Begusarai
City
Clockwise from top left: Naulakha Temple, Kali Mandir, Barauni Refinery, Begusarai Railway Station
Clockwise from top left: Naulakha Temple, Kali Mandir, Barauni Refinery, Begusarai Railway Station
Nicknames: 
City of Utsab, Cultural Capital of Mithila and Welcome Gate of Mithila
Begusarai is located in Bihar
Begusarai
Begusarai
Location of Begusarai in Bihar
Begusarai is located in India
Begusarai
Begusarai
Begusarai (India)
Coordinates: 25°25′N 86°08′E / 25.42°N 86.13°E / 25.42; 86.13
Country India
StateBihar
RegionMithila
DistrictBegusarai
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyBegusarai Municipal Corporation
 • MLAKundan Kumar (BJP)
 • MayorPinki Devi
Elevation
41 m (135 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total252,008[1]
Language
 • OfficialHindi[2]
 • Additional officialUrdu[2]
 • RegionalMaithili (recognised under the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India)[3]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN CODE
851101[4]
Telephone code06243
Vehicle registrationBR-09
Sex ratio0.91 /
Lok Sabha constituencyBegusarai
Vidhan Sabha constituencyBegusarai
Websitebegusarai.bih.nic.in

Begusarai is the industrial and financial capital of Bihar and the administrative headquarters of the Begusarai district, which is one of the 38 districts of the Indian state of Bihar. The district lies on the northern bank of the river Ganges in the Mithila region of India.

Etymology

Begusarai was named after Begu, a man who was the devotee of Bari Durga Maharani and was the caretaker of Sarai, the town's old market.[5]

Geography

Topography

Begusarai is located at 25°25′N 86°08′E / 25.42°N 86.13°E / 25.42; 86.13.[6] It has an average elevation of 41 metres (134 feet). Begusarai lies in North Bihar and is surrounded by Khagaria in the northeast, Munger in the southeast, Patna in the west, and Samastipur in the northwest.[7]

Begusarai lies in the middle of the mid-Ganga plain and generally has low-lying terrain with a south to south-easterly slope.[8] Begusarai is basically divided into three floodplains: the Ganga floodplain, Burhi Gandak floodplain, Kareha-Bagmati floodplain.

Flora and fauna

Kanwar Lake Begusarai, a Ramsar Convention Site wetland

In 1989, Begusarai district became home to the Kanwar jheel, or Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary, with an area of 63 km2 (24.3 sq mi).[9]

Demographics

As per the 2011 census, Begusarai Municipal Corporation had a total population of 251,136, of whom 133,931 were male and 117,205 were female with a sex ratio of 875. The number of people under five years of age was 37,966. The literacy rate of people seven years and up was 79.35%.[1]

Religion

Religion in Begusarai city (2011)[10]

  Hinduism (89.00%)
  Islam (10.50%)
  Others (0.50%)

Hinduism is the major religion in Begusarai city, with 224,282 followers (89%). Islam is second, with 26,531 Muslims (10.53%). Other religions include 325 Christians (0.13%), 134 Sikhs (0.05%), 31 Jains (0.01%), 29 Buddhists (0.01%), 14 other religions (0.01%), and 662 (0.26%) that did not answer.[10]

Government and politics

Begusarai has traditionally been a communist stronghold and was once referred to as the "Leningrad of Bihar".[11][12] It is the location of the independence movement veteran, first chief minister, and one of the architects of modern Bihar, Shri Krishna Sinha.

Economy

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. The main crops of the Begusarai district are oilseeds, anise seeds, tobacco, jutes, potatoes, red chilis, tomatoes, and rape-seeds. In fruits, Begusarai has recently become a major contributor in producing litchi, mango, guava, and banana. Basil leaves[13] and pearl[14] farming are also present in the local area.

Even today, only the Barauni refinery contributes around Rs 500 crore (5,000,000,000)[15] to the state exchequer yearly. Begusarai also has an inactive airport in Begusarai Ulao.[16] Begusarai had the second highest per capita income in the financial year of 2019–2020 in Bihar, after Patna.

Culture

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The culture of Begusarai is the cultural heritage of Mithila. Begusarai is famous for Simaria, a fair of devotional significance every year usually during November in the month of Kartik, according to the Indian Panchang.[17] Men and women in Begusarai dress for the festivals; the costumes of Begusarai stem from the traditional culture of Mithila. Panjabi Kurta and Dhoti have a Mithila Painting bordered Maroon coloured Gamchha, the Symbol of Passion, Love, Bravery, and Courage, are common clothing items for men. Men wear gold ring in their nose, which symbolizes prosperity, happiness, and wealth following Vishnu. They also wear Balla on their wrist. In ancient times, there was no colour option in Mithila, so the Maithil women wore white or yellow sari with a red border. Today, they wear Laal-Paara (the traditional red-boarded white or yellow sari)[18] on some special occasions, as well as Shakha-Pola,[19] with lahthi in their hand. In Mithila culture, this represents new beginnings, passion and prosperity.Red also represents the Hindu goddess Durga, a symbol of new beginnings and feminine power. During Chhaith, the women of Begusarai wear pure cotton dhoti without stitching which reflects the pure, traditional culture of Mithila. Usually crafted from pure cotton for daily use and from pure silk for more glamorous occasions, traditional attire for women of Begusarai includes Jamdani, Banorisi, and Bhagalpuri, among others. Many festivals are celebrated throughout the year in Begusarai, including Chhaith and Durga Puja.

