Marvel Studios, LLC
FormerlyMarvel Films (1993–1996)
Company typeSubsidiary
Industry
GenreSuperhero fiction
Founded
  • December 7, 1993; 30 years ago (1993-12-07) (as Marvel Films)
  • August 1996; 27 years ago (1996-08) (as Marvel Studios)
Founders
HeadquartersFrank G. Wells Building 2nd Floor
500 South Buena Vista Street, ,
U.S.
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
BrandsMarvel Cinematic Universe
Parent
Divisions
Subsidiaries
Websitewww.marvel.com/movies
Footnotes / references
[2][3][4]

Marvel Studios, LLC[5] (originally known as Marvel Films from 1993 to 1996) is an American film and television production company. It is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of Disney Entertainment, which is owned by the Walt Disney Company. Marvel Studios produces the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films and series, based on characters that appear in Marvel Comics publications.[6]

Since 2008, Marvel Studios has released 33 films within the MCU, from Iron Man (2008) to The Marvels (2023); ten television series since 2021, from WandaVision (2021) to Echo (2024); and two television specials: Werewolf by Night (2022) and The Guardians of the Galaxy Holiday Special (2022). The television series What If...? (2021) is the studio's first animated property, created by its "mini-studio" Marvel Studios Animation.[1] These films, television series, and television specials all share continuity with each other, along with the One-Shots short films produced by the studio. The television series produced by Marvel Television also acknowledge the continuity.

The Avengers (2012), Iron Man 3 (2013), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), Captain America: Civil War (2016), Black Panther (2018), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), Captain Marvel (2019), Avengers: Endgame (2019), Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019) and Spider-Man: No Way Home (2021) are all among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with Avengers: Endgame becoming the highest-grossing film of all time from July 2019 until March 2021. In addition to the MCU, Marvel Studios was also involved with the production of other Marvel-character film franchises that have exceeded $1 billion in North American box office revenue, including the X-Men and Spider-Man multi-film franchises.

Background

Timely era

During what is known as Marvel's Timely era, Captain America was licensed out to Republic Pictures for a serial just for the free advertising. Timely failed to provide any drawing of Captain America with his shield or any further background, and Republic created a whole new background for the character, and portrayed the character using a gun.[7]

Marvel Entertainment Group era

From the late 1970s through the early 1990s, Marvel Comics Group/Marvel Entertainment Group (MEG) sold options to studios to produce films based on Marvel Comics characters. One of Marvel's superheroes, Spider-Man, was optioned in the late 1970s, and rights reverted to Marvel without a film having been produced within the allocated time frame. From 1986 to 1996, most of Marvel's major characters had been optioned, including the Fantastic Four, X-Men, Daredevil, Hulk, Silver Surfer, and Iron Man.[8] Marvel's first big-screen adaptation of one of its properties was the 1986 film Howard the Duck,[9] which was a box-office flop.[10]

MEG was purchased by New World Entertainment in November 1986[11] and moved to produce films based on the Marvel characters. It released The Punisher (1989) before MEG was sold to Ronald Perelman's Andrews Group. Two other films were produced: Captain America (1990) released in the United Kingdom on screens and direct to video in the United States, and The Fantastic Four (1994), not intended for release.[12]

History

Marvel Films

The logo used under the Marvel Films branding

Following Marvel Entertainment Group's (MEG) ToyBiz deal in 1993, Avi Arad of ToyBiz was named president and CEO of Marvel Films division and of New World Family Filmworks, Inc., a New World Entertainment subsidiary. New World was MEG's former parent corporation and later a fellow subsidiary of The Andrews Group.[13][14] Marvel Productions became New World Animation by 1993 as Marvel would start up Marvel Films, including Marvel Films Animation.[13][15][16] Marvel Films Animation shared Tom Tataranowicz with New World Animation as head of development and production.[17] New World Animation (The Incredible Hulk), Saban (X-Men) and Marvel Films Animation (Spider-Man) each produced a Marvel series for television for the 1996–1997 season.[18][16][19] By the end of 1993, Arad and 20th Century Fox struck a deal to make a film based on the X-Men.[20]

