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Madhubani district
Kālī Mandir in Rajanagar
Kālī Mandir in Rajanagar
Location of Madhubani district in Bihar
Location of Madhubani district in Bihar
Country India
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesMadhubani, Jhanjharpur
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesHarlakhi, Benipatti, Khajauli, Babubarhi, Bisfi, Madhubani, Rajnagar, Jhanjharpur, Phulparas, Laukaha
 • Total3,501 km2 (1,352 sq mi)
 • Total4,487,379
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
 • Literacy60.9 per cent
 • Sex ratio925
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Major highwaysNH 27, NH 227, NH 227J, NH 227L, NH 527A, NH 527B
Average annual precipitation1,273 mm

Madhubani district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar, India, and is a part of Darbhanga division. Its administrative headquarters are located in Madhubani. The district has an area of 3,501 square kilometres (1,352 sq mi) and has a population of 4,487,379 (as of 2011).

Madhubani is the largest fish producing district of Bihar in 2022.[1]


Madhubani became a district in 1972 when it was split from Darbhanga district.[2] It is believed that Baliraajgadh, an archaeological site which lies in modern-day Madhubani district was the capital of the ancient Mithila Kingdom.[3]


Main article: Madhubani art

Madhubani art or Mithila painting[4] was traditionally created by the women of various communities in Mithila region of India and Nepal. It originated from Madhubani district of Mithila region of Bihar, and, it is popularly called Mithila painting or Madhubani art. Madhubani is also a major export centre of these paintings.[5] This painting as a form of wall art was practiced widely throughout the region; the more recent development of painting on paper and canvas mainly originated among the villages around Madhubani, and it is these latter developments led to the name Madhubani art being used alongside the name "Mithila Painting."[6]


Madhubani district occupies an area of 3,501 square kilometres (1,352 sq mi),[7] comparatively equivalent to the Bahamas' North Andros island.[8] It occupies the Terai region.


This section is transcluded from 17th Bihar Assembly. (edit | history)

District No. Constituency Name Party Alliance Remarks
Madhubani 31 Harlakhi Sudhanshu Shekhar JD(U) NDA
32 Benipatti Vinod Narayan Jha BJP NDA
33 Khajauli Arun Shankar Prasad BJP NDA
34 Babubarhi Mina Kumari JD(U) NDA
35 Bisfi Haribhushan Thakur BJP NDA
36 Madhubani Samir Kumar Mahaseth RJD MGB
37 Rajnagar Ram Prit Paswan BJP NDA
38 Jhanjharpur Nitish Mishra BJP NDA
39 Phulparas Sheela Kumari Mandal JD(U) NDA
40 Laukaha Bharat Bhushan Mandal RJD MGB


In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Madhubani one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[9] It is one of the 38 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. But in last few years there a lot of changes happened. This city is going to adopt urbanisation.[9]


Saurath, a road side village on Madhubani-Jainagar road, contains a temple known as Somnath Mahadev. It owes its importance to the annual Sabha held by Maithili Brahmins for negotiating marriages. Many Panjikars who keep the genealogical records of the different families reside here and outside.[10]

Laukaha is a Town in the district of Madhubani in the Indian state of Bihar. It is close to the border of Nepalese town of Thadi. Laukaha in India and Thadi in Nepal are a part of one of the agreed route for Mutual Trade between India and Nepal.[11] Nepal Government of Nepal has set up a dedicated customs office in the town.[12] and Government of India has set up a Land Customs Station with a Superintendent level officer.[13] So in simple Import and Export are allowed in this location.


Madhubani District consists of five subdivisions. Each subdivision is headed by a subdivisional magistrate, who is responsible for law and order, development, and revenue related work in their respective subdivisions.[14]

  1. Madhubani Sadar
  2. Benipatti
  3. Jhanjarpur
  4. Phulparas
  5. Jainagar

Blocks and circles

There are 21 blocks and circles in the district and each block is headed by a block development officer and each circle is headed by a circle officer.[15]

  1. Rahika
  2. Pandaul
  3. Rajnagar
  4. Babubarhi
  5. Kaluahi
  6. Khjauli
  7. Jainagar
  8. Ladania
  9. Basopatti
  10. Benipatti
  11. Bisfi
  12. Harlakhi
  13. Madhwapur
  14. Jhanjarpur
  15. Andhrathadi
  16. Lakhnaur
  17. Madhepur
  18. Phulparas
  19. Ghoghardiha
  20. Khutauna
  21. Laukahi


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
Religions in Madhubani district (2011)[17]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

According to the 2011 Indian census, Madhubani district has a population of 4,487,379,[18] This gives it a ranking of 37th in India (out of a total of 640).[18] The district has a population density of 1,282 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,320/sq mi).[18] Its population growth rate from 2001-2011 was 25.51%.[18] Madhubani has a sex ratio of 926 females for every 1000 males,[18] and a literacy rate of 58.62%. 3.60% of the population lives in urban areas. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 13.08% and 0.09% of the population respectively.[18]

Languages of Madhubani district (2011)[19]

  Maithili (84.07%)
  Urdu (12.86%)
  Hindi (2.92%)
  Others (0.15%)

At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 84.07% of the population in the district spoke Maithili, 12.86% Urdu and 2.92% Hindi as their first language.[19]

See also


  1. ^ "Bihar Economic Survey 2022-23". Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  2. ^ Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  3. ^ "News18 इंडिया: Hindi News, Latest News in Hindi, Breaking News in Hindi".
  4. ^ Madhubani Painting. Abhinav Publications. 2003. ISBN 9788170171560.
  5. ^ Madhubani Painting. Abhinav Publications. 30 September 2017. ISBN 9788170171560. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Carolyn Brown Heinz, 2006, "Documenting the Image in Mithila Art," Visual Anthropology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 5-33
  7. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. ((cite book)): |last1= has generic name (help)
  8. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Archived from the original on 1 December 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2011. North Andros Island 3,439km2
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  10. ^ ":::Welcome to Madhubani, Bihar:::". Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  11. ^ "India Nepal Trade Agreement. India-Nepal Foreign Treaty of Trade Agreement". Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  12. ^ "Department of Customs, Nepal - Custom Contact Offices". Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  13. ^ "No. |".
  14. ^ "Subdivision | Madhubani Administration". Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  15. ^ "Blocks and Circles | Madhubani Administration". Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  16. ^ "Table A-02 Decadal Variation in Population Since 1901: Bihar" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  17. ^ "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Bihar". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  18. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Handbook: Madhubani" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  19. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Bihar". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.

26°21′00″N 86°04′48″E / 26.35000°N 86.08000°E / 26.35000; 86.08000