Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking". In Percy, John; Pasachoff, Jay (eds.). Teaching and Learning Astronomy: Effective Strategies for Educators Worldwide. Cambridge University Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780521115391.
  53. ^ Kirkpatrick; Dahlquist (2006). Technical Analysis: The Complete Resource for Financial Market Technicians. Financial Times Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-13-153113-0.
  54. ^ Akston, Hugh (13 January 2009). "Beating the Quants at Their Own Game" (blog). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  55. ^ Dehnad, Kosrow. "Behavioral Finance and Technical Analysis" (PDF). The Capco Institute Journal of Financial Transformation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  56. ^ Mizrach, Bruce; Weerts, Susan (2007). "Highs and Lows: A Behavioral and Technical Analysis" (PDF). SSRN 1118080. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) hdl:10419/31262 doi:10.2139/ssrn.1118080
  57. ^ Paul V. Azzopardi (2010). Behavioural Technical Analysis: An introduction to behavioural finance and its role in technical analysis. Harriman House. ISBN 978-1-905641-41-3.
  58. ^ Andrew W. Lo; Jasmina Hasanhodzic (2010). The Evolution of Technical Analysis: Financial Prediction from Babylonian Tablets to Bloomberg Terminals. Bloomberg Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-57660-349-9. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  59. ^ Paulos, J.A. (2003). A Mathematician Plays the Stock Market. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465054800.
  60. ^ Griffioen, Gerwin A. W. (2003). "Technical Analysis in Financial Markets". SSRN 566882. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  61. ^ Fama, Eugene (1970). "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work" (PDF). The Journal of Finance. 25 (2): 383–417. doi:10.2307/2325486. JSTOR 2325486.
  62. ^ Barrett, S (30 December 2007). "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". Quackwatch. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  63. ^ Zhou K, Ma Y, Brogan MS (2015). "Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate". Acupunct Med. 33 (6): 485–490. doi:10.1136/acupmed-2015-010911. PMID 26546163. S2CID 23799474.
  64. ^ Donnerholt J, del Moral OM, Grobli C (2006). "Trigger point dry needling" (PDF). Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 14 (4): E70–E87. doi:10.1179/jmt.2006.14.4.70E. S2CID 72703587.
  65. ^ Lee EJ, Frazier SK (October 2011). "The efficacy of acupressure for symptom management: a systematic review". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 42 (4): 589–603. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.007. PMC 3154967. PMID 21531533.
  66. ^ Barrett S (9 March 2006). "Massage Therapy: Riddled with Quackery". Quackwatch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  67. ^ a b c Shah R, Greenberger PA (2012). "Unproved and controversial methods and theories in allergy-immunology". Allergy Asthma Proc. 33 (Suppl 1): S100–S102. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3562. PMID 22794702. S2CID 12033165. Quote: "There is no scientific basis for the existence of this disorder and no conclusive method for diagnosis."
  68. ^ a b "Adrenal Fatigue: Is It Real?". WebMD. Metcalf, Eric. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  69. ^ Gavura, Scott (28 October 2010). "Fatigued by a Fake Disease". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  70. ^ Cadegiani, Flavio A.; Kater, Claudio E. (24 August 2016). "Adrenal fatigue does not exist: a systematic review". BMC Endocrine Disorders. 16 (1): 48. doi:10.1186/s12902-016-0128-4. ISSN 1472-6823. PMC 4997656. PMID 27557747.
  71. ^ a b Bloch, Michael (2004). F.M. : the life of Frederick Matthias Alexander : founder of the Alexander technique. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-86048-2.
  72. ^ Rootberg, Ruth (September 2007). Mandy Rees (ed.). "Voice and Gender and other contemporary issues in professional voice and speech training". Voice and Speech Review. 35 (1): 164–170. doi:10.1080/23268263.2007.10769755. S2CID 144810660.
  73. ^ Harer, John B.; Munden, Sharon (2008). The Alexander Technique Resource Book: A Reference Guide. Scarecrow Press. pp. xii–xiii. ISBN 978-0810863927. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  74. ^ a b Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Lay summaryGavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine (19 November 2015).
  75. ^ a b NHS. "Alexander Technique – NHS Choices". nhs.uk. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  76. ^ Vickers AJ, Kuo J, Cassileth BR (January 2006). "Unconventional anticancer agents: a systematic review of clinical trials". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (1): 136–140. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.8406. PMC 1472241. PMID 16382123.
  77. ^ Cassileth BR (1996). "Alternative and Complementary Cancer Treatments". The Oncologist. 1 (3): 173–179. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.1-3-173. PMID 10387984.
  78. ^ Shapiro, Rose (30 September 2010). Suckers: How Alternative Medicine Makes Fools of Us All. Random House. ISBN 9781409059165.
  79. ^ "Integrative medicine": A brand, not a specialty. Science Based Medicine
  80. ^ Barrett, Stephen; London, William M.; Kroger, Manfred; Hall, Harriet; Baratz, Robert S. (2013). Consumer health: a guide to intelligent decisions (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 34–35, 134, 137. ISBN 9780078028489. OCLC 758098687.
  81. ^ "Directive 2004/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council". Official Journal of the European Union. 30 April 2004.
  82. ^ Wolfart, Karl Christian; Friedrich Anton Mesmer. Mesmerismus: Oder, System der Wechselwirkungen, Theorie und Anwendung des thierischen Magnetismus als die allgemeine Heilkunde zur Erhaltung des Menschen (in German, facsimile of the 1811 edition). Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 9781108072694. Foreword.
  83. ^ Kienle, Gunver S.; Kiene, Helmut; Albonico, Hans Ulrich (2006). "Anthroposophische Medizin: Health Technology Assessment Bericht – Kurzfassung". Forschende Komplementärmedizin. 13 (2): 7–18. doi:10.1159/000093481. PMID 16883076. S2CID 72253140. teils ergänzend und teils ersetzend zur konventionellen Medizin Cited in Ernst, E (2008). "Anthroposophic medicine: A critical analysis". MMW Fortschritte der Medizin. 150 (Suppl 1): 1–6. PMID 18540325.
  84. ^ Ernst, E. (2006). "Mistletoe as a treatment for cancer". BMJ. 333 (7582): 1282–1283. doi:10.1136/bmj.39055.493958.80. PMC 1761165. PMID 17185706.
  85. ^ McKie, Robin; Hartmann, Laura (29 April 2012). "Holistic unit will 'tarnish' Aberdeen University reputation". The Observer.
  86. ^ Dugan, Dan (1 January 2002). "Anthroposophy and Anthroposophical Medicine". In Michael Shermer (ed.). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8.
  87. ^ Jump, Paul (11 May 2012). "Aberdeen decides against alternative medicine chair". Times Higher Education Supplement.
  88. ^ Ades, Terri B.; Russel, Jill, eds. (2009). "Chapter 9: Pharmacologic and Biologic Therapies". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 704–708. ISBN 978-0-944235-71-3.
  89. ^ Barry R., Cassileth (2011). "Chapter 36: Apitherapy". The Complete Guide to Complementary Therapies in Cancer Care: Essential Information for Patients, Survivors and Health Professionals. World Scientific. pp. 221–224. ISBN 978-981-4335-66-9.
  90. ^ Lüdtke R, Kunz B, Seeber N, Ring J (2001). "Test-retest-reliability and validity of the Kinesiology muscle test". Complement Ther Med. 9 (3): 141–145. doi:10.1054/ctim.2001.0455. PMID 11926427.
  91. ^ Bernstein IL, Li JT, Bernstein DI, Hamilton R, Spector SL, Tan R, et al. (2008). "Allergy diagnostic testing: an updated practice parameter". Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 100 (Suppl 3): S1–148. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60305-5. PMID 18431959.
  92. ^ Kenney JJ, Clemens R, Forsythe KD (June 1988). "Applied kinesiology unreliable for assessing nutrient status". J Am Diet Assoc. 88 (6): 698–704. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(21)02038-1. PMID 3372923.
  93. ^ Russell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Applied Kinesiology". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 160–164. ISBN 9780944235713.
  94. ^ "Aromatherapy". Better Health Channel. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  95. ^ Kuriyama, Hiroko; Watanabe, Satoko; Nakaya, Takaaki; Shigemori, Ichiro; Kita, Masakazu; Yoshida, Noriko; Masaki, Daiki; Tadai, Toshiaki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fukui, Kenji; Imanishi, Jiro (2005). "Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2 (2): 179–184. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh087. PMC 1142199. PMID 15937558.
  96. ^ "Alternative therapies". www.macmillan.org.uk.
  97. ^ Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Jiae; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard (March 2012). "Aromatherapy for health care: An overview of systematic reviews". Maturitas. 71 (3): 257–260. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.12.018. PMID 22285469.
  98. ^ Hines S, Steels E, Chang A, Gibbons K (March 2018). "Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 (3): CD007598. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007598.pub3. PMC 6494172. PMID 29523018.
  99. ^ Barrett, M.D., Stephen (2 February 2008). "Auriculotherapy: A Skeptical Look". Acupuncture Watch. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  100. ^ Lee MS, Shin BC, Suen LK, Park TY, Ernst E (2008). "Auricular acupuncture for insomnia: a systematic review". Int. J. Clin. Pract. (Systematic review). 62 (11): 1744–1752. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01876.x. PMID 18754807. S2CID 37046783.
  101. ^ Rose, David (3 February 2010). "Lancet journal retracts Andrew Wakefield MMR scare paper". The Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011.
  102. ^ Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ, et al. (2010). "Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report". Pediatrics. 125: S1–S18. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.4329. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1878C. PMID 20048083. S2CID 318955.
  103. ^ Deer B (2011). "How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed". BMJ. 342: c5347. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5347. PMID 21209059.
  104. ^ Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H (2011). "Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". BMJ. 342: c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452. PMID 21209060. S2CID 43640126.
