Ang Lee
李安
Lee in 2016
Born (1954-10-23) October 23, 1954 (age 69)
Education
Occupations
  • Film director
  • producer
  • screenwriter
Years active1991–present
Spouse
Jane Lin [zh]
(m. 1983)
Children2, including Mason
Chinese name
Chinese李安

Ang Lee OBS (Chinese: 李安; pinyin: Lǐ Ān; born October 23, 1954) is a Taiwanese[1][2] filmmaker. His films are known for their emotional charge and exploration of repressed, hidden emotions.[3][4][5] During his career, he has received international critical and popular acclaim and numerous accolades including two Academy Awards, four BAFTA Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards. In 2003, he was ranked 27th in The Guardian's 40 best directors.[6]

Born in Pingtung County, Lee was educated in Taiwan and later in the United States. He rose to prominence directing films such as Pushing Hands (1991), The Wedding Banquet (1993), and Eat Drink Man Woman (1994), which explored the relationships and conflicts between tradition and modernity, Eastern and Western; the three films are informally known as the "Father Knows Best" trilogy.[7] The films were critically successful both in Taiwan and internationally.

His breakthrough in Hollywood was the costume drama Sense and Sensibility (1995), which was also his first entirely English-language film. Lee went on to receive the Academy Award for Best Director twice for the romantic drama Brokeback Mountain (2005); and the survival drama Life of Pi (2012). He directed films in a broad range of genres, including the drama The Ice Storm (1997); the martial arts drama Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000); the superhero blockbuster Hulk (2003) and the erotic espionage drama Lust, Caution (2007).

Early life and education

"the formation of an individual decides their world perception, especially the things that happen before one is 20, so since he did not go to the US until he was 23, "whatever I do, whatever I absorb outside [Taiwan], my nature remains very Taiwanese... The basic me was growing up here, mixed with a lot of other things. Taiwan is like this. Wherever I shoot my film, it is a Taiwanese film"

-Ang Lee, speaks of his attachment to Taiwan. Sabine Cheng & Lilian Wu, October 1, 2016[8]

Ang Lee was born in a Waishengren family, in a military dependents' village of the Republic of China Armed Forces, located in Chaochou, Pingtung,[9] a southern agricultural county in Taiwan. Both of Lee's parents moved following the end of the Chinese civil war in 1949 from De'an, Jiangxi province in Mainland China to Taiwan. He grew up in a household that put a heavy emphasis on education. In 1956, when Ang Lee was 2 years old, his family moved to Hualien because his father took a position as the Principal of Taiwan Provincial Hualien Normal School (TPHNS). Ang Lee attended two elementary schools in Hualien: Mingli Elementary School and Affiliated Primary School of Taiwan Provincial Hualien Normal School (now National Dong Hwa University Experimental Primary School). Ang Lee has mentioned that the eight years he lived in Hualien were the happiest time of his life before he went north to study at National Arts School.[10][11]

Lee studied in the Provincial Tainan First Senior High School (now National Tainan First Senior High School) where his father was the principal. He was expected to pass the annual Joint College/University Entrance Examination, the only route to a university education in Republic of China. But after failing the exam twice, to the disappointment of his father, he entered a three-year college, the National Arts School (now reorganized and expanded as National Taiwan University of Arts), and graduated in 1975. His father had wanted him to become a professor, but he had become interested in drama and the arts in college. This early frustration set his career on the path of performance art. Seeing Ingmar Bergman's film The Virgin Spring (1960) was a formative experience for him.[12]

After finishing his mandatory military service in the Republic of China Navy (ROCN), Lee went to the US in 1979 to study at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, where he completed his bachelor's degree in theater in 1980. Originally, Lee was interested in acting, but his challenges with speaking English made it difficult, and he quickly turned to directing.[13] At UIUC, Lee met his future wife, Jane Lin (Chinese: 林惠嘉; pinyin: Lín Huìjiā), also a student from Taiwan, who was pursuing her PhD degree. Thereupon, he enrolled at the Tisch School of the Arts of New York University, where he received his MFA in film production. He was a classmate of Spike Lee and worked on the crew of his thesis film, Joe's Bed-Stuy Barbershop: We Cut Heads.