New World Animation and Marvel Films Animation were sold along with the rest of New World by The Andrews Group to News Corporation/Fox as announced in August 1996. As part of the deal, Marvel licensed the rights to Captain America, Daredevil and Silver Surfer to be on Fox Kids Network and produced by Saban. New World Animation continued producing a second season of The Incredible Hulk for UPN.[18][21]

Marvel Studios

In August 1996, Marvel created Marvel Studios. Filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to raise money to finance the new corporation, Marvel, Isaac Perlmutter's Zib, Inc. and Avi Arad sold ToyBiz stocks.[8][22] ToyBiz filed an offering of 7.5 million shares with a closing price of $20.125 at the time, making the offering worth approximately $150 million. ToyBiz sought to sell 1 million shares.[23]

Jerry Calabrese, the president of Marvel Entertainment Group and Avi Arad, head of Marvel Films and a director of ToyBiz, were assigned tandem control of Marvel Studios. Under Calabrese and Arad, Marvel sought to control pre-production by commissioning scripts, hiring directors, and casting characters, providing the package to a major studio partner for filming and distribution. Arad said of the goal for control, "When you get into business with a big studio, they are developing a hundred or 500 projects; you get totally lost. That isn't working for us. We're just not going to do it anymore. Period."[8] Marvel Studios arranged a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox to cover markets in the United States and internationally.[24] In the following December, Marvel Entertainment Group went through a reorganization plan, including Marvel Studios as part of its strategic investment.[25] By 1997, Marvel Studios was actively pursuing various film productions based on Marvel characters, including the eventual films X-Men (2000), Daredevil (2003), Elektra (2005), and Fantastic Four (2005). Unproduced projects included Prince Namor, based on the character Namor and to be directed by Philip Kaufman, and Mort the Dead Teenager, based on the comic book of the same name and written by John Payson and Mort creator Larry Hama.[26] Marvel's Captain America animated series with Saban Entertainment for Fox Kids Network was set to premiere in fall 1998. However, due to the bankruptcy the series was canceled after only character designs and a one-minute promotional reel were made.[27][28][29]

Licensing films

The first film packaged and licensed by Marvel Studios was Blade, based on the vampire hunter Blade. The film was directed by Stephen Norrington and starred Wesley Snipes as Blade. It was released on August 21, 1998, grossing $70,087,718 in the United States and Canada and $131,183,530 worldwide.[30]

Blade was followed by X-Men, which was directed by Bryan Singer and was released on July 14, 2000. X-Men grossed $157,299,717 in the United States and Canada and $296,250,053 worldwide.[31] Blade and X-Men demonstrated that widely popular films could be made out of comic book characters not familiar to the general public.[32]

Leading up to X-Men's release, Marvel Studios negotiated a deal with then-functional Artisan Entertainment, successful with the low-budget The Blair Witch Project, for a co-production joint venture that included rights to 15 Marvel characters including Captain America, Thor, Black Panther, Iron Fist, and Deadpool. Artisan would finance and distribute while Marvel would develop licensing and merchandising tie-ins. The resulting production library, which would also include television series, direct-to-video films and internet projects, would be co-owned.[33] By 2001, the success of Marvel Entertainment's Ultimate Marvel imprint comics created leverage in Hollywood for Marvel Studios, pushing more properties into development.[34]

The next film licensed from Marvel Studios was Spider-Man by Columbia Pictures, directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as Spider-Man. The film was released on May 3, 2002, grossing $403,706,375 in the United States and Canada and $821,708,551 worldwide.[35] The early success of Spider-Man led the film's studio to issue a seven-figure advance for a sequel. Arad spoke of the deal, "Movies make sequels. Therefore, it's a big economic luxury to know that a movie's going to get a second and third. This is a business of precedence."[36] According to a Lehman Brothers analysis, the Studios made only $62 million for the first two Spider-Man movies.[37] Marvel was making more from half the consumer product licensing fees while making relatively little from the movie, but was enough for Marvel to regain its financial footings.[38] In October 2002, Marvel Studios announced deals for Sub-Mariner and Prime with Universal Pictures.[39]