  105. ^ MacDonald TT, Domizio P (2007). "Autistic enterocolitis; is it a histopathological entity?". Histopathology. 50 (3): 371–379. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2007.02606.x. PMID 17257133. S2CID 22342418.
  106. ^ Jefferson T, Price D, Demicheli V, Bianco E (2003). "Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review". Vaccine. 21 (25–26): 3954–3960. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00271-8. PMID 12922131.
  107. ^ Gerber JS, Offit PA (2009). "Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses". Clin Infect Dis. 48 (4): 456–461. doi:10.1086/596476. PMC 2908388. PMID 19128068. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2018. Lay summaryIDSA (30 January 2009).
  108. ^ Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, Debalini MG, Demicheli V (2020). "Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4 (4): CD004407. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub4. PMC 7169657. PMID 32309885.
  109. ^ a b c "Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-97)". American Medical Association. 1997. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009.
  110. ^ a b c "Ayurvedic medicine". Quackwatch. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
  111. ^ Sharp, Lesley A. (December 2003). "Review of Fluent bodies: Ayourvedic Remedies for Postcolonial Imbalance". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 17 (4): 511–512. doi:10.1525/maq.2003.17.4.512. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
  112. ^ a b Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 45–4?. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7.
  113. ^ Angus Stevenson, ed. (2007). "Definition of balneo therapy". Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, vol. 1: A-M (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2.
  114. ^ a b c d Verhagen, Arianne P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Boers, Maarten; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob; de Vet, Henrica C. W. (11 April 2015). "Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD000518. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000518.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 7045434. PMID 25862243.
  115. ^ Verhagen AP; De Vet, HC; De Bie, RA; Kessels, AG; Boers, M; Knipschild, PG (October 1997). "Taking baths: the efficacy of balneotherapy in patients with arthritis. A systematic review". J Rheumatol. 24 (10): 1964–1971. PMID 9330940.
  116. ^ Falagas ME; et al. (2009). "The therapeutic effect of balneotherapy: Evaluation of the evidence from randomized controlled trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (7): 1068–1084. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02062.x. PMID 19570124. S2CID 26008531.
  117. ^ Chou, Brian (15 September 2004). "Exposing the Secrets of Fringe Eye Care". Review of Optometry. 141 (9). Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  118. ^ Barrett S (9 April 2002). "Biological Terrain Assessment Is Nonsense". Quackwatch. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  119. ^ Clark Glymour, Douglas Stalker (1990). "Winning through pseudoscience". In Patrick Grim (ed.). ? Philosophy of science and the occult. SUNY series in philosophy (2, revised ed.). SUNY Press. pp. 92, 94. ISBN 978-0-7914-0204-7.
  120. ^ Cosier, Susan (2015). "Could Memory Traces Exist in Cell Bodies?". Scientific American. 26: 14. doi:10.1038/scientificamericanmind0515-14b. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  121. ^ Smith, Susan E. (1993). "Body Memories: And Other Pseudo-Scientific Notions of "Survivor Psychology"". Issues in Child Abuse Accusations. 5. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  122. ^ Scott O. Lilienfeld SO; Lynn SJ; Lohr JM, eds. (2002). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-828-1.
  123. ^ Bessel van der Kolk, M.D. (25 September 2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-60830-2.
  124. ^ Hyatt, K. J. (1 April 2007). "Brain Gym®: Building Stronger Brains or Wishful Thinking?". Remedial and Special Education. 28 (2): 117–124. doi:10.1177/07419325070280020201. S2CID 145748559.
  125. ^ Goldacre, Ben (2010). "2: Brain Gym". Bad science : quacks, hacks, and big pharma flacks (First American ed.). Faber and Faber. ISBN 9781429967099.
  126. ^ Howard-Jones, Paul A. (15 October 2014). "Neuroscience and education: myths and messages". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 15 (12): 817–824. doi:10.1038/nrn3817. PMID 25315391. S2CID 3346477.
  127. ^ Rose, Hilary; Rose, Steven (23 June 2016). "The false promise of neuroeducation". Times Educational Supplement.
  128. ^ Novella, Steven (25 September 2013). "Candida and Fake Illnesses". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  129. ^ Stephen Barrett, M.D. (8 October 2005). "Dubious 'Yeast Allergies'". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008.
  130. ^ Anderson, J; Chai, H; Claman, H; Ellis, E; Fink, J; Kaplan, A; Lieberman, P; Pierson, W; Salvaggio, J; Sheffer, A (1986). "Candidiasis hypersensitivity syndromeApproved by the executive committee of the American academy of allergy and immunology". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 78 (2): 271–273. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(86)80073-2. ISSN 0091-6749. PMID 3734279.
  131. ^ Ernst, E. (2000). "Chelation therapy for coronary heart disease: An overview of all clinical investigations". American Heart Journal. 140 (1): 139–141. doi:10.1067/mhj.2000.107548. PMID 10874275.
  132. ^ Weber, W.; Newmark, S. (2007). "Complementary and alternative medical therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 54 (6): 983–1006. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2007.09.006. PMID 18061787.
  133. ^ "Chelation Therapy | Michigan Medicine". www.uofmhealth.org. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  134. ^ "Boy with autism dies during 'chelation therapy'". Behavior News. Behavior Analysis Association of Michigan. 30 August 2005. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  135. ^ a b American College of Medical Toxicology; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (February 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American College of Medical Toxicology and American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, retrieved 5 December 2013
  136. ^ Chapman-Smith DA, Cleveland CS III (2005). "International status, standards, and education of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 111–134. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
  137. ^ Nelson CF, Lawrence DJ, Triano JJ, Bronfort G, Perle SM, Metz RD, Hegetschweiler K, LaBrot T (2005). "Chiropractic as spine care: a model for the profession". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 13 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-9. PMC 1185558. PMID 16000175.
  138. ^ Homola, Sam (1 October 2010). "Chiropractic Vertebral Subluxations: Science vs. Pseudoscience". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  139. ^ Homola, Samuel (2010). "Real orthopaedic subluxations versus imaginary chiropractic subluxations". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 15 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2010.01053.x. ISSN 1465-3753.
  140. ^ Mootz RD, Shekelle PG (1997). "Content of practice". In Cherkin DC, Mootz RD (eds.). Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. pp. 67–91. OCLC 39856366. AHCPR Pub No. 98-N002.
  141. ^ Singh, S; Ernst, E (2008). "The truth about chiropractic therapy". Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. W.W. Norton. pp. 145–190. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6.
  142. ^ Keating J.C. Jr. (2005). "A brief history of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 23–64. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
  143. ^ Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Facts on File Inc. p. 52. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
  144. ^ Dobbs, R. H.; Cremer, R. J. (1975). "Phototherapy". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 50 (11): 833–836. doi:10.1136/adc.50.11.833. PMC 1545706. PMID 1108807.
  145. ^ Ades, Terri (2009). Complete Guide to Complementary & Alternative Cancer Therapies. American Cancer Society. p. 210. ISBN 9781604430530.
  146. ^ "Why you shouldn't be afraid of LEDs – European Scientist". europeanscientist.com. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  147. ^ Point1, S.; Lambrozo, J. (October–December 2017). "Some evidences that white LEDs are toxic for human at domestic radiance?". Radioprotection. 52 (4). Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  148. ^ S.Point, the danger of chromotherapy, Skeptical Inquirer, Vol.41, N°4, July/August 2017 skepdigest.awardspace.us/The_Danger_of_Chromotherapy.pdf
  149. ^ "S. Point and A. Barlier-Salsi, LED lighting and retinal damage" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  150. ^ Feder, HM; Johnson, BJB; O'Connell, S; et al. (October 2007). "A Critical Appraisal of 'Chronic Lyme Disease'". NEJM. 357 (14): 1422–1430. doi:10.1056/NEJMra072023. PMID 17914043. S2CID 35285261.
  151. ^ Baker, P. J. (14 July 2010). "Chronic Lyme disease: in defense of the scientific enterprise". The FASEB Journal. 24 (11): 4175–4177. doi:10.1096/fj.10-167247. PMID 20631327. S2CID 36141950.
  152. ^ Hall, Harriet (3 September 2013). "Does Everybody Have Chronic Lyme Disease? Does Anyone?". Science Based Medicine.
  153. ^ "Do you really need to clean your colon?". Marketplace. CBC Television. 2009. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
  154. ^ "Colon Therapy". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015.
  155. ^ a b Fung, Man C.; Bowen, Debra L. (1996). "Silver Products for Medical Indications: Risk-Benefit Assessment". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 34 (1): 119–126. doi:10.3109/15563659609020246. PMID 8632503. S2CID 10521403.
  156. ^ "Colloidal silver". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  157. ^ a b c d e "Colloidal Silver" (Last Updated September 2014). National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. July 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  158. ^ Wadhera A, Fung M (March 2005). "Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver". Dermatology Online Journal. 11 (1): 12. doi:10.5070/D30832G6D3. PMID 15748553.
  159. ^ Fung, M. C.; Weintraub, M.; Bowen, D. L. (1995). "Colloidal silver proteins marketed as health supplements". JAMA. 274 (15): 1196–1197. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530150020017. PMID 7563503.
  160. ^ "Over-the-counter drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Final rule" (PDF). Federal Register. 64 (158): 44653–44658. August 1999. PMID 10558603.
  161. ^ Newman, Mark; Kolecki, Paul (2001). "Argyria in the ED". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 19 (6): 525–526. doi:10.1053/ajem.2001.25773. PMID 11593479.
  162. ^ Aronoff, George R., ed. (1999). Evaluation and Treatment of Chronic Pain (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 571. ISBN 978-0-683-30149-6.
  163. ^ Barrett, Stephen (15 May 2004). "Why Cranial Therapy Is Silly". Quackwatch. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  164. ^ Ferré, J. C.; Chevalier, C.; Lumineau, J. P.; Barbin, J. Y. (1 September 1990). "Cranial osteopathy, delusion or reality?". Actualités Odonto-Stomatologiques. 44 (171): 481–494. ISSN 0001-7817. PMID 2173359.