During graduate school, Lee finished a 16mm short film, Shades of the Lake (1982), which won the Best Drama Award in Short Film in Taiwan. His own thesis work, a 43-minute drama, Fine Line (1984), won NYU's Wasserman Award for Outstanding Direction and was also chosen for broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service.[14]

Life after graduation

Lee's NYU thesis drew attention from the William Morris Agency, the famous talent and literary agency that later represented Lee. At first, though, WMA found Lee few opportunities, and Lee remained unemployed for six years. During this time, he was a full-time house-husband, while his wife Jane Lin, a molecular biologist, was the sole breadwinner for the family of four. This arrangement put enormous pressure on the couple, but with Lin's support and understanding, Lee did not abandon his career in film but continued to generate new ideas from movies and performances. He also wrote several screenplays during this time.[15]

In 1990, Lee submitted two screenplays, Pushing Hands and The Wedding Banquet, to a competition sponsored by Government Information Office of R.O.C., and they came in first and second, respectively. The winning screenplays brought Lee to the attention of Hsu Li-kong (Chinese: 徐立功; pinyin: Xú Lìgōng), a recently promoted senior manager in a major studio who had a strong interest in Lee's unique style and freshness. Hsu, a first-time producer, invited Lee to direct Pushing Hands, a full-length feature that debuted in 1991.[citation needed]

Career

1991–1994: International films

The 'Father Knows Best' trilogy

Pushing Hands (1991) was a success in Taiwan both among critics and at the box office. It received eight nominations in the Golden Horse Film Festival, Taiwan's premier film festival. Inspired by the success, Hsu Li-kong collaborated with Lee in their second film, The Wedding Banquet (1993), which won the Golden Bear at the 43rd Berlin International Film Festival[16] and was nominated as the Best Foreign Language Film[17] in both the Golden Globe and the Academy Awards. In all, this film collected eleven Taiwanese and international awards and made Lee a rising star. These first two movies were based on stories of Chinese Americans, and both were filmed in the US.

In 1994, Hsu invited Lee to return to Taiwan to make Eat Drink Man Woman, a film that depicts traditional values, modern relationships, and family conflicts in Taipei. The film was a box office hit and was critically acclaimed. For a second consecutive year, Lee's film received the Best Foreign Language Film nomination in both the Golden Globe and Academy Awards, as well as in the British Academy Awards (BAFTA)s. Eat Drink Man Woman won five awards in Taiwan and internationally, including the Best Director from Independent Spirit.

The three films show the Confucian family at risk and star the Taiwanese actor Sihung Lung to form what has been called Lee's "Father Knows Best" trilogy.[7]

1994–2012: Breakthrough and acclaim

With the help of screenwriter and actor Emma Thompson, Lee adapted Sense and Sensibility (1995)

In 1995, Lee directed Columbia TriStar's British classic Sense and Sensibility based on the Jane Austen novel of the same name. This made Lee a second-time winner of the Golden Bear at the Berlin Film Festival. It was nominated for seven Academy Awards, and won Best Adapted Screenplay for screenwriter Emma Thompson, who also starred in the movie alongside Alan Rickman, Hugh Grant and Kate Winslet. Sense and Sensibility also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Drama. Thompson has described the experience of working with Lee in his first English language film, noting how taken aback Lee was when the actors asked questions or provided suggestions, something Thompson notes as uncommon in Chinese culture. Once this disjuncture was bridged, Thompson remembered having "the most wonderful time because his notes were so brutal and funny."[18] Janet Maslin of The New York Times praised Lee's adaptation writing, "Mr. Lee is after something more broadly accessible, a sparkling, colorful and utterly contemporary comedy of manners. He achieves this so pleasantly that Sense and Sensibility matches the Austen-based Clueless for sheer fun".[19]

After this, Lee continued directing in Hollywood. He made The Ice Storm (1997), a drama set in 1970s suburban America, starring Kevin Kline, Sigourney Weaver, Joan Allen, and Tobey Maguire. The film competed at the 1997 Cannes Film Festival for the Palme d'Or. It received the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Screenplay. Angie Errigo of Empire praised the film writing, "Ang Lee seems incapable of making a less than outstanding movie" adding, "The real beauty of this film is the way in which Ang Lee shifts his story from sex farce to youth drama to tragic despair with the help of a perfect ensemble cast".[20]