In contrast to the original storylines of DC Comics' Superman and Batman films, Marvel films often emphasized more fidelity to their comics, applying set pieces, scenes, plots, and dialogue drawn from them.[32]

In 2003, David Maisel approached Arad about earning Marvel more for their films. Maisel, Arad and Perlmutter met, leading to Maisel being hired as president and COO. The studio's office, then on Santa Monica Boulevard, was small with a dozen or so staff members. Kevin Feige, later to become CEO, was then a junior executive generating script notes to the licensed studios.[38] In January 2003, Marvel, the Sci-Fi Channel and Reveille Productions agreed to develop two pilot films based on Brother Voodoo and Strikeforce: Morituri.[40]

Partnering with Lionsgate in 2004, Marvel Studios planned to enter the direct-to-DVD market with eight animated films with Lionsgate Home Entertainment handling distribution.[41][42] The line was a proof of concept for Maisel's later plan.[38] Eric Rollman was hired by Marvel as Executive Vice President, Home Entertainment & TV Production for Marvel Studios to oversee the deal with Lionsgate.[43]

Production

In 2004, David Maisel was hired as chief operating officer of Marvel Studios as he had a plan for the studio to self-finance movies.[44] Marvel entered into a non-recourse debt structure with Merrill Lynch that was collateralized by certain movie rights to a total of 10 characters from Marvel's vast vault. Marvel got $525 million to make a maximum of 10 movies based on the company's properties over eight years, according to the parameters of the original deal. Those characters were Ant-Man, The Avengers, Black Panther, Captain America, Cloak & Dagger, Doctor Strange, Hawkeye, Nick Fury, Power Pack, and Shang-Chi.[45] Ambac insured the movies would succeed or they would pay the interest payment on the debt and get the movie rights collateral.[37]

Initially Marvel Studios was in talks with Universal Pictures as a possible distributor, as Universal owned the film rights to both Hulk and Namor[46][47] during that time. Negotiations dragged on, so the studio began talks with Paramount Pictures. In the second quarter of 2005, Merrill attempted to back out of full financing of each movie, demanding that Marvel finance 1/3 of the budget. Marvel took back rights in five foreign territories from Paramount for pre-sell to meet that demand.[38] On September 6, 2005, Marvel announced the Merrill Lynch financing deal with Paramount was on as marketer and distributor. Also, the parent company changed its name from Marvel Enterprises, Inc. to Marvel Entertainment, Inc. to reflect the change to self-production.[45]

The studio moved to a new location over a Mercedes-Benz dealership in Beverly Hills. Maisel was also named vice-chairman of the studio, but reported to Isaac Perlmutter.[38] In October 2005, Michael Helfant joined the studio as president and chief operating officer.[48]

In November 2005, Marvel gained the film rights to Iron Man from New Line Cinema. Marvel revealed that it had regained the film rights to Hulk from Universal in February 2006,[49] in exchange for letting Universal own the distribution rights to The Incredible Hulk and the right of first refusal to pick up the distribution rights to any future Marvel Studios-produced Hulk films.[50] In April 2006, Thor was announced to be a Marvel Studios production.[51] Lions Gate Entertainment subsequently dropped the Black Widow motion picture project it had since 2004 giving the rights back to Marvel.[52]

Maisel and Arad fought over the rate of movie releases and strength of characters in the movie line up. Perlmutter supported Maisel and thus, in May 2006, Arad quit as studio chair and CEO.[44][53] In March 2007, David Maisel was named chairman and Kevin Feige was named president of production as Iron Man began filming.[54]