  165. ^ "The False Science of Cryonics". MIT Technology Review.
  166. ^ "Does Cold reality versus the wishful thinking of cryonics?". Science-Based Medicine. 2 August 2014.
  167. ^ Steinbeck RL (29 September 2002). "Mainstream science is frosty over keeping the dead on ice". Chicago Tribune.
  168. ^ Regal, Brian. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-313-35507-3
  169. ^ "The Science of Cupping". nccaom.org. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  170. ^ "What Is Cupping Therapy? Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, and More". WebMD. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  171. ^ Daly, Annie (26 June 2018). "What Is Cupping Therapy—And Should You Try It?". Women's Health. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  172. ^ Crislip, Mark (24 December 2014). "Acupuncture Odds and Ends". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  173. ^ Salzberg, Steven (13 May 2019). "The Ridiculous And Possibly Harmful Practice of Cupping". Forbes. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019.
  174. ^ Klein, AV; Kiat, H (December 2015). "Detox diets for toxin elimination and weight management: a critical review of the evidence". Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 28 (6): 675–686. doi:10.1111/jhn.12286. PMID 25522674. S2CID 37704045.
  175. ^ "Detox press release". Sense About Science. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  176. ^ Porter, Sian (May 2016). "Detox Diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association.
  177. ^ "You can't detox your body. It's a myth. So how do you get healthy?". the Guardian. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  178. ^ DeMeo S (1998). "The Pseudoscience of Ear Wax Removal". Skeptical Inquirer. 22 (6): 17.
  179. ^ Seely, D.R.; Quigley, S.M.; Langman, A.W. (1996). "Ear candles: Efficacy and safety". Laryngoscope. 106 (10): 1226–1229. doi:10.1097/00005537-199610000-00010. PMID 8849790. S2CID 45885657.
  180. ^ Beatty M.D., Charles W. "Ear Candling: Is it Safe?". MayoClinic.org. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  181. ^ Kamioka, H; Tsutani, K; Mutoh, Y; Honda, T; Shiozawa, N; Okada, S; Park, SJ; Kitayuguchi, J; Kamada, M; Okuizumi, H; Handa, S (2012). "A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy". Psychology Research and Behavior Management. 5: 85–95. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S32402. PMC 3414249. PMID 22888281.
  182. ^ Oh, B; Lee, KJ; Zaslawski, C; Yeung, A; Rosenthal, D; Larkey, L; Back, M (18 October 2017). "Health and well-being benefits of spending time in forests: systematic review". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 22 (1): 71. doi:10.1186/s12199-017-0677-9. PMC 5664422. PMID 29165173.
  183. ^ "Naturopathy and Its Professors (1932)". naturowatch.org. 27 July 2003.
  184. ^ Röösli, Martin; Moser, Mirjana; Baldinini, Yvonne; Meier, Martin; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte (2004). "Symptoms of ill health ascribed to electromagnetic field exposure – a questionnaire survey". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 207 (2): 141–150. doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00269. ISSN 1438-4639. PMID 15031956.
  185. ^ Rubin, G James; Das Munshi, Jayati; Wessely, Simon (2005). "Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review of Provocation Studies". Psychosomatic Medicine. 67 (2): 224–32. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.543.1328. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000155664.13300.64. PMID 15784787. S2CID 13826364.
  186. ^ Goldacre, Ben. "Electrosensitives: the new cash cow of the woo industry". BadScience/The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  187. ^ "Electromagnetic fields and public health". Archived from the original on 16 November 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  188. ^ Jules Evans (14 July 2008). "Spiritual healing on the NHS?". The Times. London.
  189. ^ Astin, J.; et al. (2000). "The Efficacy of "Distant Healing: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials". Annals of Internal Medicine. 132 (11): 903–910. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-11-200006060-00009. PMID 10836918. S2CID 53089000.
  190. ^ Ernst, Edzard (2001). "A primer of complementary and alternative medicine commonly used by cancer patients". Medical Journal of Australia. 174 (2): 88–92. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2001.tb143161.x. PMID 11245510. S2CID 45055625.
  191. ^ Ernst E. (30 April 2003). "Distant healing—an update of a systematic review". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 115 (7–8): 241–245. doi:10.1007/BF03040322. PMID 12778776. S2CID 28737150. Since the publication of our previous systematic review in 2000, several rigorous new studies have emerged. Collectively they shift the weight of the evidence against the notion that distant healing is more than a placebo.
  192. ^ Vyse, Stuart (7 August 2018). "Autism Wars: Science Strikes Back". Skeptical Inquirer Online. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  193. ^ a b Auerbach, David (12 November 2015). "Facilitated Communication Is a Cult That Won't Die". Slate. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  194. ^ Lilienfeld; et al. (26 February 2015). "Why debunked autism treatment fads persist". Science Daily. Emory University. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  195. ^ Ganz, Jennifer B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Morin, Kristi L. (2018). "Facilitated Communication: The Resurgence of a Disproven Treatment for Individuals With Autism". Intervention in School and Clinic. 54: 52–56. doi:10.1177/1053451217692564.
  196. ^ a b Montee, B B; Miltenberger, R G; Wittrock, D; Watkins, N; Rheinberger, A; Stackhaus, J (1995). "An experimental analysis of facilitated communication". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 28 (2): 189–200. doi:10.1901/jaba.1995.28-189. PMC 1279809. PMID 7601804.
  197. ^ a b Goldacre, Ben (5 December 2009). "Making contact with a helping hand". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  198. ^ National Science Foundation (2002). "ch. 7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-16-066579-0. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. "Belief in pseudoscience is relatively widespread... Polls also show that one quarter to more than half of the public believes in ... faith healing."
  199. ^ Frazier, Kendrick (January 2005). "In the Land of Galileo, Fifth World Skeptics Congress Solves Mysteries, Champions Scientific Outlook". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2007. The majority of rigorous trials show no effect beyond placebo. (Edzard Ernst)
  200. ^ Russell, Sharman Apt; Russell, Sharman (1 August 2008). Hunger: An Unnatural History. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0786722396. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  201. ^ Porter, Sian (May 2016). "Detox diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. The whole idea of detox is nonsense. The body is a well-developed system that has its own built-in mechanisms to detoxify and remove waste and toxins. Our body constantly filters out, breaks down and excretes toxins and waste products like alcohol, medications, products of digestion, dead cells, chemicals from pollution and bacteria
  202. ^ David Gorski (23 May 2011). "Fashionably toxic". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  203. ^ a b Griffith, R. Marie (2000). "Apostles of Abstinence: Fasting and Masculinity during the Progressive Era". American Quarterly. 52 (4): 599–638. doi:10.1353/aq.2000.0047. PMID 16850570. S2CID 40920930.
  204. ^ Nash, Jay R. (1982). Zanies: The World's Greatest Eccentrics. New Century Publishers. p. 339. ISBN 978-0832901232
  205. ^ a b Gratzer, Walter. (2005). Terrors of the Table: The Curious History of Nutrition. Oxford University Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-19-280661-0
  206. ^ Kang, Lydia; Pedersen, Nate. (2017). Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything. Workman Publishing. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-7611-8981-7
  207. ^ Sampson, Wallace (30 October 2008). "Functional Medicine – New Kid on the Block". Science-Based Medicine.
  208. ^ Sampson, Wallace (9 July 2009). "Functional Medicine (FM) What Is It?". Science Based Medicine. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  209. ^ Pal, SK (March 2002). "Complementary and alternative medicine: An overview". Current Science. 82 (5): 518–524. JSTOR 24105958.
  210. ^ Ehrlich, G; Callender, T; Gaster, B (May 2013). "Integrative medicine at academic health centers: A survey of clinicians' educational backgrounds and practices" (PDF). Family Medicine. 45 (5): 330–334. PMID 23681684. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  211. ^ Hall, Harriet (2017). "Functional Medicine: Pseudoscientific Silliness". Skeptic. Vol. 22 no. 1. pp. 4–5.
  212. ^ a b Gorski, David (29 September 2014). "Quackademia update: The Cleveland Clinic, George Washington University, and the continued infiltration of quackery into medical academia". Science–Based Medicine. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  213. ^ "A Short Biography". Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  214. ^ "Dr.med.Mag.theol. Ryke Geerd Hamer – Germanische Neue Medizin – Dr. Hamer: DAS SPIEL IST AUS!". Dr-rykegeerdhamer.com. 11 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  215. ^ "Dr.med.Mag.theol. Ryke Geerd Hamer – Germanische Neue Medizin – Dr. Hamer an die Staatsanwaltschaft München". Dr-rykegeerdhamer.com. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  216. ^ Another cancer tragedy in the making, David Gorski, Science Based Medicine
  217. ^ Barrett, S. (1985). "Commercial hair analysis. Science or scam?". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 254 (8): 1041–1045. doi:10.1001/jama.254.8.1041. PMID 4021042.
  218. ^ Seidel, S. (2001). "Assessment of Commercial Laboratories Performing Hair Mineral Analysis". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 285 (1): 67–72. doi:10.1001/jama.285.1.67. PMID 11150111. S2CID 1947454.
  219. ^ Hair analysis: A potential for medical abuse. Policy number H-175.995,(Sub. Res. 67, I-84; Reaffirmed by CLRPD Rep. 3 – I-94)
  220. ^ Novella, Steven (22 September 2013). "Copper and Magnetic Bracelets Do Not Work for Rheumatoid Arthritis" (blog). James Randi Educational Foundation. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  221. ^ Weathers, Cliff (10 January 2015). "Quackwear: Big Pseudoscience Wants to Sell You Wearable Metal to Improve Your Health". AlterNet. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  222. ^ Rowe, Aaron (17 March 2008). "Video: Hexagonal Water is an Appalling Scam". Wired. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  223. ^ "Drinking Water and Water Treatment Scams". Alabama Cooperative Extension System. 22 October 2003.
