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1972 Democratic Party presidential primaries

← 1968 January 24 to June 20, 1972 1976 →

3,014 delegates to the 1972 Democratic National Convention
1,509 delegate votes needed to win
 
Candidate George McGovern George Wallace Hubert Humphrey
Home state South Dakota Alabama Minnesota
Delegate count 1,319.55 371 345.85
Contests won 16 7 5
Popular vote 4,053,451 3,755,424 4,121,372
Percentage 25.00% 23.17% 25.42%

 
Candidate Edmund Muskie Henry M. Jackson Terry Sanford
Home state Maine Washington North Carolina
Delegate count 172.5 52 28
Contests won 5 1 0
Popular vote 1,840,217 505,198 331,415
Percentage 11.34% 3.11% 2.04%

 
Candidate Wilbur Mills Shirley Chisholm John Lindsay
Home state Arkansas New York New York
Delegate count 28 22 6
Contests won 1 1 0
Popular vote 37,401 430,703 196,406
Percentage 0.23% 2.66% 1.21%

     McGovern      Humphrey      Wallace      Muskie
     Jackson      Mills      Chisholm      Uncommitted

Previous Democratic nominee

Hubert Humphrey

Democratic nominee

George McGovern

From January 24 to June 20, 1972, voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for president in the 1972 United States presidential election. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections, caucuses, and state party conventions, culminating in the 1972 Democratic National Convention held from July 10 to July 13, 1972, in Miami, Florida.

Background

1968 election

Main articles: 1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries and 1968 United States presidential election

The 1968 election was one of the most eventful and influential in the history of the Democratic Party. The primaries were contested by President Lyndon B. Johnson, Senator Eugene McCarthy, and Senator Robert F. Kennedy. In a shock, McCarthy forced the incumbent president out of the race early by his strong showing in the New Hampshire primary. Kennedy joined the race soon thereafter, and the two ran on their opposition to Johnson's handling of the Vietnam War. They traded primary victories until Kennedy was assassinated in June.

Although Kennedy and McCarthy contested the popular elections, most of the delegates in 1968 were not popularly elected. Thus, with Kennedy dead and McCarthy lacking support from the party establishment, Johnson's vice president Hubert H. Humphrey was easily nominated on the first ballot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Humphrey's nomination, the continuing Vietnam War, and the generally closed nature of the nomination process drew massive protests to Chicago; the convention was generally seen as a major embarrassment for the Party, and Humphrey went on to lose the election narrowly to Richard Nixon.

McGovern-Fraser Commission

Main article: McGovern-Fraser Commission

In response to the 1968 debacle, party leadership established a twenty-eight member committee selected by Senator Fred R. Harris to reform the presidential nomination process for 1972. The committee was led by Senator George McGovern and Representative Donald M. Fraser. After less than nine months, the committee delivered its guidelines.

The committee focused on two main principles: uniformity and equity. Guidelines required states adopt uniform, explicit delegate selection rules and weight the delegate allocation in favor of politically marginalized groups (women, blacks and those under the age of 30), including the use of quotas.

In general, the state parties complied with the McGovern-Fraser guidelines by adopting the use of primary elections, rather than delegate selection caucuses or conventions. Thus, the 1972 Democratic nomination is typically considered the first modern presidential primary campaign.[citation needed] Harris and McGovern, having played a direct role in the reforms and having a detailed knowledge of their impact, were seen to gain an advantage as potential candidates for the nomination.

Nixon administration and 1970 midterm elections

See also: Presidency of Richard Nixon and 1970 United States elections

As 1972 approached, President Richard Nixon faced uncertain re-election prospects. Nixon had been elected on a platform to end American involvement in Vietnam, but his strategy of gradual "Vietnamization" had proceeded more slowly than planned. The Paris Peace Talks had bogged down, dimming hopes for a negotiated settlement to the war. In fact, Nixon had widened the conflict by invading Cambodia in 1970, a move that ignited criticism in the press and Congress and widespread disorder on college campuses, including the Kent State shootings in May 1970.

On the domestic front, a sharp recession had shaken investor confidence, and Nixon's plan to control inflation with wage and price controls had failed to meet its objective. The administration's attempt to steer a middle course on desegregation busing and affirmative action had displeased liberals and conservatives alike.