In January 2008, Marvel Animation was incorporated to direct Marvel's efforts in animation and home entertainment markets including then animation efforts with Lionsgate and Nickelodeon.[43] The company in March agreed to a five picture basic cable distribution with FX for the films Iron Man and The Incredible Hulk, with additional films to be named later.[55] Following the successful opening weekend of Iron Man in May 2008, Maisel had his contract extended through 2010 and Feige was promoted to president of Marvel Studios.[56] In November, Marvel Studios signed a lease with Raleigh Studios to host its headquarters and production offices and film the next four movies on the studios' slate, including Iron Man 2 and Thor, at their Manhattan Beach facilities.[57] By September 2008, Paramount added to its domestic film distribution contract 5 additional Marvel movies' foreign distribution.[58]

In 2009, Marvel attempted to hire a team of writers to help come up with creative ways to launch its lesser-known properties, such as Black Panther, Cable, Iron Fist, Nighthawk, and Vision.[59] In early 2009, Sony returned all Spider-Man television rights (including live-action) in exchange for an adjustment to the movie rights.[60]

Disney conglomerate subsidiary

Former typeface logo (2013–2016)

On December 31, 2009, the Walt Disney Company purchased Marvel Entertainment for $4 billion. Both Marvel and Disney stated that the merger would not affect any preexisting deals with other film studios for the time being,[61] although Disney said they would distribute future Marvel projects with their own studio once the deals expired.[62]

In April 2010, rumors circulated that Marvel was looking to create $20–40 million movies based on properties such as Doctor Strange, Ka-Zar, Luke Cage, Dazzler, and Power Pack.[63] Kevin Feige responded by saying, while budgets are generally never discussed early in development, Marvel was considering films for all characters mentioned in the rumor, except Dazzler, whose rights were at Fox.[64]

In June 2010, Marvel Entertainment set up a television division within Marvel Studios, headed up by Jeph Loeb as Executive Vice President,[65] under which Marvel Animation would be operated.[66] On October 18, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures acquired the distribution rights for The Avengers and Iron Man 3 from Paramount Pictures[67] with Paramount's logo and credit remaining on those films.[68]

On August 22, 2011, at Disney's behest, the Studio dismissed most of its marketing department: Dana Precious, EVP of Worldwide Marketing; Jeffrey Stewart, VP of Worldwide Marketing and Jodi Miller, Manager of Worldwide Marketing. Disney markets Marvel's films.[69] In April 2012, The Walt Disney Company China, Marvel Studios and DMG Entertainment announced an agreement to co-produce Iron Man 3 in China. DMG partly financed, produced in China with Marvel, and handled co-production matters. DMG also distributed the film in China in tandem with Disney.[70]

In April 2013, Marvel Studios moved its executive production offices from Manhattan Beach Studios Media Campus to the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.[71]

On July 2, 2013, Disney purchased the distribution rights to Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Thor and Captain America: The First Avenger from Paramount.[72][73] In September 2014, TNT acquired the cable rights for Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and three other films, to air on the network two years after their theatrical releases. The films had previously aired on FX since 2008.[74]

Walt Disney Studios subsidiary

In August 2015, Marvel Studios was placed into Walt Disney Studios, with Feige reporting directly to Walt Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn instead of Marvel Entertainment CEO Isaac Perlmutter. Marvel Television and subsidiary Marvel Animation were left under Marvel Entertainment and Perlmutter's control.[75][76]

The Frank G. Wells Building, the studio's home as of April 2017[77][78]

As of April 2017, Marvel Studios was housed on the second floor of the Frank G. Wells Building at the Disney studio lot.[77][78] Fast Company ranked Marvel Studios number eleven on its 2018 World's Most Innovative Companies list.[79]

In September 2018, it was reported that Marvel Studios was developing several limited series for the streaming service Disney+, to be centered on "second tier" characters from the MCU films who had not and were unlikely to star in their own films. Characters being considered for series included Loki and Scarlet Witch, with the actors who portrayed the characters in the films expected to reprise their roles for the limited series. Each series was expected to be six to eight episodes, with a "hefty [budget] rivaling those of a major studio productions". The series would be produced by Marvel Studios rather than Marvel Television, with Feige taking a "hands-on role" in each series' development.[80]