  224. ^ "Understanding Hexagonal Water". Aqua Technology. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  225. ^ "Hexagonal Water". Frequency Rising. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  226. ^ "Homoeopathy's benefit questioned". BBC News. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2008. Professor Egger said: "We acknowledge to prove a negative is impossible. But good large studies of homeopathy do not show a difference between the placebo and the homoeopathic remedy, whereas in the case of conventional medicines you still see an effect."
  227. ^ "Homeopathy: systematic review of systematic reviews". Bandolier. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008. None of these systematic reviews provided any convincing evidence that homeopathy was effective for any condition. The lesson was often that the best designed trials had the most negative result
  228. ^ "Questions and Answers About Homeopathy". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. April 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2008. In sum, systematic reviews have not found homeopathy to be a definitively proven treatment for any medical condition.
  229. ^ a b Beyerstein, BL (1997). "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  230. ^ CSICOP, cited in National Science Foundation Subcommittee on Science & Engineering Indicators (2000). "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding: Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  231. ^ "NCAHF Position Paper on Homeopathy". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1994. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  232. ^ Tyler, Chris (September 2006). "Sense About Homeopathy" (PDF). Sense About Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2008. The scientific evidence shows that homeopathy acts only as a placebo and there is no scientific explanation of how it could work any other way.
  233. ^ "Questions and Answers About Homeopathy". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. April 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2008. a number of its key concepts do not follow the laws of science (particularly chemistry and physics)
  234. ^ "What is Homeopathy". American Cancer Society. 5 January 2000. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008. Most scientists say homeopathic remedies are basically water and can act only as placebos.
  235. ^ "Scientists attack homeopathy move". BBC News. 25 October 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2008. In a statement, the Royal College of Pathologists said they were "deeply alarmed" that the regulation of medicine had "moved away from science and clear information for the public"
  236. ^ D. S. Vohra (2002). Bach flower remedies : a comprehensive study. New Delhi: Health Harmony. p. 258. OCLC 428012690.
  237. ^ Thaler K, Kaminski A, Chapman A, Langley T, Gartlehner G (26 May 2009). "Bach Flower Remedies for psychological problems and pain: a systematic review". BMC Complement Altern Med. 9: 16. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-16. PMC 2695424. PMID 19470153.
  238. ^ Ernst E (2002). "'Flower remedies': a systematic review of the clinical evidence". Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. 114 (23–24): 963–966. PMID 12635462.
  239. ^ "Iridology". Natural Standard. 7 July 2005. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2008. Research suggests that iridology is not an effective method to diagnose or help treat any specific medical condition.
  240. ^ Ernst, E (January 2000). "Iridology: not useful and potentially harmful". Archives of Ophthalmology. 118 (1): 120–121. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.1.120. PMID 10636425.
  241. ^ "H-175.998 Evaluation of Iridology" (PDF). American Medical Association. Retrieved 30 July 2009. Our AMA believes that iridology, the study of the iris of the human eye, has not yet been established as having any merit as a diagnostic technique.
  242. ^ Kalichman, Seth C. (2009). Denying AIDS: Conspiracy Theories, Pseudoscience, and Human Tragedy. Springer. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-387-79476-1.
  243. ^ a b "Leaky gut syndrome". NHS Choices. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  244. ^ Cormier, Zoe (8 March 2008). "'Talk Therapy' Takes on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Coming Soon To Canada". Toronto. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  245. ^ a b c d Lerman RH (7 December 2010). "The Macrobiotic Diet in Chronic Disease". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 25 (6): 621–626. doi:10.1177/0884533610385704. PMID 21139126.
  246. ^ Pimentel L (2003). "Scurvy: historical review and current diagnostic approach". American Journal of Emergency Medicine (Review). 21 (4): 328–332. doi:10.1016/s0735-6757(03)00083-4. PMID 12898492. Persons at risk include... followers of fad diets such as the Zen macrobiotic diet
  247. ^ Bijlefeld M, Zoumbaris SK (2014). "Macrobiotics". Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6.
  248. ^ Bender DA (2014). diet, macrobiotic. A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191752391.
  249. ^ Hübner J, Marienfeld S, Abbenhardt C, Ulrich CM, Löser C (November 2012). "[How useful are diets against cancer?]". Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (Review) (in German). 137 (47): 2417–2422. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1327276. PMID 23152069.
  250. ^ a b "Macrobiotic diet". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  251. ^ Russell J; Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 638–642. ISBN 9780944235713.
  252. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Shermer, Michael, ed. (2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience (PDF). ABC–CLIO, Inc. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  253. ^ Park, Robert L. (2000). "The Virtual Astronaut". Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-513515-2. Not only are magnetic fields of no value in healing, you might characterize these as "homeopathic" magnetic fields.
  254. ^ National Science Foundation (2002). "7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-16-066579-0. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. Among all who had heard of [magnet therapy], 14 percent said it was very scientific and another 54 percent said it was sort of scientific. Only 25 percent of those surveyed answered correctly, that is, that it is not at all scientific.
  255. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd. "intuitive healer". skepdic.com. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  256. ^ Barcan, Ruth (2009). "Intuition and Reason in the New Age". In Howes, David (ed.). The Sixth Sense Reader. Sensory Formations. Berg Publishers. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-84788-261-5.
  257. ^ Novella, Steven (22 April 2009). "Pseudoscience in Medical News at the Huffington Post". sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  258. ^ Vulink, NC (23 August 2016). "Delusional Infestation: State of the Art". Acta Dermato-venereologica. 96 (217): 58–63. doi:10.2340/00015555-2412. PMID 27282746.open access
  259. ^ Halvorson, CR (October 2012). "An approach to the evaluation of delusional infestation". Cutis. 90 (4): E1–4. PMID 24005827.
  260. ^ Shmidt, E; Levitt, J (February 2012). "Dermatologic infestations". International Journal of Dermatology. 51 (2): 131–41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05191.x. PMID 22250620. S2CID 38920288.
  261. ^ Pearson, Michele L.; Selby, Joseph V.; Katz, Kenneth A.; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R.; Parise, Monica E.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Lewin-Smith, Michael R.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Hightower, Allen W.; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L.; Unexplained Dermopathy Study, Team (2012). "Clinical, Epidemiologic, Histopathologic and Molecular Features of an Unexplained Dermopathy". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e29908. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...729908P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029908. PMC 3266263. PMID 22295070.
  262. ^ Fyfe, Melissa (31 July 2015). "Under their skin: the Morgellons mystery". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  263. ^ Coyle, M. E.; Smith, C. A.; Peat, B (2012). "Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (5): CD003928. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003928.pub3. PMID 22592693.
  264. ^ Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Beom-Joon; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 38 (5): 829–38. doi:10.1142/S0192415X10008275. PMID 20821815. S2CID 8383035.
  265. ^ Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Park, Ji-Eun; Lee, Song-Shil; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for cancer care: A systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Cancer. 10: 130. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-130. PMC 2873382. PMID 20374659.
  266. ^ Lee, M. S.; Shin, B.-C.; Kim, J.-I.; Han, C.-h.; Ernst, E. (2010). "Moxibustion for Stroke Rehabilitation: Systematic Review". Stroke. 41 (4): 817–20. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566851. PMID 20150551.
  267. ^ Lee, Dong-Hyo; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for ulcerative colitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Gastroenterology. 10: 36. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-36. PMC 2864201. PMID 20374658.
  268. ^ Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Park, Ji-Eun; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Effects of moxibustion for constipation treatment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Chinese Medicine. 5: 28. doi:10.1186/1749-8546-5-28. PMC 2922210. PMID 20687948.
  269. ^ Kim, Jong-In; Choi, Jun-Yong; Lee, Hyangsook; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for hypertension: A systematic review". BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 10: 33. doi:10.1186/1471-2261-10-33. PMC 2912786. PMID 20602794.
  270. ^ Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Jung Won; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Does moxibustion work? An overview of systematic reviews". BMC Research Notes. 3: 284. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-284. PMC 2987875. PMID 21054851.
  271. ^ "License 16776: Devi S. Nambudripad". California Board of Chiropractic Examiners. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  272. ^ "License 3433: Devi S. Nambudripad". California Acupuncture Board. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  273. ^ Nambudripad, Devi S. (2003). NAET: Say Goodbye to Asthma: A Revolutionary Treatment for Allergy-Based Asthma and Other Respiratory Disorders. Say Good-Bye To... Series. Delta Publishing Company. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-9743915-1-9.
  274. ^ Thyer, Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica G. (2015), Science and Pseudoscience in Social Work Practice, Springer Publishing, p. 47, ISBN 9780826177698, Another energy-based therapy that is claimed to identify and treat allergies...is called the Nambudripad allergy elimination technique (NAET; Nambudripad, 2003). However, a dearth of studies is not the same thing as evidence which conclusively proves that NAET is either ineffective or dangerous. Organizations that do rigorous clinical trials would have little interest in studying NAET because it is non-drug based. Funding is not usually available for assessing any alternative healing modalities. Defenders of alternative and holistic healing point out that most family doctors treat patients who have a wide range of underlying emotional issues that impair the patient's health. This could happen, for example, through elevated cortisone or adrenaline levels from prolonged stress. NAET testing is carried out through applied kinesiology while a person is holding small vials that are said to contain the energetic essences of various substances. Once the allergies are identified, treatment is carried out through stimulation of points along the spine. These vials contain substances prepared in a process similar to that of homeopathic preparation. Mainstream science claims this method has not been shown reliable or valid in assessing a client's sensitivity to environmental toxins.
  275. ^ Sarris, J., and Wardle, J. 2010. Clinical naturopathy: an evidence-based guide to practice. Elsevier Australia. Chatswood, NSW.
  276. ^ Atwood KC (26 March 2004). "Naturopathy, pseudoscience, and medicine: myths and fallacies vs truth". Medscape Gen Med. 6 (1): 33. PMC 1140750. PMID 15208545.
