John Adams
Television promotional poster
Based onJohn Adams by
David McCullough
Written byKirk Ellis
Directed byTom Hooper
StarringPaul Giamatti
Laura Linney
Stephen Dillane
David Morse
Tom Wilkinson
Danny Huston
Rufus Sewell
Justin Theroux
Guy Henry
Theme music composerRobert Lane
Joseph Vitarelli
Country of originUnited States
Original languageEnglish
No. of episodes7
Production
Executive producersTom Hanks
Gary Goetzman
ProducersDavid Coatsworth
Steve Shareshian
Running time501 minutes
Production companiesHBO Films
High Noon Productions
Playtone
Mid Atlantic Films
Budget$100 million[1]
Release
Original networkHBO
Original releaseMarch 16 (2008-03-16) –
April 27, 2008 (2008-04-27)

John Adams is a 2008 American television miniseries chronicling most of U.S. President John Adams's political life and his role in the founding of the United States. Paul Giamatti portrays John Adams. The miniseries was directed by Tom Hooper. Kirk Ellis wrote the screenplay based on the 2001 book John Adams. by David McCullough. The biopic of John Adams and the story of the first 50 years of the United States was broadcast in seven parts by HBO between March 16 and April 20, 2008. John Adams received widespread critical acclaim and many prestigious awards. The show won four Golden Globe awards and 13 Emmy awards, more than any other miniseries in history.

Plot summary

Part I: Join or Die (1770–1774)

Episode 1 opens in Boston 1770 on the cold winter night of the Boston Massacre. It portrays John Adams arriving at the scene following the gunshots from British soldiers firing upon a mob of Boston citizens. Adams, a respected lawyer in his mid-30s known for his dedication to the law and justice, is sought as defense counsel for the accused Redcoats. Their commander, Captain Thomas Preston, asks him to defend them in court. Reluctant at first, he agrees despite knowing this will antagonize his neighbors and friends. Adams is depicted to have taken the case because he believed everyone deserves a fair trial and he wanted to uphold the standard of justice. Adams' cousin Samuel Adams is one of the main colonists opposed to the actions of the British government. He is one of the executive members of the Sons of Liberty, an anti-British group of agitators. Adams is depicted as a studious man doing his best to defend his clients. The show also illustrates Adams' appreciation and respect for his wife, Abigail. In one scene, Adams is shown having his wife proofread his summation as he takes her suggestions. After many sessions in court, the jury returns a verdict of not guilty of murder for each defendant. Additionally, the episode illustrates the growing tension over the Coercive Acts ("Intolerable Acts"), and Adams' election to the First Continental Congress.

Part II: Independence (1774–1776)

The second episode covers the disputes among the members of the Second Continental Congress toward declaring independence from Great Britain as well as the final drafting of the Declaration of Independence. At the Continental Congresses Adams is depicted as the lead advocate for independence. He is in the vanguard in establishing that there is no other option than to break off and declare independence. He is also instrumental in the selection of then-Colonel George Washington as the new head of the Continental Army.

However, in his zeal for immediate action, he manages to alienate many of the other founding fathers, going so far as to insult John Dickinson, who is for conciliation to the Crown, implying that the man suffers from a religiously based moral cowardice. Later, Benjamin Franklin quietly chastens Adams, saying it is "perfectly acceptable to insult a man in private. He may even thank you for it afterwards. But when you do it in public, they tend to think you are serious." This points out Adams' primary flaw: his bluntness and lack of gentility toward his political opponents, one that would make him many enemies and which would eventually plague his political career. It would also, eventually, contribute to historians' disregard for his many achievements. The episode also shows how Abigail copes with issues at home as her husband was away much of the time participating in the Continental Congress. She employs the use of then pioneer efforts in the field of preventative medicine and inoculation against smallpox for herself and the children.