In October 2019, Feige was given the title of Chief Creative Officer, Marvel, and would oversee the creative direction of Marvel Television and Marvel Family Entertainment, with both being returned to being under the Marvel Studios banner.[81] Two months later, Marvel Television was folded into Marvel Studios, with Marvel Studios overseeing development of all the Marvel Television series in production at the time of its closing. Karim Zreik, Marvel Television's senior vice president current programming and production, would join Marvel Studios alongside his team to oversee production of the Marvel Television series inherited by Marvel Studios.[82]

In May 2022, Marvel Studios signed a 20-year licensing deal with Stan Lee Universe to license the name and likeness of Lee for use in future films, television series, Disney theme parks and cruises, various "experiences", and merchandizing. A digitally recreated Lee was not expected to make cameo appearances in future projects, rather the deal allows Marvel to use Lee's name, voice, likeness, signature, and existing images and archival material.[83] In June 2023, the distribution rights to The Incredible Hulk reverted from Universal back to Marvel and Disney.[84]

By October 2023, Marvel Studios was planning to hire dedicated executives to focus on their television efforts, as part of their larger plan to change their approach to their television series.[85] Production and development executive Richie Palmer was serving as a television executive by January 2024.[86]

Marvel Studios Animation

Main article: Marvel Studios Animation

In July 2021, ahead of the studio's first animated series What If...?, executive vice president of film production Victoria Alonso noted that Marvel Studios was creating an "animation branch and mini studio" to focus on more animated content beyond What If...?.[87] Marvel Studios will outsource the animation for its animated series to third-party animation studios, though executive Brad Winderbaum indicated Marvel would work with fellow Disney studios Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios "under the right circumstances".[88] In September 2021, Alonso was promoted to President of Physical, Post Production, VFX and Animation.[89] In November 2021, Marvel Studios announced the animated series X-Men '97, which would be a revival of the 1990s animated series X-Men and set in that series' continuity.[90] The animation branch of Marvel Studios and "mini studio" is known as Marvel Studios Animation.[1]

By April 2022, Marvel Studios had taken over production of the preschool animated series Spidey and His Amazing Friends, starting from its second season; the first season was produced under the Marvel Entertainment banner.[91]

Firing of Victoria Alonso and relationship with VFX workers

In March 2023, Alonso was fired from her role at Marvel Studios by a group including Disney Entertainment co-chairman Alan Bergman and Disney's human resources and legal departments for serving as a producer on the Amazon Studios film Argentina, 1985 (2022); this was a breach of a 2018 agreement between Alonso and Disney which stated employees would not work for a competing studio.[92][93] Alonso reportedly did not seek permission to work on the film, and was asked by Disney to stop working on the film, as well as not to promote or publicize it, with the situation "deemed serious enough" that Disney requested a new agreement be signed. Despite this, Alonso continued to promote the film following its September 2022 premiere, and was consistently reminded of her agreement and breach of contract, ultimately leading to her firing.[92] Alonso's lawyers refuted this claim, stating Disney was aware of, and agreed to, Alonso's work on Argentina, 1985, and that she was instead "silenced[... and] was terminated when she refused to do something she believed was reprehensible";[94] this incident was reported to be a disagreement with a Disney executive over the censoring of gay pride elements in Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania (2023) in order to release the film in Kuwait and comply with its restrictive anti-LGBTQ laws.[95][96] A Disney spokesperson reiterated the notion that she was fired due to "an indisputable breach of contract and a direct violation of company policy" among other "key factors".[94] Disney and Alonso reached a multimillion-dollar compensation settlement in April.[97]

Also at the time of her firing, criticism from VFX workers were noted,[93] who had raised complaints of Marvel's "demanding post-production schedules". Alonso was described by some as a "kingmaker",[93][1] and "challenging to work with",[95] with Chris Lee at Vulture reporting that Alonso was "singularly responsible for Marvel's toxic work environment" with VFX workers.[98][1] Alonso reportedly took days off to produce Argentina, 1985 instead of her post-production commitments for the various MCU projects, which in turn resulted in the need to delay several projects in 2022 and 2023.[95] However, Alonso was also described as the "epitome of professional" and supportive on set, with Joanna Robinson of The Ringer describing the reports as a "gross mischaracterization" and the opposite of Alonso's work.[93][99] Following Alonso's firing, visual effects vendors for the various MCU projects were working with producer Jen Underdahl, the vice president of visual effects and stereo.[92][100]