  277. ^ a b Barrett S (23 December 2003). "A close look at naturopathy". Quackwatch. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  278. ^ McKnight, P (7 March 2009). "Naturopathy's main article of faith cannot be validated: Reliance on vital forces leaves its practises based on beliefs without scientific backing". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
  279. ^ National Science Board (April 2002). "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding – Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". Science and engineering indicators. Arlington, Virginia: National Science Foundation Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  280. ^ Wahlberg A (2007). "A quackery with a difference – new medical pluralism and the problem of 'dangerous practitioners' in the United Kingdom" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. 65 (11): 2307–16. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.024. PMID 17719708.
  281. ^ "Iridology is nonsense". 9 November 2015., a web page with further references
  282. ^ "ACS: Colon Therapy". Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  283. ^ Carroll, Robert. "Natural". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
  284. ^ "NCAHF Position Paper on Over the Counter Herbal Remedies (1995)". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1995. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
  285. ^ Alexander, Dominik D.; Bailey, William H.; Perez, Vanessa; Mitchell, Meghan E.; Su, Steave (9 September 2013). "Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review". Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine. 12: 14. doi:10.1186/1477-5751-12-14. PMC 3848581. PMID 24016271.
  286. ^ Goldacre, Ben (17 July 2003). "The truth about oxygen". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  287. ^ Novella, Steven (12 March 2014). "Oil Pulling Your Leg". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  288. ^ Saul AW; Hoffer A (2008). Orthomolecular Medicine For Everyone: Megavitamin Therapeutics for Families and Physicians. Laguna Beach, California: Basic Health Publications. ISBN 978-1-59120-226-4. OCLC 232131968. OL 16944688M.
  289. ^ McMichael AJ (January 1981). "Orthomolecular medicine and megavitamin therapy". Med. J. Aust. 1 (1): 6–8. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.1981.tb135275.x. PMID 7207301. S2CID 27461422.
  290. ^ Hoffer A, Walker M (2000). Smart Nutrients. Avery. ISBN 978-0-89529-562-0.
  291. ^ Skinner Patricia (2004). "Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine: holistic medicine". Thomson Gale.
  292. ^ "Orthomolecular medicine". orthomed.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011.
  293. ^ Aaronson S, et al. (2003). "Cancer medicine". In Frei Emil, Kufe Donald W, Holland James F (eds.). Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker. pp. 76. ISBN 978-1-55009-213-4. There is no evidence that megavitamin or orthomolecular therapy is effective in treating any disease.
  294. ^ "NIH state-of-the-science conference statement on multivitamin/mineral supplements and chronic disease prevention". NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 23 (2): 1–30. 2006. PMID 17332802.
  295. ^ Lipton M, et al. (1973). "Task Force Report on Megavitamin and Orthomolecular Therapy in Psychiatry". American Psychiatric Association. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  296. ^ Yang, M; Yuping, Y; Yin, X; Wang, BY; Wu, T; Liu, GJ; Dong, BR (2013). Dong, Bi Rong (ed.). "Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 (2): CD006338. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006338.pub3. PMID 23450568. S2CID 205182325.
  297. ^ Posadzki, P.; Lee, M. S.; Ernst, E. (2013). "Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Pediatric Conditions: A Systematic Review". Pediatrics. 132 (1): 140–52. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3959. PMID 23776117. S2CID 5112754.
  298. ^ Hondras, Maria A; Linde, Klaus; Jones, Arthur P (2005). Hondras, Maria A (ed.). "Manual therapy for asthma". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD001002. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001002.pub2. PMID 15846609.
  299. ^ Guglielmo, WJ (1998). "Are D.O.s losing their unique identity?". Medical Economics. 75 (8): 200–02, 207–10, 213–14. PMID 10179479.
  300. ^ Salzberg, Steven (27 October 2010). "Osteopathic Physicians Versus Doctors". Forbes. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  301. ^ "pulse diagnosis – Science-Based Medicine". sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  302. ^ Bilton, Karen; Zaslawski, Chris (August 2016). "Reliability of Manual Pulse Diagnosis Methods in Traditional East Asian Medicine: A Systematic Narrative Literature Review". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. New York, N.Y. 22 (8): 599–609. doi:10.1089/acm.2016.0056. ISSN 1557-7708. PMID 27314975.
  303. ^ "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". Quackwatch. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  304. ^ Pilkington, Mark (15 April 2004). "A vibe for radionics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 February 2008. Scientific American concluded: 'At best, [ERA] is all an illusion. At worst, it is a colossal fraud.'
  305. ^ Radionic Association (23 May 2006). "10 lesser-known alternative therapies". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2008. Radionics is a technique of healing using extrasensory perception (ESP) and an instrument.
  306. ^ a b Isaak, Mark (ed.). "Index to Creationist Claims: Geology". TalkOrigins Archive.
  307. ^ "What is Radionics". The Radionic Association. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2008. This subtle field cannot be accessed using our conventional senses. Radionic practitioners use a specialised dowsing technique to both identify the sources of weakness in the field and to select specific treatments to overcome them.
  308. ^ "Electromagnetic Therapy". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008. There is no relationship between the conventional medical uses of electromagnetic energy and the alternative devices or methods that use externally applied electrical forces. Available scientific evidence does not support claims that these alternative electrical devices are effective in diagnosing or treating cancer or any other disease.
  309. ^ Helwig, David (2004). "Radionics". In Longe, Jacqueline L. (ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. Gale Cengage. ISBN 978-0-7876-7424-3. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
  310. ^ a b Novella, Steven (19 October 2011). "Reiki". Science-Based Medicine. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015.
  311. ^ a b Lee, MS; Pittler, MH; Ernst, E (2008). "Effects of reiki in clinical practice: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice (Systematic Review). 62 (6): 947–54. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01729.x. PMID 18410352. S2CID 25832830. In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to suggest that reiki is an effective treatment for any condition. Therefore the value of reiki remains unproven.
  312. ^ Reiki: Fraudulent Misrepresentation « Science-Based Medicine: Reiki: Fraudulent Misrepresentation « Science-Based Medicine, accessdate: 28 May 2016
  313. ^ Russell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Reiki". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 243–45. ISBN 9780944235713.
  314. ^ "Reiki". Cancer Research UK. 30 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015.
  315. ^ "Reiki: What You Need To Know". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  316. ^ Kunz, Kevin; Kunz, Barbara (1993). The Complete Guide to Foot Reflexology. Reflexology Research Project. ISBN 9780960607013.
  317. ^ Ernst E (2009). "Is reflexology an effective intervention? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Med J Aust. 191 (5): 263–66. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2009.tb02780.x. PMID 19740047. S2CID 17307793.
  318. ^ Norman, Laura; Thomas Cowan (1989). The Reflexology Handbook, A Complete Guide. Piatkus. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 978-0-86188-912-9.
  319. ^ "Natural Standard". Harvard Medical School. 7 July 2005. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  320. ^ "Reflexology". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1996. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  321. ^ Cordón, LA (January 2005). "Rolfing". Popular Psychology: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 217–18. ISBN 978-0-313-32457-4.
  322. ^ Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016. Lay summaryGavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine. (19 November 2015).
  323. ^ a b c d ""Beyond Science", on season 8, episode 2". Scientific American Frontiers. Chedd-Angier Production Company. 1997–1998. PBS. Archived from the original on 2006.
  324. ^ Wallace, Sampson; Vaughn, Lewis (24 March 1998). "'Therapeutic Touch' Fails a Rare Scientific Test". CSICOP News. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007. Despite this lack of evidence, TT is now supported by major nursing organizations such as the National League of Nurses and the American Nurses Association.
  325. ^ a b c "Scientific American". Archived from the original on 9 October 2009.
  326. ^ O'Mathúna, Dónal P.; Ashford, Robert L. (29 July 2014). O'Mathúna, Dónal P (ed.). "Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD002766. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002766.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25069726.
  327. ^ Courcey, Kevin. "Further Notes on Therapeutic Touch". Quackwatch. Retrieved 5 December 2007. What's missing from all of this, of course, is any statement by Krieger and her disciples about how the existence of their energy field can be demonstrated by scientifically accepted methods.
  328. ^ "Energy Medicine: An Overview". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007. neither the external energy fields nor their therapeutic effects have been demonstrated convincingly by any biophysical means.
  329. ^ Huxley, Julian (1925–1926). "The Tissue-Culture King: A Parable of Modern Science". The Yale Review. XV: 479–504.
  330. ^ Huxley, Julian (August 1927). "The Tissue-Culture King". Amazing Stories. Well, we had discovered that metal was relatively impervious to the telepathic effect, and had prepared for ourselves a sort of tin pulpit, behind which we could stand while conducting experiments. This, combined with caps of metal foil, enormously reduced the effects on ourselves.
  331. ^ Unschuld, Paul Ulrich (1985). Medicine in China: A History of Ideas. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06216-0.
  332. ^ a b c d "Traditional Chinese Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment". Complementary/Integrative Medicine Therapies. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Retrieved 12 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  333. ^ "The Roots of Qi". CSICOP. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  334. ^ NIH Consensus Development Program (3–5 November 1997). "Acupuncture – Consensus Development Conference Statement". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  335. ^ Barrett, Stephen (30 December 2007). "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". Quackwatch. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  336. ^ a b "NCAHF Position Paper on Acupuncture (1990)". National Council Against Health Fraud. 16 September 1990. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  337. ^ Maciocia, Giovanni (1989). The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-03980-5.
  338. ^ Barrett, Stephen (28 March 2008). "Why TCM Diagnosis Is Worthless". Acupuncture Watch. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  339. ^ "Traditional Chinese Medicine: Overview of Herbal Medicines". Complementary/Integrative Medicine Therapies. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  340. ^ "Traditional Medicine and Pseudoscience in China: A Report of the Second CSICOP Delegation (Part 1)". CSICOP. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  341. ^ Yuehua, N; Chen, J; Wu, T; Jiafu, W; Liu, G; Chen, Jin (2004). Chen, Jin (ed.). "Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat (Review)". Protocols. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004877.