Lee made another film, the revisionist Western drama Ride with the Devil (1999), set during the American Civil War. The film which starred Tobey Maguire, Skeet Ulrich, and Jeffrey Wright received mixed reviews and was a box office bomb. Entertainment Weekly described it as "oddly unengaging" and the "waxy yellow buildup of earnest tastefulness seals off every character from our access. These Americans aren't action figures; they're collectible figurines."[21] For a time this interrupted Lee's unbroken popularity – from both general audiences and arthouse aficionados – since his first full-length movie. However, in the late 1990s and 2000s, The Ice Storm had high VHS and DVD sales and rentals and repeated screenings on cable television, which has increased the film's popularity among audiences.

In 1999, Hsu Li-kong, Lee's old partner and supporter, invited him to make a movie based on the traditional "wuxia" genre concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China. Excited about the opportunity to fulfill his childhood dream, Lee assembled a team from the United States, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Mainland China for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000). The film starred Chow Yun-fat, Michelle Yeoh, and Zhang Ziyi and surprising success worldwide. With Chinese dialogue and English subtitles, the film became the highest grossing foreign film in many countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom. Critics praised the film. Michael Rechtshaffen of The Hollywood Reporter praised Lee writing, "for his first Chinese-language assignment since 1994’s Eat Drink Man Woman, Ang Lee tries a little martial arts on for size – with jaw-droppingly exhilarating results". He added "A sweeping romantic epic with a strong feminist backbone, the thoroughly entertaining [film] also happens to boast a generous offering of seriously kick-ass action sequences that make The Matrix seem downright quaint by comparison."[22] The film was nominated in 10 Academy Awards including Best Picture, Best Foreign Language Film, and Best Director. It ended up winning Best Foreign Language Film and three technical awards.

Ang Lee at the Venice International Film Festival in 2009

In 2003, Lee returned to Hollywood to direct the superhero blockbuster Hulk, his second big-budget movie after the disappointment of Ride with the Devil's restricted release. The film was produced by Universal Pictures in collaboration with Marvel Entertainment. It starred Eric Bana as Bruce Banner / The Hulk with supporting performances from Jennifer Connelly, Sam Elliot and Nick Nolte. The film received mixed reviews while being a financial success, grossing over $245 million at the box office. After the setback, Lee considered retiring early, but his father encouraged him to continue making movies. Roger Ebert gave the film a positive review, writing, "Lee is trying to actually deal with the issues in the story of the Hulk, instead of simply cutting to brainless visual effects."

Lee took on a small-budget, low-profile independent film based on Annie Proulx's Pulitzer Prize-finalist short story, Brokeback Mountain. In a 2005 article[23] by Robert K. Elder, Lee was quoted as saying, "What do I know about gay ranch hands in Wyoming?" In spite of the director's distance from the subject at hand, Brokeback Mountain showcased Lee's skills in probing the depths of the human heart. The 2005 movie about the forbidden love between two Wyoming sheepherders immediately caught public attention and became a cultural phenomenon, initiating intense debates and becoming a box office hit.

The film was critically acclaimed at major international film festivals and won Lee numerous Best Director and Best Picture awards worldwide. Brokeback Mountain was the most acclaimed film of 2005, winning 71 awards and an additional 52 nominations. It won the Golden Lion (best film) award at the Venice International Film Festival and was named 2005's best film by the Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and London film critics. It also won best picture at the 2005 Broadcast Film Critics Association, Directors Guild of America, Writers Guild of America (Adapted Screenplay), Producers Guild of America and the Independent Spirit Awards as well as the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama, with Lee winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Director. Brokeback Mountain also won Best Film and Best Director at the 2006 BAFTAs. It was nominated for a leading eight Oscars and was the front runner for Best Picture heading into March 5 ceremony, but lost out to Crash, a story about race relations in Los Angeles, in a controversial upset. He became the first non-white person to win the Best Director at the Academy Awards (which he won again for Life of Pi). In 2006, following his Best Director Oscar, Lee was bestowed the Order of Brilliant Star with Grand Cordon, the second highest civilian award, by the R.O.C. government.[24]