In August 2023, a group of 52 on-set VFX workers at Marvel Studios filed a petition with the National Labor Relations Board for an election to join the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE) labor union. This was the first time any workers in the visual effects industry had petitioned for union recognition. Lee believed if this group of workers were able to secure union recognition, it "would stand as proof of concept for the overall viability of an industry-wide unionization push", particularly at the post-production effect houses.[101] All of the workers who participated in the election vote that concluded in early September voted unanimously to form a union with IATSE, with the union then set to enter into collective bargaining negotiations with Marvel, beginning at an unspecified date.[102]

Character rights

Marvel had licensed out the film rights to many of their characters to other studios in the 1990s, starting with the X-Men,[20] the Fantastic Four, Spider-Man, Daredevil and later Captain America, Iron Man, Thor, the Hulk, Ant-Man, the Wasp, Black Widow, Luke Cage, the Punisher, Blade, Ghost Rider, Man-Thing, Black Panther, Deadpool and Prime,[103][104] among others.

In February 2015, Marvel Studios and Sony Pictures Entertainment announced that Spider-Man would appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, with the character appearing in Captain America: Civil War and Sony releasing Spider-Man: Homecoming produced by Feige and Amy Pascal on July 7, 2017. As part of the deal, Sony Pictures would continue to finance, distribute, own and have final creative control of the Spider-Man films.[105] In June 2015, Feige clarified that the initial Sony deal did not allow Spider-Man to appear in any of the MCU television series, as it was "very specific... with a certain amount of back and forth allowed."[106]

In September 2019, it was announced that Disney and Sony had reached a new agreement allowing for Spider-Man to appear in a third standalone film (produced by Marvel Studios and Feige) and a future Marvel Studios film.[107] Disney was reported to be co-financing 25% of the film in exchange for 25% of the film's profits in the new agreement, while retaining the merchandising rights to the character.[107][108] In November 2021, Pascal announced plans for a fourth Spider-Man film set in the MCU, in addition to long-term plans for a new trilogy of films with Marvel Studios, with said film entering active development the following month.[109][110]

In March 2023, Citigroup financial analyst Jason Bazinet felt Disney may try to include the distribution rights to Hulk and Namor in any potential sale of the streaming service Hulu to Comcast, the owner of Universal Pictures through NBCUniversal.[111] In June 2023, the distribution rights to The Incredible Hulk reverted from Universal back to Marvel and Disney.[84]

The following table details the rights that have returned to Marvel along with the studios from which they returned and the year in which they returned.