  342. ^ Praities, Nigel (7 August 2008). "GPs warned over Chinese medicine". Pulse. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  343. ^ Normile, Dennis (2003). "Asian Medicine: the New Face of Traditional Chinese Medicine". Science. 299 (5604): 188–90. doi:10.1126/science.299.5604.188. PMID 12522228. S2CID 70525749.
  344. ^ Vashi NA, Patzelt N, Wirya S, Maymone MB, Zancanaro P, Kundu RV (2018). "Dermatoses caused by cultural practices: Therapeutic cultural practices". J Am Acad Dermatol (Review). 79 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2017.06.159. PMID 29908818. S2CID 49268995.
  345. ^ Crislip C (20 February 2015). "Traditional Chinese Pseudo-Medicine Hodgepodge". Science-Based Medicine.
  346. ^ Ernst, Edzard (11 January 2013). "Gua Sha: torture or treatment?". Edzardernst.com. Edzard Ernst. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  347. ^ "Definition of Chinese meridian theory". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  348. ^ Mann, Felix (1996). Reinventing Acupuncture: A New Concept of Ancient Medicine. London: Butterworth Heinemann. p. 14. ...acupuncture points are no more real than the black spots that a drunkard sees in front of his eyes.
  349. ^ Robinson, N; Lorenc, A; Liao, X (2011). "The evidence for Shiatsu: A systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 11: 88. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-88. PMC 3200172. PMID 21982157. Shiatsu incorporates acupressure, which is similar but applies pressure for longer on specific pressure points on meridians, following Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
  350. ^ "Shiatsu". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  351. ^ Shermer, Michael (July 2005). "Full of Holes: the curious case of acupuncture". Scientific American. 293 (2): 30. Bibcode:2005SciAm.293b..30S. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0805-30. PMID 16053133.
  352. ^ Stenger, Victor J. (June 1998). "Reality Check: the energy fields of life". Skeptical Briefs. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2007. "Despite complete scientific rejection, the concept of a special biological fields within living things remains deeply engraved in human thinking. It is now working its way into modern health care systems, as non-scientific alternative therapies become increasingly popular. From acupuncture to homeopathy and therapeutic touch, the claim is made that healing can be brought about by the proper adjustment of a person's or animal's 'bioenergetic fields.'"
  353. ^ "Traditional Medicine and Pseudoscience in China: A Report of the Second CSICOP Delegation (Part 2)". CSICOP. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
  354. ^ "qigong". Collins English Dictionary.
  355. ^ a b "Tai Chi and Qi Gong: In Depth". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. October 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  356. ^ Cohen, K. S. (1999). The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing. Random House of Canada. ISBN 978-0-345-42109-8.
  357. ^ Lee MS, Oh B, Ernst E (2011). "Qigong for healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews". JRSM Short Rep. 2 (2): 1–5. doi:10.1258/shorts.2010.010091. PMC 3046559. PMID 21369525.
  358. ^ Gardner, Martin (2001). Did Adam and Eve Have Navels?: Debunking Pseudoscience. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 92–101. ISBN 978-0-393-32238-5.
  359. ^ Boseley, Sarah (2 February 2010). "Lancet retracts 'utterly false' MMR paper". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
  360. ^ Doja A, Roberts W (November 2006). "Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature". Can J Neurol Sci. 33 (4): 341–46. doi:10.1017/s031716710000528x. PMID 17168158.
  361. ^ Taylor, Luke E.; Swerdfeger, Amy L.; Eslick, Guy D. (June 2014). "Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies". Vaccine. 32 (29): 3623–29. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559.
  362. ^ Immunization Safety Review Committee, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine (2004). Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/10997. ISBN 978-0-309-09237-1. PMID 20669467.
  363. ^ Hilton S, Petticrew M, Hunt K (2006). "'Combined vaccines are like a sudden onslaught to the body's immune system': parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and 'immune-vulnerability'". Vaccine. 24 (20): 4321–27. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.003. PMID 16581162.
  364. ^ Hurst L (30 October 2009). "Vaccine phobia runs deep". Toronto Star. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  365. ^ Gerber JS, Offit PA (2009). "Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses". Clin Infect Dis. 48 (4): 456–61. doi:10.1086/596476. PMC 2908388. PMID 19128068. Lay summaryIDSA (30 January 2009).
  366. ^ Williams, William A. (2000). Encyclopedia of pseudoscience. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-3351-5.
  367. ^ Nippoldt, Todd (21 November 2009). "Is Wilson's syndrome a legitimate ailment?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  368. ^ "Public Health Statement: "Wilson's Syndrome"". American Thyroid Association. 24 May 2005.
  369. ^ Crighton, F.; et al. (November 2014). "The Link between Health Complaints and Wind Turbines: Support for the Nocebo Expectations Hypothesis". Frontiers in Public Health. 2 (220): 220. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00220. PMC 4227478. PMID 25426482.
  370. ^ "Interview with Simon Chapman". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 October 2012.
  371. ^ Rourke, Alison (15 March 2013). "Windfarm sickness spreads by word of mouth, Australian study finds". The Guardian.
  372. ^ Simon Chapman (10 April 2015). "Summary of main conclusions reached in 25 reviews of the research literature on wind farms and health". Sydney University School of Public Health. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  373. ^ a b Popper, Karl (2002). Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 978-0415285940.
  374. ^ a b c Thornton, Stephen (2021), "Karl Popper", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2021 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 9 May 2021
  375. ^ Williams, Liz (24 September 2012). "Karl Popper, the enemy of certainty, part 3: rejecting politics as science". the Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  376. ^ a b Hudelson, Richard (1980). "Popper's Critique of Marx". Philosophical Studies. 37 (3): 259–270. doi:10.1007/BF00372447. JSTOR 4319371. S2CID 170099971.
  377. ^ Fuller, Mike (1996). "Is Science an Ideology?". philosophynow.org. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  378. ^ Musgrave, Alan; Pigden, Charles (2021), "Imre Lakatos", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2021 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 9 May 2021
  379. ^ Burawoy, Michael (1989). "Marxism, Philosophy and Science". Berkeley Journal of Sociology. 34: 237. JSTOR 41035415.
  380. ^ van den Haag, Ernest (1987). "Marxism as Pseudo-Science" (PDF). Reason Papers. 12: 26–32.
  381. ^ Feaver, George (1971). "Popper and Marxism". Studies in Comparative Communism. 4 (3–4): 16–21. doi:10.1016/S0039-3592(71)80001-7.
  382. ^ Schuting, W.A. (1972). "Marx, Popper and 'Historicism'". Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy. 15 (1–4): 235–266. doi:10.1080/00201747208601662.
  383. ^ Palmer, Bryan D. (1993). "Critical Theory, Historical Materialism, and the Ostensible End of Marxism: The Poverty of Theory Revisited". International Review of Social History. 38 (2): 133–162. doi:10.1017/S0020859000111927.
  384. ^ Randi, James (16 July 2004). "An Important Appeal". James Randi Educational Foundation. Archived from the original (newsletter) on 17 July 2004. Retrieved 17 November 2007. This is a total quack procedure that has actually killed children.
  385. ^ Maloney, Shannon-Bridget (24 July 2003). "Be Wary of Attachment Therapy". Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  386. ^ Berlin, Lisa J.; Ziv, Yair; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Greenberg, Mark T., eds. (2007). "Preface". Enhancing Early Attachments. Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy. Duke series in child development and public policy. Guilford Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1-59385-470-6.
  387. ^ Chaffin, M; Hanson, R; Saunders, BE; Nichols, T; Barnett, D; Zeanah, C; Berliner, L; Egeland, B; et al. (2006). "Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems". Child Maltreat. 11 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1177/1077559505283699. PMID 16382093. S2CID 11443880.
  388. ^ Haldeman, Douglas C. (December 1999). "The Pseudo-science of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy" (PDF). ANGLES: The Policy Journal of the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies. 4 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  389. ^ "Position Statement on Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation (Reparative or Conversion Therapies)". American Psychiatric Association. May 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  390. ^ "Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel" (PDF). Just the Facts Coalition. 1999. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  391. ^ Glassgold, JM (1 August 2009). "Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). American Psychological Association. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  392. ^ Finn, Peter (2 October 2005). "Russia's 1-Step Program: Scaring Alcoholics Dry". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  393. ^ Feske, Ulrike (1998). "Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 5 (2): 171–181. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00142.x.
  394. ^ Schnyder, Ulrich; Cloitre, Marylène (14 February 2015). Evidence Based Treatments for Trauma-Related Psychological Disorders: A Practical Guide for Clinicians. Springer. ISBN 9783319071091. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  395. ^ Guidelines for the management of conditions that are specifically related to stress. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013. PMID 24049868.
  396. ^ Herbert, J (2000). "Science and pseudoscience in the development of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Implications for clinical psychology". Clinical Psychology Review. 20 (8): 945–971. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00017-3. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 11098395.
  397. ^ Lee, Christopher William; Cuijpers, Pim (2013). "A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories". Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 44 (2): 231–239. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.11.001. ISSN 0005-7916. PMID 23266601.
  398. ^ Vyse, Stuart (7 August 2018). "Autism Wars: Science Strikes Back". Skeptical Inquirer Online. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  399. ^ Hemsley, Bronwyn; Bryant, Lucy; Schlosser, Ralf; Shane, Howard; Lang, Russell; Paul, Diane; Benajee, Meher; Ireland, Marie (2018). "Systematic review of facilitated communication 2014–2018 finds no new evidence that messages delivered using facilitated communication are authored by the person with the disability". Autism and Developmental Language Impairments. 3: 239694151882157. doi:10.1177/2396941518821570.