Part III: Don't Tread on Me (1777–1781)

In Episode 3, Adams travels to Europe with his young son John Quincy during the Revolutionary War seeking alliances with foreign nations, during which the ship transporting them battles a British frigate. It first shows Adams' embassy with Benjamin Franklin in the court of Louis XVI of France. The old French nobility, who are in the last decade before being consumed by the French Revolution, are portrayed as effete and decadent. They meet cheerfully with Franklin, seeing him as a romantic figure, little noting the democratic infection he brings with him. Adams, on the other hand, is a plain spoken and faithful man, who finds himself out of his depth surrounded by an entertainment- and sex-driven culture among the French elite. Adams finds himself at sharp odds with Benjamin Franklin, who has adapted himself to the French, seeking to obtain by seduction what Adams would gain through histrionics. Franklin sharply rebukes Adams for his lack of diplomatic acumen, describing it as a "direct insult followed by a petulant whine". Franklin soon has Adams removed from any position of diplomatic authority in Paris. His approach is ultimately successful and was to result in the conclusive Franco-American victory at Yorktown.

Adams, chastened and dismayed but learning from his mistakes, then travels to the Dutch Republic to obtain monetary support for the Revolution. Although the Dutch agree with the American cause, they do not consider the new union a reliable and credit-worthy client. Adams ends his time in the Netherlands in a state of progressive illness, having sent his son away as a diplomatic secretary to the Russian Empire.

Part IV: Reunion (1781–1789)

The fourth episode shows John Adams being notified of the end of the Revolutionary War and the defeat of the British. He is then sent to Paris to negotiate the Treaty of Paris in 1783. While overseas, he spends time with Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson and Abigail visits him. Franklin informs John Adams that he was appointed as the first American Ambassador to Great Britain and thus has to relocate to London. John Adams is poorly received by the British during this time—he is the representative for a recently hostile power, and represents in his person what many British at the time regarded as a disastrous end to its early Empire. He meets with his former sovereign, George III, and while the meeting is not a disaster, he is excoriated in British newspapers. In 1789, he returns to Massachusetts for the first presidential election and he and Abigail are reunited with their children, now grown. George Washington is elected the first President of the United States and John Adams as the first Vice President.

Initially, Adams is disappointed and wishes to reject the post of Vice President because he feels there is a disproportionate number of electoral votes in favor of George Washington (Adams' number of votes pales in comparison to those garnered by Washington). In addition, John feels the position of Vice President is not a proper reflection of all the years of service he has dedicated to his nation. However, Abigail successfully influences him to accept the nomination.

Part V: Unite or Die (1788–1797)

The fifth episode begins with Vice President John Adams presiding over the Senate and the debate over what to call the new president. It depicts Adams as frustrated in this role: His opinions are ignored and he has no actual power, except in the case of a tied vote. He's excluded from George Washington's inner circle of cabinet members, and his relationships with Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton are strained. Even Washington himself gently rebukes him for his efforts to "royalize" the office of the Presidency, although Washington values Adams' counsel in other areas, considering him to be "reasonable company" when compared with Jefferson and Hamilton. A key event shown is the struggle to enact the Jay Treaty with Britain, which Adams himself must ratify before a deadlocked Senate (although historically his vote was not required). The episode concludes with his inauguration as the second president—and his subsequent arrival in a plundered executive mansion.

Part VI: Unnecessary War (1797–1801)

The sixth episode covers Adams's term as president and the rift between the Hamilton-led Federalists and Jefferson-led Republicans. Adams's neutrality pleases neither side and often angers both. His shaky relationship with vice president Thomas Jefferson worsens after taking defensive actions against the French Republic because of failed diplomatic attempts and the signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Adams also alienates himself from the anti-French Alexander Hamilton after taking all actions possible to prevent a war with France. He disowns his son Charles, who soon dies as an alcoholic vagrant. Adams sees success late in his presidency with his campaign of preventing a war with France, but his success is clouded after losing the presidential election of 1800. After receiving so much bad publicity while in office, Adams loses the election against his vice-president, Thomas Jefferson, and runner-up Aaron Burr (both from the same party). Adams leaves the Presidential Palace (now known as the White House) in March 1801 and retires to his personal life in Massachusetts.

Part VII: Peacefield (1803–1826)

The final episode covers Adams's retirement years. His home life at Peacefield is full of pain and sorrow as his daughter, Nabby, dies of breast cancer and Abigail succumbs to typhoid fever. Adams does live to see the election of his son, John Quincy, as president, but is too ill to attend the inauguration. Adams and Jefferson are reconciled through correspondence in their last years. Both die hours apart on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was 83, Adams was 90.