Lee in Taiwan in 2009

His next film was Lust, Caution, which was adapted from a novella by the Chinese author Eileen Chang. The story was written in 1950, and was loosely based on an actual event that took place in 1939–1940 in Japanese-occupied Shanghai, China, during World War II. Lust, Caution was distributed by Focus Features and premiered at international film festivals in the summer and early fall of 2007. In the U.S., the movie received a NC-17 rating (no children 17 and under admitted) from the MPAA mainly due to several strongly explicit sex scenes. This was a challenge to the film's distribution because many theater chains in the United States refuse to show NC-17 films. The director and film studio decided not to appeal the decision. Lee removed 9 minutes from the film to make the content suitable for minor audiences in order to be permitted to show Lust, Caution in mainland China.[25]

Lust, Caution captured the Golden Lion from the 2007 Biennale Venice Film Festival, making Lee the winner of the highest prize for the second time in three years (Lee is one of only four filmmakers to have won the Golden Lion twice). When Lust, Caution was played in Lee's native Taiwan in its original full-length edition, it was very well received.[citation needed] Staying in Taiwan to promote the film and to participate in a traditional holiday, Lee got emotional[citation needed] when he found that his work was widely applauded by fellow Taiwanese. Lee admitted that he had low expectations for this film from the U.S. audience since "its pace, its film language;– it's all very Chinese."[26] The film was submitted by Taiwan for consideration in the Best Foreign Language Film category at the Academy Awards, but the Academy ruled that an insufficient number of Taiwanese nationals had participated in the production, thus disqualifying it from further consideration; it was not nominated for any other category.

Lee was chosen to be president of the jury for the 2009 Venice Film Festival.[27] Lee's next film after 2009's Taking Woodstock was Life of Pi, which was adapted from the novel of the same name written by Yann Martel. The story was a retrospective first-person narrative from Pi, a then 16-year-old boy from India, who is the only human to survive the sinking of a freighter on the way from India to Canada. He finds himself on a lifeboat with an orangutan, a hyena, a wounded zebra and a Bengal tiger.[28] During this unlikely journey, young Pi questions his belief in God and the meaning of life. The novel was once considered impossible to make into a movie, but Lee persuaded 20th Century Fox to invest $120 million and heavily relied on 3D special effects in post-production. Unlike most other sci-fi precedents, Lee explores the artistic horizon of applying 3D effects and pushes the boundary of how this technology can serve the movie's artistic vision. The movie made its commercial premiere during Thanksgiving weekend of 2012 in the US and worldwide, and became a critical and box office success. In January 2013, Life of Pi earned 11 Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Visual Effects.[29] He went on to win the Academy Award for Best Director.

2013–present: Career fluctuations

In 2013, he was selected as a member of the main competition jury at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival.[30] In March 2013, it was announced that Lee would direct a television pilot for the drama series Tyrant, created by Gideon Raff and developed by Howard Gordon and Craig Wright. Production was scheduled for the summer of 2013 for the FX series.[31] However, Lee decided to quit the project to take a break from his hectic schedule.[32]

Lee next directed the war drama Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk based on the novel of the same name. It was his first film since winning the Oscar for Best Director for Life of Pi. The film starred Joe Alwyn, Kristen Stewart, Vin Diesel, Steve Martin, and Chris Tucker. The film is a satire on United States involvement in Iraq, with the story of a soldier whose PTSD is triggered at a Texan football game. It was distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing and was released in November 2016. It premiered at the New York Film Festival and received a mixed response from audiences and critics alike and was a box office failure. Many critics criticized its high frame rate. Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian described the film as having "neither topical immediacy nor any real historical perspective and, burdened with pedantic and predictable flashbacks, it finally leads nowhere interesting at all."[33]

In April 2017, Ang Lee began discussions with Skydance Media to helm an action thriller film, Gemini Man, that follows a senior DIA official being hunted by a young clone of himself right as he is about to retire from the agency.[34] Will Smith was cast in the lead role.[35] In January 2018, Clive Owen and Mary Elizabeth Winstead had been cast as the antagonist and female lead respectively. The film was released on October 11, 2019 to negative reviews and flopped at the box office. Alissa Wilkinson of Vox wrote, "If Gemini Man is the future of big-budget filmmaking, I hope someone in Hollywood is getting worried."[36] Peter Debruge of Variety wrote, "it was the script that never lived up to the promise of its premise."[37]