  400. ^ Lilienfeld; et al. "Why debunked autism treatment fads persist". Science Daily. Emory University. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  401. ^ Ganz, Jennifer B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Morin, Kristi L. (February 2017). "Facilitated Communication". Intervention in School and Clinic. 54: 52–56. doi:10.1177/1053451217692564.
  402. ^ Stalker D, Glymour C, eds. (1989). Examining Holistic Medicine. Prometheus Books. p. 373. ISBN 9780879755539. a system of exercise therapy developed in the 1940s by former judo instructor Moshe Feldenkrais
  403. ^ Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016. Lay summaryGavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine. (19 November 2015).
  404. ^ Singh, S; Ernst, E (2009). Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial. Corgi.
  405. ^ "Barry Beyerstein Q&A". Ask the Scientists. Scientific American Frontiers. Retrieved 22 February 2008. they simply interpret the way we form these various features on the page in much the same way ancient oracles interpreted the entrails of oxen or smoke in the air. I.e., it's a kind of magical divination or fortune telling where 'like begets like.'
  406. ^ "The use of graphology as a tool for employee hiring and evaluation". British Columbia Civil Liberties Union. 1988. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008. On the other hand, in properly controlled, blind studies, where the handwriting samples contain no content that could provide non-graphological information upon which to base a prediction (e.g., a piece copied from a magazine), graphologists do no better than chance at predicting the personality traits
  407. ^ National Academy of Science (1999). Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, 2nd edition. National Academy Press. p. 48. doi:10.17226/6024. ISBN 978-0-309-06406-4. PMID 25101403.
  408. ^ Thomas, John A. (2002). "Graphology Fact Sheet". North Texas Skeptics. Retrieved 22 February 2008. In summary, then, it seems that graphology as currently practiced is a typical pseudoscience and has no place in character assessment or employment practice. There is no good scientific evidence to justify its use, and the graphologists do not seem about to come up with any.
  409. ^ "Hypnosis". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  410. ^ a b Westen et al. 2006 "Psychology: Australian and New Zealand edition" John Wiley.
  411. ^ Cathcart, Brian; Wilkie, Tom (18 December 1994). "Hypnotism does not exist, say experts". The Independent. London. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
  412. ^ "NICE Guidance for IBS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2012.
  413. ^ Nash, Michael R. "The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis". Scientific American: July 2001 Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  414. ^ Lynn, Steven Jay; Lock, Timothy; Loftus, Elizabeth; Krackow, Elisa; Lilienfeld, Scott O. (2003). "The remembrance of things past: problematic memory recovery techniques in psychotherapy". In Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (eds.). Science and Pseudoscience in Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 219–20. ISBN 978-1-57230-828-2. "[H]ypnotically induced past life experiences are rule-governed, goal-directed fantasies that are context generated and sensitive to the demands of the hypnotic regression situation."
  415. ^ "What is Hypnotherapy and How Does it Differ From Hypnosis?". Hypnos.info. 22 July 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  416. ^ Vickers, A; Zollman, C; Payne, DK (2001). "Hypnosis and relaxation therapies". West. J. Med. 175 (4): 269–72. doi:10.1136/ewjm.175.4.269. PMC 1071579. PMID 11577062. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, particularly that related to stressful situations, such as receiving chemotherapy
  417. ^ a b Whittaker, S. Secret attraction Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Montreal Gazette, 12 May 2007.
  418. ^ Mary Carmichael & Ben Radford (29 March 2007). "CSI | Secrets and Lies". Csicop.org. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  419. ^ Kaptchuk, T.; Eisenberg, D. (1998). "The Persuasive Appeal of Alternative Medicine". Annals of Internal Medicine. 129 (12): 1061–65. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.694.4798. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-129-12-199812150-00011. PMID 9867762. S2CID 24942410.
  420. ^ a b Polichak, James W. (2002). "Memes as Pseudoscience". In Shermer, Michael (ed.). Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. pp. 664f. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8.
  421. ^ "Goodbye to MBTI, the Fad That Won't Die". Psychology Today. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  422. ^ Pittenger, David. "Measuring the MBTI... And Coming Up Short" (PDF). Psychology Today.
  423. ^ Zurcher, Anthony (15 July 2014). "Debunking the Myers-Briggs personality test". BBC News. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  424. ^ Burnett, Dean (19 March 2013). "Nothing personal: The questionable Myers-Briggs test". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  425. ^ Eveleth, Rose. "The Myers-Briggs Personality Test Is Pretty Much Meaningless". Smithsonian. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  426. ^ Thyer, Dr Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica (15 May 2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Social Work Practice. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 50–51. ISBN 9780826177681.
  427. ^ Boyle, Gregory J. (1 March 1995). "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Some Psychometric Limitations". Australian Psychologist. 30 (1): 71–74. doi:10.1111/j.1742-9544.1995.tb01750.x. ISSN 1742-9544. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  428. ^ Hunsley, John; Catherine M. Lee; James M. Wood (2003). "Controversial and questionable assessment techniques". Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology: 39–76.
  429. ^ Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (1 October 2014). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. Guilford Publications. pp. 67–69. ISBN 9781462517510.
  430. ^ Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (1 October 2014). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. Guilford Publications. ISBN 978-1462517510.
  431. ^ Tosey, P; Mathison, J (2006). "Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming" (PDF). Centre for Management Learning & Development, School of Management, University of Surrey.
  432. ^ Dilts, R.; Grinder, J.; Delozier, J.; Bandler, R. (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-916990-07-7.
  433. ^ a b Corballis, MC (1999). "Are we in our right minds?". In Sala, S (ed.). Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain. Wiley, John & Sons. pp. 25–41. ISBN 978-0-471-98303-3.
  434. ^ Drenth, P J D (1999). "Prometheus chained: Social and ethical constraints on psychology". European Psychologist. 4 (4): 233–39. doi:10.1027//1016-9040.4.4.233.
  435. ^ a b c Witkowski, Tomasz (2010). "Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. NLP Research Data Base. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?". Polish Psychological Bulletin. 41 (2): 58–66. doi:10.2478/v10059-010-0008-0. S2CID 18838685.
  436. ^ a b Stollznow, K (2010). "Not-so Linguistic Programming". Skeptic. 15 (4): 7.
  437. ^ a b Lum, C (2001). Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy. Psychology Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8058-4029-2.
  438. ^ von Bergen, C.W.; Gary, Barlow Soper; Rosenthal, T.; Wilkinson, Lamar V. (1997). "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". Human Resource Development Quarterly. 8 (4): 281–94. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920080403.
  439. ^ Druckman, Daniel (November 2004). "Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 34 (11): 2234–60(27). doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb01975.x.
  440. ^ Sharpley, C.F. (1987). "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 34 (1): 103–07, 105. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.34.1.103.
  441. ^ a b Devilly, GJ (2005). "Power therapies and possible threats to the science of psychology and psychiatry" (PDF). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 39 (6): 437–45. doi:10.1080/j.1440-1614.2005.01601.x. PMID 15943644. S2CID 208627667.
  442. ^ Lilienfeld, S; Mohr, J; Morier, D (2001). "The Teaching of Courses in the Science and Pseudoscience of Psychology: Useful Resources". Teaching of Psychology. 28 (3): 182–91. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1001.2558. doi:10.1207/S15328023TOP2803_03. S2CID 145224099.
  443. ^ Dunn. D.; Halonen. J; Smith. R. (2008). Teaching critical thinking in psychology : a handbook of best practices. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4051-7402-2. OCLC 214064173.
  444. ^ Norcross; Koocher, Gerald P.; Garofalo, Ariele; et al. (2006). "Discredited Psychological Treatments and Tests: A Delphi Poll". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 37 (5): 515–22. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.5.515. S2CID 35414392.
  445. ^ Norcross, John C.; Hogan, Thomas P.; Koocher, Gerald P. (2008). Clinician's Guide to Evidence-based Practices. US: Oxford University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-19-533532-3.
  446. ^ Glasner, Edwards. S.; Rawson., R. (June 2010). "Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: review and recommendations for public policy". Health Policy. 97 (2–3): 93–104. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.05.013. PMC 2951979. PMID 20557970.
  447. ^ Schmidt, Helmut (1969). "Clairvoyance Tests with a Machine'". Journal of Parapsychology. 33.
  448. ^ Schmidt, Helmut (1970). "PK Experiments with Animals as Subjects". Journal of Parapsychology. 34.
  449. ^ Schmidt, Helmut (1973). "PK Tests with a High Speed Random Number Generator". Journal of Parapsychology. 37.
  450. ^ Wooffitt, Robin; Holt, Nicola (23 November 2011). Looking in and Speaking Out: Introspection, Consciousness, Communication. Andrews UK Limited. p. 32. ISBN 9781845403355.
  451. ^ Magendie, F. (1844). "IV". An Elementary Treatise on Human Physiology. Translated by John Revere (5th ed.). New York: Harper. p. 150.
  452. ^ Fodor, J. A. (1983). The Modularity of Mind. MIT Press. pp. 14, 23, 131.
  453. ^ Reid, J.E.; Inbau, F.E. (1977). Truth and deception: The polygraph (lie-detector) techique. Williams & Wilkins.
  454. ^ a b c "ICSU Insight". International Council for Science. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 July 2006.
  455. ^ Iacono, W.G. (2001). "Forensic 'lie detection': Procedures without scientific basis". Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice. 1 (1): 75–86. doi:10.1300/J158v01n01_05. S2CID 143077241.
  456. ^ Saxe, Leonard; Dougherty, Denise; Cross, Theodore (1983). "Scientific Validity of Polygraph Testing: A Research Review and Evaluation". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  457. ^ Adelson, R. (July 2004). "The polygraph in doubt". Monitor on Psychology. Vol. 35 no. 7. American Psychological Association. p. 71. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  458. ^ Bassett, James. "Polygraph Testing". Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  459. ^ Vergano, Dan (9 September 2002). "Telling the truth about lie detectors". USA Today. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  460. ^ "Homepage". The Janov Primal Center. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  461. ^ Moore, Timothy (2001). "Primal Therapy". Gale Group. Archived from the original on 27 June 2008.