Cast

Shooting locations

The 110-day shoot took place from February to May 2007 in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia; Richmond, Virginia; and Budapest, Hungary.[2][3] Some European scenes were shot in Keszthely, Sóskút, Fertőd and Kecskemét, Hungary.[4]

British officers ransacked an abandoned Continental Army war room in a scene shot in the Robert Carter house. Williamsburg's Public Hospital was in the background of the tent encampment of the Continental army which Adams visited in the winter of 1776, which was replicated using special-effects snow. The College of William and Mary's Wren Building represented a Harvard interior. Scenes were also filmed at the Governor's Palace.[5]

Sets, stage space, backlot and production offices were housed in an old Mechanicsville AMF warehouse in Richmond, Virginia. Some street scenes with cobblestone pavements and colonial storefronts were shot in historic neighborhoods of Washington, D.C., Boston, and Philadelphia. Countryside surrounding Richmond in Hanover County and Powhatan County was chosen to represent areas surrounding early Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.[6][7]

Soundtrack

The score for the miniseries was composed by Rob Lane and Joseph Vitarelli. Lane wrote the main theme and scored "Join or Die," "Independence," "Unite or Die" and "Peacefield," with Vitarelli doing "Don't Tread on Me," "Reunion" and "Unnecessary War." The two composers worked independently of each other, with Lane writing and recording his segments in London and Vitarelli in Los Angeles. There are also pieces by classical composers, including Mozart, Boccherini, Gluck, Handel and Schubert.[8] The soundtrack was released on the Varèse Sarabande label.

Critical reception

The critical reception to the miniseries was predominantly positive. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the series has a rating of 81% based on 37 reviews, with an average rating of 8.56/10. The website's critics consensus reads: "Elegantly shot and relatively educational, John Adams is a worthy addition to the genre -- though its casting leaves something to be desired."[9] Metacritic assigned the series a weighted average score of 78 out of 100, based on 27 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[10]

Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly rated the miniseries A-,[11] and Matt Roush of TV Guide praised the lead performances of Paul Giamatti and Laura Linney.[12] David Hinckley of the New York Daily News felt John Adams "is, quite simply, as good as TV gets ... Best of all are two extraordinary performances at the center: Paul Giamatti as Adams and Laura Linney as his wife, Abigail ... To the extent that John Adams is a period piece, it isn't quite as lush as, say, some BBC productions. But it looks fine, and it feels right, and sometimes what's good for you can also be just plain good."[13]

Alessandra Stanley of The New York Times had mixed feelings. She said the miniseries has "a Masterpiece Theatre gravity and takes a more somber, detailed and sepia-tinted look at the dawn of American democracy. It gives viewers a vivid sense of the isolation and physical hardships of the period, as well as the mores, but it does not offer significantly different or deeper insights into the personalities of the men — and at least one woman — who worked so hard for liberty ... [It] is certainly worthy and beautifully made, and it has many masterly touches at the edges, especially Laura Linney as Abigail. But Paul Giamatti is the wrong choice for the hero ... And that leaves the mini-series with a gaping hole at its center. What should be an exhilarating, absorbing ride across history alongside one of the least understood and most intriguing leaders of the American Revolution is instead a struggle."[14]

Among those unimpressed with the miniseries were Mary McNamara of the Los Angeles Times[15] and Tim Goodman of the San Francisco Chronicle.[16] Both cited the miniseries for poor casting and favoring style over storytelling.

Historical inaccuracies

The series deviates from David McCullough's book on several occasions, using creative license throughout.[17]

Part I

Part II

Part III

Part IV

Part V

Part VI

Part VII

Awards and nominations

Primetime Emmy Awards

John Adams received twenty-three Emmy Award nominations, and won thirteen, beating the previous record for wins by a miniseries set by Angels in America. It also holds the record for most Emmy wins by a program in a single year.[citation needed]