In the 1970 elections, Democrats gained a dozen seats in the House, although their Senate majority was slightly reduced by three seats. Their main success was not in Congress, however, but the states. Eleven different Democratic governors were elected to seats held by Republicans and not a single incumbent Democrat lost re-election.

Pre-primary maneuvering

Given Nixon's apparent weakness and the novel use of the primary system, a large field of credible Democratic challengers emerged. 14 Democrats sought their party's nomination[a] the largest field of candidates until it was surpassed by 16 candidates in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries[1] and then 29 candidates in the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries.[2]

Early speculation surrounded Senator Ted Kennedy, the brother of the late Senator Robert F. Kennedy who had contested the 1968 nomination. He ruled himself out early in 1971, but nevertheless continued to lead in opinion polling. In the event of a brokered convention, some believed Kennedy could emerge as the consensus nominee. Kennedy supporters took key positions on a number of presidential campaigns, strengthening his odds of gaining the candidates' support in the event they could not secure the required delegates.[3]

With Kennedy out, the establishment favorite for the Democratic nomination was Edmund Muskie,[4] a moderate Senator who had acquitted himself well as Humphrey's running mate in 1968. In August 1971 polling amid a growing economic crisis, Muskie led Nixon.[4]

U.S. Representative Shirley Chisholm from Queens announced her candidacy in January 1972,[5] making her the first black candidate to contest a major party's nomination for president.[5][b] Chisholm was also the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination; she was later joined by Patsy Mink of Hawaii.[c]

Candidates

The following political leaders were candidates for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination:

Nominee

Candidate Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won Running mate Ref.
George McGovern U.S. Senator
from South Dakota

(1963–1981)
South Dakota
South Dakota

(Campaign)
Secured nomination: July 13, 1972
4,053,451
(25.3%)
14 Sargent Shriver
(replacing Thomas Eagleton)
[6][7][8]

Other major candidates

These candidates participated in multiple state primaries or were included in multiple major national polls.

Candidate Most recent office Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Ref.
Hubert Humphrey
U.S. Senator from Minnesota
(1949–1964; 1971–1978)
Vice President of the United States
(1965–1969)

Minnesota
(Campaign)
Declared: January 10, 1972
[6][7][9]
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama
(1963–1967; 1971–1979; 1983–1987)

Alabama
(Campaign)
Declared: January 13, 1972
[6][7][10]
Edmund Muskie
U.S. Senator
from Maine

(1959–1980)

Maine
(Campaign)
Declared: January 4, 1972
Suspended campaign: April 27, 1972
[6][7][11][12]
Scoop Jackson
U.S. Senator
from Washington

(1953–1983)

Washington
(Campaign)
Declared: November 19, 1971
Suspended campaign: May 2, 1972
[6][7][13][14]
Wilbur Mills
U.S. Representative
from Arkansas

(1939–1977)

Arkansas
(Campaign)
Declared: February 11, 1972
[6][7][15]
Shirley Chisholm
U.S. Representative
from New York

(1969–1983)
New York
New York
(Campaign)
Declared: January 25, 1972
[6][7][16]
Terry Sanford
Governor of North Carolina
(1961–1965)

North Carolina
(Campaign)
Declared: March 8, 1972
[6][7][17]
John Lindsay
Mayor of New York City
(1966–1973)
New York
New York
(Campaign)
Declared: December 28, 1971
Withdrew: April 4, 1972
[6][7][18][19]
Eugene McCarthy U.S. Senator
from Minnesota

(1959–1971)

Minnesota
(Campaign)
Declared: December 17, 1971
[6][7][20]
Sam Yorty
Mayor of Los Angeles
(1961–1973)

California
(Campaign)
Declared: November 16, 1971
Withdrew: June 5, 1972 (endorsed Humphrey)
[6][7][21][22]
Vance Hartke
U.S. Senator
from Indiana

(1964–1973)

Indiana
(Campaign)
Declared: January 3, 1972
Withdrew: March 26, 1972 (endorsed Humphrey)
[6][7][23]
Patsy Mink
U.S. Representative
from Hawaii

(1965–1977)

Hawaii
(Campaign)
Declared: October 19, 1971
Withdrew: May 24, 1972
[6][7][24][25]
Fred Harris
U.S. Senator
from Oklahoma