  462. ^ Sadock, Benjamin J. and Sadock, Virginia A. Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry. 10th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, 190.
  463. ^ Michels, Robert. "Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry: A Changing Relationship", American Mental Health Foundation, archived 6 June 2009.
  464. ^ Merkin, Daphne (5 September 2004). "Psychoanalysis: Is It Science or Is It Toast?". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  465. ^ Cioffi, Frank (1985). "Psychoanalysis, Pseudo-Science and Testability". In Currie, Gregory; Musgrave, Alan (eds.). Popper and the Human Sciences. Nijhoff International Philosophy Series. SpringerVerlag. pp. 13–44. ISBN 978-90-247-2998-2.
  466. ^ Popper, K. R. (1990). "Science: Conjectures and Refutations". In Grim, P (ed.). Philosophy of Science and the Occult. Albany. pp. 104–10. ISBN 9780791402047.
  467. ^ Cioffi, Frank (1985). "Psychoanalysis, Pseudo-Science and Testability". In Currie, Gregory; Musgrave, Alan (eds.). Popper and the human sciences. Springer. ISBN 978-90-247-2998-2.. Reprinted in Cioffi, Frank (1998). Freud and the question of pseudoscience. Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9385-0.
  468. ^ Reich, Walter. The world of Soviet psychiatry. The New York Times. 30 January 1983 accessdate=1
  469. ^ "Business (Subliminal Advertising)". The Urban Legends Reference Pages. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
  470. ^ Pratkanis, A. R.; Greenwald, A. G. (1988). "Recent perspectives on unconscious processing: Still no marketing applications". Psychology and Marketing. 5 (4): 337–53. doi:10.1002/mar.4220050405.
  471. ^ Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The Mismeasure of Man. W W Norton and Co. ISBN 978-0-393-01489-1. Few tragedies can be more extensive than the stunting of life, few injustices deeper than the denial of an opportunity to strive or even to hope, by a limit imposed from without, but falsely identified as lying within.
  472. ^ Kurtz, Paul (September 2004). "Can the Sciences Help Us to Make Wise Ethical Judgments?". Skeptical Inquirer. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007. There have been abundant illustrations of pseudoscientific theories-monocausal theories of human behavior that were hailed as "scientific"-that have been applied with disastrous results. Examples: [...] Many racists today point to IQ to justify a menial role for blacks in society and their opposition to affirmative action.
  473. ^ Regal, Brian. 2009. Pseudoscience: a critical encyclopedia Greenwood Press. pp. 27–29
  474. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Aryan. "This notion, which had been repudiated by anthropologists by the second quarter of the 20th century, was seized upon by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis and made the basis of the German government policy of exterminating Jews, Gypsies, and other 'non-Aryans.'".
  475. ^ White, Kevin (2002). An introduction to the sociology of health and illness. SAGE. pp. 41, 42. ISBN 0-7619-6400-2.
  476. ^ Caplan, Arthur; McCartney, James; Sisti, Dominic (2004). Health, disease, and illness: concepts in medicine. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 1-58901-014-0.
  477. ^ Pilgrim, David (November 2005). "Question of the Month: Drapetomania". Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  478. ^ De Montellano, B. R. (1993). "Afrocentricity, Melanin, and Pseudoscience". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 36: 33–58. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330360604.
  479. ^ Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (17 December 2006). "Afrocentric Pseudoscience: The Miseducation of African Americans". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 775 (1 Phagocytes): 561–72. Bibcode:1996NYASA.775..561O. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23174.x. S2CID 84626939. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013.
  480. ^ White, Jenny (2014). Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks: Updated Edition. Princeton University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0691161921.
  481. ^ "Atatürk's sun language theory, or how all languages derive from Turkish – Lexiophiles". Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  482. ^ Lind, Michael (26 January 1997). "Generation Gaps". New York Times Review of Books. Retrieved 1 November 2010. The idea that history moves in cycles tends to be viewed with suspicion by scholars. Although historians as respected as Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. and David Hackett Fischer have made cases for the existence of rhythms and waves in the stream of events, cyclical theories tend to end up in the Sargasso Sea of pseudoscience, circling endlessly (what else?). The Fourth Turning is no exception.
  483. ^ Fernholz, Tim (27 May 2017). "The pseudoscience that prepared America for Steve Bannon's apocalyptic message". Quartz. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  484. ^ Greenberg, David (20 April 2017). "The Crackpot Theories of Stephen Bannon's Favorite Authors". Politico. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  485. ^ Ruse, Michael (2013). "Evolution". In Pigliucci, Massimo; Boudry, Maarten (eds.). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 239–43. ISBN 978-0-226-05182-6. For the first one hundred and fifty years evolution was – and was seen to be – a pseudoscience.
  486. ^ Pigliucci, Massimo (April 2011). "Evolution as pseudoscience?". Ruse's somewhat surprising yet intriguing claim is that "before Charles Darwin, evolution was an epiphenomenon of the ideology of [social] progress, a pseudoscience and seen as such..."
  487. ^ statement from the Russian Academy of Sciences.[1]
  488. ^ a b c Fraknoi, Andrew (October 2009). "The 'Great Moon Hoax': Did Astronauts Land on the Moon?". Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  489. ^ a b Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (2006). Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism. Leiden: Brill. p. 857. ISBN 9789004152311.
  490. ^ Hammer, Olav (2001). Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age. Leiden: Brill. p. 55. ISBN 900413638X.
  491. ^ a b Hines, Terence (2002). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2nd ed.). Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1573929794.
  492. ^ Scheiber, Béla; Selby, Carla (2000). Therapeutic Touch. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 275. ISBN 1573928046.
  493. ^ Mann, Johathan (30 August 2002). "They call it cerealogy". CNN. Insight. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  494. ^ Prothero, Donald R.; Buell, Carl Dennis (2007). Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-231-13962-5.
  495. ^ "Parapsychological Association website, Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology". Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2006.
  496. ^ Alcock, James E. "Electronic Voice Phenomena:Voices of the Dead?". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
  497. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary. Wiley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7.
  498. ^ Shermer, Michael (May 2005). "Turn Me On, Dead Man". Scientific American. 292 (5): 37. Bibcode:2005SciAm.292e..37S. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0505-37. PMID 15882018.
  499. ^ Hines, Terrence (1988). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal: A Critical Examination of the Evidence. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-419-8. Thagard (1978) op cit 223 ff
  500. ^ "Parapsychological Association website, Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology". Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2006.
  501. ^ extrasensory perception. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  502. ^ National Science Foundation (2002). "ch. 7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-16-066579-0. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. Belief in pseudoscience is relatively widespread...At least half of the public believes in the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP).
  503. ^ Cohen, Howard (19 September 2009). "Ghost hunters say Deering Estate is ground zero for lost spirits". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
  504. ^ Radford, Benjamin (27 October 2006). "The Shady Science of Ghost Hunting". LiveScience. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  505. ^ "Study: No Scientific Basis for Vampires, Ghosts". Washington: Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 26 October 2006.
  506. ^ a b Regal, Brian. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. pp. 43; 75–77. ISBN 978-0-313-35507-3
  507. ^ "Relationships Between Science and Pseudoscience". Science and Engineering Indicators, 2002. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  508. ^ Dr Olu Jenzen; Professor Sally R Munt (28 January 2014). The Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 197–. ISBN 978-1-4724-0612-5.
  509. ^ Hill, Sharon (March–April 2012). "Amateur Paranormal Research and Investigation Groups Doing 'Sciencey' Things". Skeptical Inquirer. Vol. 36 no. 2. Retrieved 26 February 2015 – via Csicop.org.
  510. ^ Radford, Benjamin. "Ghost-hunting mistakes: science and pseudoscience in ghost investigations". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  511. ^ Schmaltz, Rodney (25 April 2014). "Battling Psychics and Ghosts: The Need for Scientific Skepticism". HuffPost. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  512. ^ Campbell, Hank (27 August 2014). "Think Pseudoscience Isn't Dangerous? Ghost Hunter Looking For Ghost Train Killed By Real One". Science 2.0. ION Publications. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  513. ^ Potts, John; James Houran (2004). Ghost Hunting in the Twenty-First Century (From Shaman to scientist: essays on humanity's search for spirits). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810850545. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  514. ^ "Levitation". Skeptic's Dictionary.
  515. ^ Vernon, David (1989). "Palmistry". In Laycock, Donald; Vernon, David; Groves, Colin; Brown, Simon (eds.). Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Canberra: Imagecraft. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7316-5794-0.
  516. ^ Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-535-5.
  517. ^ Vernon, David (1989). Laycock, Donald; Vernon, David; Groves, Colin; Brown, Simon (eds.). Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Canberra: Imagecraft. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7316-5794-0.
  518. ^ "Psychic surgery". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 40 (3): 184–88. 1990. doi:10.3322/canjclin.40.3.184. PMID 2110023. S2CID 7523589.
  519. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd. "Psychic Surgery". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 28 July 2007.
  520. ^ "Psychic surgeon charged". The Filipino Reporter. 17–23 June 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2007.
  521. ^ Vyse, Stuart A. (1997). Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition. Oxford University Press US. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-19-513634-0. [M]ost scientists, both psychologists and physicists, agree that it has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.
  522. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd. "Rumplogy for Dummies". The Skeptic's Dictionary.
  523. ^ Stableford, Brian M (2006). Science fact and science fiction: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-97460-8.
  524. ^ "Russian Alien Spaceship Claims Raise Eyebrows, Skepticism", Robert Roy Britt, SPACE.com
  525. ^ "The Universe". Life. LIFE Science Library. 1970.
  526. ^ "Statement of the position of the Iowa Academy of Science on Pseudoscience" (PDF). Iowa Academy of Science. July 1986. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2007.
  527. ^