Year Category Nominee(s) Episode Result
2008 Outstanding Miniseries Tom Hanks, Gary Goetzman, Kirk Ellis, Frank Doelger, David Coatsworth and Steve Shareshian Won
Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries or Movie Kirk Ellis Episode 2, Independence Won
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Movie Paul Giamatti Won
Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Movie Laura Linney Won
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie Tom Wilkinson Won
Outstanding Art Direction for a Miniseries or Movie Gemma Jackson, David Crank, Christina Moore, Kathy Lucas and Sarah Whittle Won
Outstanding Casting for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special Kathleen Chopin, Nina Gold and Tracy Kilpatrick Won
Outstanding Cinematography For A Miniseries or Movie Tak Fujimoto Episode 2, Independence Won
Outstanding Costumes for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special Donna Zakowska, Amy Andrews and Clare Spragge Episode 4, Reunion Won
Outstanding Prosthetic Makeup for a Series, Miniseries, Movie or a Special Trefor Proud, John R. Bayless, Chris Burgoyne and Matthew W. Mungle Won
Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special Stephen Hunter Flick, Vanessa Lapato, Curt Schulkey, Randy Kelley, Kenneth L. Johnson, Paul Berolzheimer, Dean Beville, Bryan Bowen, Patricio A. Libenson, Solange S. Schwalbe, David Lee Fein, Hilda Hodges and Alex Gibson Episode 3, Don't Tread On Me Won
Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie Jay Meagher, Marc Fishman and Tony Lamberti Episode 3, Don't Tread On Me Won
Outstanding Special Visual Effects for a Miniseries, Movie, or Dramatic Special Erik Henry, Jeff Goldman, Paul Graff, Steve Kullback, Christina Graff, David Van Dyke, Robert Stromberg, Ed Mendez and Ken Gorrell Episode 1, Join or Die Won
Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or Dramatic Special Tom Hooper Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie Stephen Dillane Nominated
David Morse Nominated
Outstanding Cinematography for a Miniseries or Movie Tak Fujimoto and Danny Cohen Episode 3, Don't Tread On Me Nominated
Outstanding Hairstyling for a Miniseries or a Movie Jan Archibald and Loulia Sheppard Nominated
Outstanding Makeup for a Miniseries or a Movie (Non-prosthetic) Trefor Proud and John R. Bayless Nominated
Outstanding Original Dramatic Score for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special Robert Lane Episode 2, Independence Nominated
Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Miniseries or a Movie Melanie Oliver Episode 2, Independence Nominated
Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special Jon Johnson, Bryan Bowen, Kira Roessler, Vanessa Lapato, Eileen Horta, Virginia Cook-McGowan, Samuel C. Crutcher, Mark Messick, Martin Maryska, Greg Stacy, Patricio A. Libenson, Solange S. Schwalbe, Hilda Hodges and Nicholas Viterelli Episode 6, Unnecessary War Nominated
Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie Jay Meagher, Michael Minkler and Bob Beemer Episode 5, Unite Or Die Nominated

Golden Globe Awards

It was nominated for four awards at the 66th Golden Globe Awards and won all four.[40]

Year Category Nominee(s) Result
2009 Best Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television Won
Best Performance by an Actor in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television Paul Giamatti Won
Best Performance by an Actress in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television Laura Linney Won
Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series, or Motion Picture Made for Television Tom Wilkinson Won

Screen Actors Guild Awards

It was also nominated for three awards at the 15th Screen Actors Guild Awards and won two.

Year Category Nominee(s) Result
2009 Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries Laura Linney Won
Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries Paul Giamatti Won
Tom Wilkinson Nominated

Other awards

The show also won a 2008 AFI Award for best television series[41] and a Peabody Award "for exploring both public and private elements in the life of a truly great man."[42] It won the Movieguide 2009 Faith & Freedom Award for Television.[43] Part 1 of the show won three awards at the 7th Visual Effects Society Awards in the categories of Outstanding Visual Effects in a Broadcast Miniseries, Movie or Special, Outstanding Created Environment in a Broadcast Program or Commercial, and Outstanding Compositing in a Broadcast Program or Commercial.[44]