Year Character(s) From Notes / Ref.
2005 Black Panther Columbia Pictures and Artisan Entertainment [112]
Iron Man New Line Cinema [49]
2006 Thor Columbia Pictures [51]
Black Widow Lionsgate Entertainment [52]
2006, 2023 Hulk Universal Pictures The film rights to Hulk reverted to Marvel Studios from Universal Studios in 2006, after the latter failed to enter production on a sequel to Ang Lee's 2003 Hulk film. Universal, however, for letting the rights revert to Marvel before they even expired,[113] retained the right of first refusal to distribute future standalone Hulk films.[114] In June 2023, the distribution rights to The Incredible Hulk reverted to Marvel and Disney.[84]
2012 Blade New Line Cinema [115][116]
Daredevil 20th Century Fox/New Regency[117] [118]
2013 Ghost Rider Columbia Pictures [116]
The Punisher Lions Gate Entertainment
Luke Cage Columbia Pictures [119]
2014 Namor Universal Pictures In 2012, Marvel Entertainment CCO Joe Quesada believed Namor's rights had reverted to Marvel, but Feige said in August 2013 this was not so.[120] However, Feige expanded in July 2014 saying that Marvel Studios, not Universal Pictures or Legendary Pictures, could make a Namor film, "but it's slightly more complicated than that. Let's put it this way – there are entanglements that make it less easy. There are older contracts that still involve other parties that mean we need to work things out before we move forward on it. As opposed to an Iron Man or any of the Avengers or any of the other Marvel characters where we could just put them in."[121] In June 2016, Quesada again stated that, to his knowledge, the film rights to Namor had returned to Marvel.[122] In October 2018, Feige noted the character could appear in the MCU, with the studio still deciding how it would use the character.[123] The character first appeared in the MCU in Black Panther: Wakanda Forever (2022).[124] In November 2022, Marvel Studios executive Nate Moore confirmed that they cannot make a standalone Namor film since Universal still holds the character's distribution rights, similar to the Hulk.[125]
2016 Ego, the Living Planet 20th Century Fox 20th Century Fox was able to change the powers of Negasonic Teenage Warhead for Deadpool by giving Marvel Studios the rights to Ego the Living Planet, who first appears in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.[126]
2019 Fantastic Four 20th Century Fox/Constantin Film In 1986, Constantin Film originally licensed the film rights of the Fantastic Four from Marvel[127] and produced an unreleased low-budget film in 1992 with Roger Corman's New Horizon Studios to renew the license. Marvel paid in exchange for the film's negative so Constantin could sub-license the rights to 20th Century Fox. On December 14, 2017, Disney agreed to purchase 20th Century Fox's parent company 21st Century Fox, after it spun off some of its businesses as Fox Corporation.[128] The deal was completed on March 20, 2019.[129]
X-Men 20th Century Fox On December 14, 2017, Disney agreed to purchase 20th Century Fox's parent company 21st Century Fox, after it spun off some of its businesses as Fox Corporation.[128] The deal was completed on March 20, 2019.[129]
Deadpool

Marvel Knights

Main article: Marvel Knights § Film

Named after corporate sibling Marvel Comics' imprint of the same name, Marvel Knights is also the name given to a production arm of Marvel Studios intended to be used to produce some of Marvel's darker and lesser known titles. The first film produced under the Marvel Knights banner was Punisher: War Zone, the 2008 release that rebooted the Punisher franchise. In 2011, Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance was the second and final title to be released under the Marvel Knights banner.[130]

Year Film Based on Production partner Distributor Budget Gross
2008 Punisher: War Zone
$35 million[131] $10.1 million
2011 Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance $57 million[132] $132.6 million

Units

Marvel Music

For the former Marvel Comics imprint, see Marvel Music.

Further information: Music of the Marvel Cinematic Universe

This section relies excessively on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. Find sources: "Marvel Studios" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Marvel Music is a subsidiary of Marvel Studios involved in the publishing of music related to its productions. The company was incorporated on September 9, 2005[142] and announced as a label for releasing music related to Marvel's film and television productions in 2009.[143] According to the company, Marvel Music has released albums in conjunction with Disney's Hollywood Records.[144]

In 2014, Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 became certified Gold—and subsequently certified Platinum—by the Recording Industry Association of America. It also became the first soundtrack album in history to top the Billboard 200 chart while consisting entirely of previously released songs.[145] Ludwig Göransson's score to Black Panther (2018) won an Academy Award for Best Original Score and a Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media, while the song "King's Dead" from the film's soundtrack album won a Grammy for Best Rap Performance.

Key people

Studio heads

Parliament

The following executives are members of the "Marvel Studios Parliament", otherwise known as "The Parliament", the creative decision making committee at Marvel Studios:[147][148][85][149]

Production and Development group

A number of other executives serve as lead producers on films and television series, working on each project from their inception through their release as managers alongside other executives,[148][154] as part of the Production and Development group. Some of these executives include:[149]

Other

Additionally, Sarah Halley Finn has served as a frequent casting director for several MCU films and television series.[175]

Former

Production library

Films

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Marvel Cinematic Universe films and List of films based on Marvel Comics publications.