Upcoming projects

In 2013, Ang Lee began development on a film dramatising Joe Frazier and Muhammad Ali's heavyweight title fight, known as the Thrilla in Manila. The film was to be produced by Universal with a screenplay written by Peter Morgan, but Lee later put it on hold in 2014 in order to make Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk.[38][39][40] In December 2015, it was announced that the project, tentatively titled Thrilla in Manila, now with Studio 8, would be his next film after Gemini Man.[41] David Oyelowo and Ray Fisher were reportedly Lee's top choices for the leading roles of Frazier and Ali, respectively, and he hoped to film in 3D.[42] Ang Lee announced in November 2022 that he is working on a biopic on the life of Bruce Lee starring the director's son, Mason Lee.[43]

Personal life

Lee lives in Larchmont, in Westchester County, New York, with his wife, Jane Lin, a microbiologist. They married in 1983 and have two sons, including Mason.[44] Lee is sometimes described as a naturalized US citizen[45][46][47] but has said he is a permanent resident of the United States.[1][48] Lee has stated that he believes in the Taoist-Buddha.[49]

Filmography

Lee has been involved in the process of filmmaking in various capacities, though the highlight of his career and legacy is his directorial work. The following are Lee's various credits.

Year Title Director Producer Writer
1991 Pushing Hands Yes No Yes
1993 The Wedding Banquet Yes No Yes
1994 Eat Drink Man Woman Yes No Yes
1995 Siao Yu No Yes Yes
Sense and Sensibility Yes No No
1997 The Ice Storm Yes No No
1999 Ride with the Devil Yes No No
2000 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Yes Yes No
2003 Hulk Yes No No
2005 Brokeback Mountain Yes No No
2007 Lust, Caution Yes Yes No
2009 Taking Woodstock Yes Yes No
2012 Life of Pi Yes Yes No
2016 Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk Yes Yes No
2019 Gemini Man Yes No No

Lee also directed the commercial Chosen (2001).

Acting credits

Year Title Role Notes
1993 The Wedding Banquet Wedding guest Cameo
1998 The Candidate Hsu Giu Jing's childhood friend
2007 Hollywood Chinese Himself Documentary

Awards and honors

Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Ang Lee

In 2003, Lee was ranked 27th in The Guardian's 40 best directors.[6] In August 2007, Lee was named the 41st greatest director of all time in a poll by Total Film magazine.[50] Lee has also received awards from the French Government including becoming a Knight of the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (2012).[51] and a Knight of the French Legion of Honor (2021)[52][53] In 2020 he received a BAFTA Fellowship for his Outstanding Contributions to British Cinema.

Lee has been nominated for nine Academy Awards, of which he has won three: Best Foreign Language Film for Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon and Best Director for Brokeback Mountain and Life of Pi, becoming the first non-white director to win the latter prize. For The Wedding Banquet and Sense and Sensibility, Lee won the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival; for Brokeback Mountain and Lust Caution, he won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. Lee is one of four directors to win the Golden Lion twice and the sole filmmaker to have been awarded the Golden Bear twice. Lee has also been awarded Directors Guild of America Awards, Golden Globes and British Academy Film Awards, among others, and is the recipient of the Order of Brilliant Star, the second highest civilian honor bestowed by the government of Taiwan.[54]

On November 30, 2021, Lee received the Presidential Culture Award in the arts and culture category from Taiwan's president Tsai Ing-wen.[55]

Awards and nominations received by Lee' films
Year Title Academy Awards BAFTA Awards Golden Globe Awards
Nominations Wins Nominations Wins Nominations Wins
1993 The Wedding Banquet 1 1
1994 Eat Drink Man Woman 1 1 1
1995 Sense and Sensibility 7 1 12 3 6 2
1997 The Ice Storm 2 1 1
2000 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon 10 4 14 4 3 2
2005 Brokeback Mountain 8 3 9 4 7 4
2007 Lust, Caution 2 1
2012 Life of Pi 11 4 9 2 3 1
Total 38 12 49 14 23 9