(1964–1973)

Oklahoma
(Campaign)
Declared: September 24, 1971
Withdrew: November 10, 1971 (endorsed McGovern on April 27)
[6][7][26][27][28]
Vance HartkeSam YortyEugene McCarthyJohn LindsayTerry SanfordShirley ChisholmWilbur MillsEdmund MuskieGeorge WallaceHubert HumphreyScoop JacksonPatsy MinkFred R. HarrisGeorge McGovern

Declined

Favorite sons


Polling

National polling

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Poll source Publication
Birch Bayh
Shirley Chisholm
J. William Fulbright
Fred Harris
Harold Hughes
Hubert Humphrey
John Lindsay
Scoop Jackson
Ted Kennedy
Mike Mansfield
Eugene McCarthy
George McGovern
Wilbur Mills
Edmund Muskie
William Proxmire
George Wallace
Sam Yorty
Gallup Jan. 1969 21% 45% 15% 3% 17%
Gallup Oct. 1969 29% 27% 10% 5% 24%
Gallup May. 1970 1% 1% 16% 10% 17% 9% 3% 23%
Gallup Nov. 1970 16% 4% 31% 1% 6% 2% 33% 2%
Gallup Feb. 1971 21% 5% 25% 4% 5% 26%
Gallup Apr. 1971 1% 1% 1% 18% 4% 2% 29% 2% 3% 5% 1% 21% 2%
Gallup Apr. 1971 1% 1% 1% 18% 4% 2% 29% 2% 3% 5% 1% 21% 2%
Gallup Jul. 1971 2% 1% 1% 18% 3% 2% 22% 1% 6% 5% 1% 22% 1%
Gallup Aug. 1971 13% 6% 26% 4% 6% 22%
Harris[35] Sep. 1971 1% 16% 7% 2% 26% 5% 4% 2% 19% 1%
1% 27% 11% 2% 7% 5% 2% 27% 2%
Gallup Nov. 1971 19% 4% 6% 29% 5% 6% 24%
Harris[36] Nov. 1971 15% 9% 2% 25% 3% 5% 1% 22% 1% 1%
25% 12% 2% 4% 6% 2% 27% 2% 1%
Gallup Dec. 1971 19% 4% 4% 32% 4% 5% 25% 1%
34% 8% 5% 5% 8% 31% 1%
Gallup Jan. 1972 2% 17% 5% 2% 27% 5% 3% 32% 2%
2% 29% 7% 3% 8% 3% 39% 2%
Harris[37] Jan. 1972 3% 23% 7% 5% 6% 5% 30% 1%
Gallup Feb. 1972 2% 23% 2% 3% 24% 3% 5% 29% 1%
3% 32% 5% 4% 4% 6% 35% 1%
Harris[38] Feb. 1972 5% 18% 6% 4% 15% 5% 5% 22% 11% 1%
6% 21% 7% 3% 5% 8% 28% 12% 1%
Gallup Mar. 1972 2% 31% 7% 3% 5% 6% 2% 23% 15% *
3% 35% 8% 5% 6% 7% 2% 28% 1%
Gallup Mar. 1972 4% 31% 5% 5% 4% 5% 1% 22% 17% *
Gallup Apr. 1972 5% 30% 4% 3% 17% 1% 17% 19% 1%
Gallup May 1972 3% 35% 3% 3% 20% 2% 11% 18%
Gallup May 1972 26% 25% 26%
Gallup Jun. 1972 3% 27% 3% 2% 30% 1% 6% 25%

Primary campaign

Hubert Humphrey made another run at the nomination, in an era when previous nominees were considered legitimate contenders even after losing a general election (Adlai Stevenson had been successful at being re-nominated by Democrats in 1956, and Nixon by the GOP in 1968). He fell just short in delegates, despite winning the popular vote in the 24 states and the District of Columbia which held preference primary and caucus elections open to the rank and file Democratic voter. His bid to contest the results of the California winner-take-all primary failed. Humphrey, like Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson, was considered the favorite of the party establishment after Muskie's withdrawal.

Alabama governor George Wallace, with his "outsider" image, did well in the South (he won every county in the Florida primary with the exception of Miami-Dade)[39] and among alienated and dissatisfied voters. What might have become a forceful campaign was cut short when Wallace was shot while campaigning, and left paralyzed in an assassination attempt by Arthur Bremer.

Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee Wilbur Mills was drafted by friends and fellow Congressmen to make himself available as a candidate for the primaries. To position himself to appeal to senior citizens during the 1972 presidential campaign, Mills championed the automatic Cost Of Living Adjustment (COLA) to Social Security. He was not strong in the primaries and won 33 votes for president from the delegates at the 1972 Democratic National Convention which nominated Senator George McGovern.

Washington Senator Scoop Jackson was little known nationally when he first ran for president in 1972. McGovern accused Jackson of racism for his opposition to busing. Jackson's high point in the campaign was a distant third in the early Florida primary, but he failed to stand out of the pack of better-known rivals, and only made real news later in the campaign as part of the "Anybody but McGovern" coalition, that raised what would be known as the "Acid, Amnesty and Abortion" questions about McGovern. Jackson suspended active campaigning in May after a weak showing in the Ohio primary. Jackson did re-emerge at the August Democratic convention after runner-up Humphrey dropped out of the race. Jackson's name was placed in nomination by Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter, and he finished second in the delegate roll call, well behind nominee McGovern.[40][41]

March 7: New Hampshire

Prior to the New Hampshire primary, the "Canuck Letter" was published in the Manchester Union-Leader. The letter (later revealed to have been forged as part of the "dirty tricks" campaign by Nixon staffers)[42] claimed that Muskie had made disparaging remarks about French-Canadians. The paper subsequently published an attack on Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she drank and used off-color language. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife in a speech outside the newspaper's offices during a snowstorm. Though Muskie later stated that what had appeared to the press as tears were actually melted snowflakes, the press reported that Muskie broke down and cried.[43] Muskie did worse than expected in the primary, while McGovern came in a surprisingly close second. McGovern now had the momentum, which was well orchestrated by his campaign manager, Gary Hart.

May 15–16: Attempted Wallace assassination, Maryland, and Michigan

Main article: Attempted assassination of George Wallace

While campaigning in Laurel, Maryland, on May 15, 1972, Wallace was shot five times by Arthur Bremer. Three others wounded in the shooting also survived. Bremer's diary, published after his arrest as a book titled An Assassin's Diary, showed that Bremer's assassination attempt was not motivated by politics, but by a desire for fame, and that President Nixon had been a possible target. The assassination attempt left Wallace paralyzed for the rest of his life, as one of the bullets had lodged in his spinal column.

As a result of the shooting, President Nixon dispatched Secret Service protection to Representatives Shirley Chisholm and Wilbur Mills (two candidates who had not been assigned Secret Service details up to then) as well as Senator Ted Kennedy (though not running, because of his brothers John and Robert having been assassinated).[44]

Following the shooting, Wallace won the May 16 primaries in Maryland and Michigan. Wallace spoke at the Democratic National Convention from his wheelchair in Miami on July 11, 1972. Bremer was sentenced to 53 years in prison for the shooting. He served 35 years of the sentence and was released on parole on November 9, 2007.

In a widely noted article, journalist Seymour Hersh claimed that secret recordings of Nixon prove that, within hours of the assassination attempt, the president and a top aide dispatched a political operative, E. Howard Hunt, who rushed to Milwaukee with plans to surreptitiously enter Bremer's apartment and plant the campaign literature of Democratic contender George McGovern.[45] According to Hersh, Hunt aborted the operation because the FBI had sealed off Bremer's apartment prior to his arrival.

However, a 2007 analysis of the Nixon tapes by the History News Network did not turn up any evidence of the clandestine operation described by Hersh. While the tapes did show that Nixon had instructed presidential aide Charles W. Colson to anonymously spread the false rumor that there was "unmistakable evidence" that Bremer had been a "a supporter of McGovern and Kennedy", there was no apparent trace of Nixon tasking subordinates with entering Bremer's apartment to plant Democratic campaign materials.[46]

Endorsements

Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan ran as Chisholm delegates in New York.[5] By the 1972 election, the women's movement was rapidly expanding its political power. Steinem, along with Congresswomen Chisholm and Bella Abzug, had founded the National Women's Political Caucus in July 1971.[47]