Dance

Dhuno-Naach is the Cultural Dance of Begusarai, Mithila. Dhuno-Naach is performed in Begusarai, Samastipur, Khagaria, Katihar, and Naugachhia during Durga Puja and Kalipuja with Shankha-Dhaak Sounds and Jhijhiya is performed in Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Madhubani and their neighbour districts.[20]

Painting

In Mithila, painting is a form of wall art and is practiced widely in Begusarai. The artform originated among the villages in Begusarai, Darbhanga, Naugachhia, and Madhubani, while more contemporary paintings known as Begusarai Art, Maduhubani art, Darbhanga Art, and Naugachhia Art are on paper and canvas.[21]

Main festivals

Here is a list of the main festivals of Begusarai:

Notable people

Ramdhari Singh Dinkar

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the Shakta tradition of Hinduism, many of the stories about obstacles and battles have been considered as metaphors for the divine and demonic within each human being, with liberation being the state of self-understanding whereby a virtuous nature & society emerging victorious over the vicious.[36]

References

  1. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  2. ^ a b "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Constitutional provisions relating to Eighth Schedule" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  4. ^ "BEGUSARAI Pin Code - 851101, Begusarai All Post Office Areas PIN Codes, Search BEGUSARAI Post Office Address". ABP News. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  5. ^ "How was Begusarai named" www.begusaraionline.in". Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  6. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Begusarai, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Welcome to Begusarai !! District". www.begusarai.bih.nic.in. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  8. ^ The Subsurface Geology of the Indo-Gangetic plains M.B.R Rao, 1973, no:-3, vol-14, Journal of the Geological Society of India, pp-217-242.
  9. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Bihar". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  10. ^ a b "C-01: Population by religious community - Begusarai". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  11. ^ N.K."Dhiraj" (23 March 2009). "ULB launches poll campaign". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
  12. ^ Begg, Yusuf (9 April 2019). "Lok Sabha 2019: Why is Begusarai called Leningrad of Bihar?". India Today. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  13. ^ "Farming of Basil Leaves In Begusarai". Live Hindustan. LiveHindustan.com. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  14. ^ "Pearl harvesting made this farmer a role model for others in his village". english.pradesh18.com. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  15. ^ "Making of Begusarai was by choice, not accident - Times of India". The Times of India. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  16. ^ "Dum Dum Begushorai,Ulao Airport." Live Hindustan.livehindustan.com". Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  17. ^ "Revive Kumbh Mela in eight historic cities". The Times of India. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  18. ^ Maithil women wore Red Boarded Yellow or White Saree during Jhijhiya Naach. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  19. ^ "Mithila as well as Bengal wearing शाखा पोला" www.jhajistore.com". Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  20. ^ "मिथिला के दरभंगा में बाल कलाकारों ने झिझिया गीत एवं नृत्य से सभी दर्शकों का मन मोहा "www.bhaskar.com". Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  21. ^ Carolyn Brown Heinz, 2006, "Documenting the Image in Mithila Art," Visual Anthropology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 5-33
  22. ^ "बेगूसराय , मिथिला में मनाया गया बैसक्खा छ‌इठ"www.livehindustan.com". Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  23. ^ "Chauth Chand 2022: आज मनाई जाएगी चौठ चन्द्र पूजा, चांद की इस तरह होती है पूजा". Prabhat Khabar (in Hindi). 30 August 2022. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  24. ^ "Chaurchan Puja 2022 Wishes & Chauth Chandra Puja HD Images: Celebrate This Mithila Festival of the Moon on Ganesh Chaturthi Sharing Chaurchan Photos, Messages & Wallpapers | 🙏🏻 LatestLY". LatestLY. 30 August 2022. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  25. ^ "Jivitputrika Vrat 2020: जीवित्पुत्रिका व्रती महिलाएं आज खोलेंगी व्रत, जानें पारण करने के लिए हर एक शुभ समय और विधि". 11 September 2020.
  26. ^ "Jivitputrika Vrat 2016 (Jitiya 2016) Date & Hindu Panchang - Indian Astrology". 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  27. ^ Agnihotri, Sanjana (14 June 2016). "All you need to know about Ganga Dussehra". India Today. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  28. ^ Doniger 1999, p. 306.
  29. ^ Lochtefeld 2002, p. 208.
  30. ^ Parmita Borah (2 October 2011). "Durga Puja - a Celebration of Female Supremacy". EF News International. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  31. ^ McDermott 2001, pp. 172–174.
  32. ^ Foulston & Abbott 2009, pp. 162–169.
  33. ^ Rodrigues 2003, pp. 7–8.
  34. ^ Daniélou 1991, p. 288.
  35. ^ McDaniel 2004, pp. 215–219.
  36. ^ McDaniel 2004, pp. 20–21, 217–219.
  37. ^ Kinsley 1988, pp. 111–112.
  38. ^ Donner 2016, p. 25.
  39. ^ Christian Roy (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 192–193. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
  40. ^ Hindus around the world celebrate Ram Navami today, DNA, 8 April 2014

Works cited