Recurring collaborators

Ang Lee has had a career-long collaboration with producer and screenwriter James Schamus[56] and editor Tim Squyres. He has also worked several times with music composer Mychael Danna and a few times with Danny Elfman.[note 1]

Year Title James Schamus Tim Squyres
Producer Writer Editor
1991 Pushing Hands[57] Yes Yes Yes
1993 The Wedding Banquet Yes Yes Yes
1994 Eat Drink Man Woman Yes Yes Yes
1995 Sense and Sensibility Yes No Yes
1997 The Ice Storm Yes Yes Yes
1999 Ride with the Devil Yes Yes Yes
2000 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Yes Yes Yes
2003 Hulk Yes Yes Yes
2005 Brokeback Mountain Yes No No
2007 Lust, Caution Yes Yes Yes
2009 Taking Woodstock Yes Yes Yes
2012 Life of Pi No No Yes
2016 Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk No No Yes
2019 Gemini Man No No Yes

Notes

  1. ^ Mychael Danna was originally hired to score Hulk, but he was removed from the project, apparently at the request of the studio, and another composer completed the final score. Ang Lee spoke publicly about this in 2012 at a director's roundtable, calling it the moment he regretted most in his career. Danna subsequently received his first Oscar nomination and went on to win that award for scoring Life of Pi, his first reunion with Lee since that time.

References

  1. ^ a b "戰爭人性與電影科技 李安:視覺對我是信仰 [Humanity during War and Film Technologies: Interview of Ang Lee]". 中天的夢想驛站 (in Chinese). November 12, 2016. Event occurs at 23:20. CtiTV. Archived from the original on October 30, 2021. 我很想跟他們講其實我也沒有入美國籍,我拿的還是綠卡。(I was willing to tell them that I am not naturalized as U.S. citizen. I still hold the green card.)
  2. ^ 王, 篤若 (July 29, 2007). "李安對威尼斯不滿:「色戒」代表中華民國". tw.aboluowang.com (in Chinese). Retrieved March 9, 2021. 李良山 (李安的特助)表示: "「色,戒」雖有美國資金,並是在大陸拍攝,但歐洲三大影展坎城、威尼斯、與柏林都是依導演的國籍來確定這部電影的出處,而李安至今仍是拿中華民國護照,從未申請入美國籍,所以「色,戒」當然是屬於中華民國、台灣的電影"... 據了解,李安旅美多年只持有美國綠卡,並未申請入美國籍 [...Ang Lee's personal assistant stated:"Though Lust, Caution had received fund from the US, and been filming in mainland China, but three major film festivals in Europe including Cannes, Venice, and Berlin, all decide the origin of the cinemas according to the nationality of the film director. As of now, Ang Lee still holds ROC passport, and he never apply to naturalize himself as American citizen. Surely Lust, Caution is originated in Taiwan"... It was learned that Ang Lee has been a US permanent resident for years without a citizenship by naturalization]
  3. ^ Williams, Sarah (February 20, 2013). "'Life of Pi's Ang Lee Conquers Anti-Asian Bias". Voice of America. Retrieved February 20, 2013. Like many Asian-Americans in Hollywood's film industry, Chinese-born American film director Ang Lee struggled for acceptance early in his career.
  4. ^ Corliss, Richard (November 20, 2012). "Ang Lee's Life of Pi: Storm and Fang, Water and Wonder". Time. Retrieved November 20, 2012. The Chinese-born American director mastered the nuances of 19th-century English manners in Sense and Sensibility, set martial-artist adversaries to dancing on tree tops in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and sold the mainstream audience on the love story of two cowboys in Brokeback Mountain.
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  10. ^ 自由時報電子報 (October 12, 2009). "《星期專訪》李安︰我的個性是委曲求全,卻又不甘心的人 - 生活 - 自由時報電子報". news.ltn.com.tw (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Retrieved April 1, 2024.
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  33. ^ Bradshaw, Peter (February 10, 2017). "Billy Lynn's Long Halftime Walk review – war on terror satire that plays it safe". The Guardian. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
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  36. ^ "Gemini Man, starring Will Smith, spells catastrophe for the future of movies". Vox. October 9, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
  37. ^ "Film Review: Will Smith in 'Gemini Man'". Variety. September 26, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
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Further reading