References

  1. ^ Catlin, Roger (March 11, 2008). "HBO miniseries gives John Adams his due". The Courant. Hartford, Connecticut: Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on May 10, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  2. ^ Gary Strauss (2008-03-12). "For Giamatti, John Adams was 'endlessly daunting' role". USA Today. Gannett Company, Inc. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
  3. ^ Martin Miller (2008-03-16). "A revolutionary leading man". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
  4. ^ "Tom Hanks a magyar stábnak is köszönetet mondott a Golden Globe-gálán". MTI (Hungarian news agency) (in Hungarian). 2009-01-12. Retrieved 2008-01-12.[dead link]
  5. ^ "aboutrufus.com". aboutrufus.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
  6. ^ http://www2.richmond.com/content/2007/jun/05/a-presidential-production/[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ John Adams at ScoringSessions.com
  9. ^ John Adams: Miniseries - Rotten Tomatoes, retrieved 2018-11-04
  10. ^ "John Adams - Season 1 Reviews". Metacritic. 2008-03-16. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  11. ^ "John Adams Review | TV Reviews and News". EW.com. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  12. ^ [2] Archived March 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "'John Adams' is a triumph". New York: NY Daily News. 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  14. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (2008-03-14). "John Adams - Television - Review". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Villarreal, Yvonne. "Entertainment - entertainment, movies, tv, music, celebrity, Hollywood - latimes.com - latimes.com". Calendarlive.com. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  16. ^ Tim Goodman (2008-03-14). "John, we hardly knew ye". SFGate. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  17. ^ a b c d Jeremy Stern (2008-10-27). "History News Network". Hnn.us. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  18. ^ Alexander, John K. (January 13, 2004). Samuel Adams: America's Revolutionary Politician (Paperback ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 074252115X.
  19. ^ Zobel, Hiller B. (April 17, 1996). The Boston Massacre (Paperback ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 220–221. ISBN 0393314839.
  20. ^ Douglas Linder, The Boston Massacre Trials Archived 2008-04-30 at the Wayback Machine, JURIST, July 2001
  21. ^ Ira Stoll, "Bring Forth the Tar and Feathers", The New York Sun, March 11, 2008.
  22. ^ Autobiography of John Adams, "Parents and schooling," p. 2.
  23. ^ David McCullough, John Adams, Simon & Schuster, 2001, chapter 1.
  24. ^ McCullough, pp. 59-61, First Continental Congress in 1774 Archived 2016-04-29 at the Wayback Machine, Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law (1765), Boston Gazette, under penname, "Earl of Clarendon" (1766)[permanent dead link], NPR, "Everyone loves George" (2008). Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  25. ^ "Carpenters' Hall". Carpentershall.org. 1995-07-04. Archived from the original on 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  26. ^ John Ferling, John Adams: A Life, Amer Political Biography Press (January 1997) p. 127.
  27. ^ David McCullough, John Adams, Simon & Schuster, 2001, chapter 2. Part 2, 1:25:37.
  28. ^ The Knox Trail History Archived 2009-05-31 at the Library of Congress Web Archives, New York State Museum website 2008
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ "Health and Medical History of President John Adams: Smallpox Inoculation in 1764". Doctorzebra.com. 2013-03-05. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  31. ^ Blinderman, A. John Adams: fears, depressions, and ailments. NY State J Med. 1977;77:268-276. Pubmed. [a] pp. 274-275
  32. ^ David McCullough, John Adams, Simon & Schuster, 2001, pg. 186
  33. ^ "John Jay's Treaty". Future.state.gov. 2000-12-23. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  34. ^ "Swearing-In Ceremony for President John Adams". Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
  35. ^ "1797 – The Inauguration of John Adams | The Sheila Variations". Sheilaomalley.com. 2004-02-16. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  36. ^ "Act of the First Congress pdf LOC" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Acts of the Fifth Congress" (PDF).
  38. ^ Olson, James S. (2002). Bathsheba's Breast: Women, Cancer, and History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6936-6.
  39. ^ David McCullough, John Adams, Simon & Schuster, 2001, pg. 627.
  40. ^ "HFPA - Nominations and Winners". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. 2009. Archived from the original on 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
  41. ^ "AFI Awards 2008". American Film Institute. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  42. ^ 68th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2009.
  43. ^ "2009 Movieguide Awards Winners". Movieguide. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  44. ^ "7th Annual VES Awards". visual effects society. Retrieved December 21, 2017.