Short films

Live-action

For a more comprehensive list, see Marvel One-Shots and Team Thor.

Animated

Title Aired Production partner(s) Distributor Original network
I Am Groot[200] 2022–present Marvel Studios Animation[1] / Luma Pictures[201] Disney Platform Distribution Disney+

Television

Animated

For any animation created before 1992, see Marvel Productions. For some animation created after 2008 and the Marvel Animated Features, see Marvel Animation.

Series Aired Production partner(s) Distributor Original network
Marvel Films
X-Men 1992–1997 Saban Entertainment / Graz Entertainment / AKOM / Marvel Entertainment Group Saban International Fox Kids
Fantastic Four 1994–1996 Wang Film Productions Co., LTD. (season 1) / Philippine Animation Studios (season 2)[202]/ Marvel Entertainment Group Genesis Entertainment (US) /

New World Entertainment (International)

First-run
syndication
(The Marvel Action Hour)[19][16]
Iron Man Rainbow Animation Korea / Marvel Entertainment Group
Spider-Man 1994–1998 Marvel Entertainment Group / Marvel Films Animation / Tokyo Movie Shinsha Genesis Entertainment (Seasons 1–2) /

New World Entertainment (Seasons 1–3) / Saban International (Seasons 4)

Fox Kids
The Incredible Hulk 1996–1997 Marvel Entertainment Group /New World Animation / Saban Entertainment / Saerom Animation New World Entertainment (Season 1) / Saban International (Season 2) UPN
Marvel Studios
Silver Surfer 1998 Saban Entertainment / AKOM / Marvel Entertainment Group Saban International Fox Kids
Spider-Man Unlimited 1999–2001 Saban Entertainment / Koko Enterprise Co., Ltd. / Dong Yang Animation
The Avengers: United They Stand 1999–2000 Saban Entertainment / Fox Family Worldwide / Saerom Animation
X-Men: Evolution 2000–2003 Film Roman Warner Bros. Television Distribution / Marvel Entertainment Kids' WB
Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Heroes 2006–2007 Moonscoop / Marvel Entertainment Taffy Entertainment Cartoon Network
Wolverine and the X-Men 2009 Toonz Entertainment / Marvel Entertainment / Marvel Animation Lionsgate Television Nicktoons
M.O.D.O.K.[203][a] 2021 Marvel Television Disney Platform Distribution Hulu
Hit-Monkey[203][a] Marvel Television[b]
Marvel Studios Animation[1]
What If...?[206] 2021–present Blue Spirit / Squeeze / Flying Bark Productions Disney Platform Distribution Disney+
Spidey and His Amazing Friends[91][c] Atomic Cartoons / Marvel Animation (season 1 only) Disney–ABC Domestic Television Disney Junior
X-Men '97[207][d] 2024–present Studio Mir Disney Platform Distribution Disney+
Your Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man[208] 2024 TBA
Eyes of Wakanda[208]
Marvel Zombies[90]

Live-action

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Marvel Cinematic Universe television series § Marvel Studios, and List of television series based on Marvel Comics publications.

For additional live action television series, see Marvel Television.

Series Aired Production partner(s) Distributor Original network Notes
Generation X February 20, 1996 (pilot) MT2 Services, Inc. / Marvel Films[209] / New World Television Production / Fox Films New World Entertainment Fox[210] Unordered TV pilot
Mutant X 2001–2004 Fireworks Entertainment / Global Television Network Tribune Entertainment Syndicated Not based on Marvel Comics
Helstrom[82][a] 2020 ABC Signature Studios Disney Platform Distribution Hulu Part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe

Documentary

Title Aired Distributor Original network
Marvel Studios: Expanding the Universe 2019 Disney Platform Distribution Disney+
Marvel Studios: Legends 2021–present
Marvel Studios: Assembled
MPower 2023

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Early development and production was overseen by Marvel Television.[82][204]
  2. ^ Production of the series moved to 20th Television Animation following its first season.[205]
  3. ^ From season 2 onwards
  4. ^ This series is set in the continuity of the 1990s animated series X-Men.[90]

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