Nevertheless, Steinem was reluctant to re-join the McGovern campaign. Though she had brought in McGovern's single largest campaign contributor in 1968, she "still had been treated like a frivolous pariah by much of McGovern's campaign staff." And in April 1972, Steinem remarked that he "still doesn't understand the women's movement."[48]

Earlier in the primary campaign, Muskie had gained the support of Ohio Governor John Gilligan; Pennsylvania Governor Milton Shapp; Iowa Senator Harold Hughes and United Auto Workers president Leonard Woodcock.[49]

Results

Schedule

Tablemaker's Note:[d]

Date Total pledged
delegates
Contest
and total popular vote
Delegates won and popular vote
Other(s)
Unpledged
January 25 0 (of 44) Iowa
Caucuses[e]
(22.60%) (1.62%) - (35.50%) (1.06%) - (1.33%) - - (1.41%) - - - - (35.80%)
January 29 0 (of 25) Arizona
Caucuses[50]
500 SDs
102 SDs
(20.40%)
2 SDs
(0.40%)
- 189 SDs
(37.80%)
2 SDs
(0.40%)
- 1 SDs
(0.20%)
- 118 SDs
(23.60%)
- - 1 SDs
(0.20%)
- - 85 SDs[f]
(17.00%)
February 12 25 (of 25) Arizona
State Convention[51]
5 Del. - - 9 Del. - - - - 6 Del. - - - - - 5 Del.[g]
February 26 0 (of 44) Iowa
County Conventions[52]
3,641 SDs
983 SDs
(27.00%)
- - 1,409 SDs
(38.70%)
- - - - - - - - - - 1,249 SDs[h]
(34.30%)
February 27 25 (of 25) Mississippi
State Convention[i][53][54]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 Del.[j]
March 7 20 (of 20) New Hampshire
Primary
[55]
88,854
6 Del.
33,007
(37.15%)
348 WI
(0.39%)
175 WI
(0.20%)
14 Del.
41,235
(46.41%)
197 WI
(0.22%)
3,563 WI
(4.01%)
- - - - 5,401
(6.08%)
2,417
(2.72%)
- - 2,511[k]
(2.83%)
March 11 40 (of 40) Georgia
District Conventions[56]
4 Del. - - - - 1 Del. 5 Del. - - - - - - - 30 Del.[l]
March 14 81 (of 81) Florida
Primary[57]
1,264,554
78,232
(6.19%)
6 Del.
234,658
(18.56%)
75 Del.
526,651
(41.65%)
112,523
(8.90%)
170,156
(13.46%)
4,539
(0.36%)
43,989
(3.48%)
- 82,386
(6.52%)
5,847
(0.46%)
2,564
(0.20%)
3,009
(0.24%)
- - -
March 21 0 (of 160) Illinois
Pres. Primary[58]
1,225,144
3,687 WI
(0.30%)
1,476 WI
(0.12%)
7,017 WI
(0.57%)
766,914
(62.60%)
442 WI
(0.04%)
- 777 WI
(0.06%)
- 118 WI
(0.01%)
444,260
(36.26%)
- - - - 453[m]
(0.04%)
160 (of 160) Illinois
Del. Primary[59]
14 Del. - - 59 Del. - - - - - - - - - - 87 Del.[n]
March 25 34 (of 44) Iowa
District Conventions[60]
12 Del. - - 14 Del. - - - - - - - - - - 8 Del.[o]
March 29 32 (of 32) South Carolina
State Convention[61]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32 Del.[p]
April 4 67 (of 67) Wisconsin
Primary[62]
1,128,584
54 Del.
333,528
(29.55%)
13 Del.
233,748
(20.71%)
248,676
(22.03%)
115,811
(10.26%)
88,068
(7.80%)
913
(0.08%)
9,198
(0.82%)
- 75,579
(6.70%)
15,543
(1.38%)
2,349
(0.21%)
766
(0.07%)
1,213
(0.11%)
- 3,009[q]
(0.27%)
April 17 0 (of 17) Idaho
Caucuses[63]
425 SDs
191 SDs
(44.94%)
21 SDs
(4.94%)
4 SDs
(0.94%)
76 SDs
(17.88%)
5 SDs
(1.18%)
- 20 SDs
(4.71%)
- - - - - 1 SDs
(0.24%)
- 107 SDs[r]
(25.18%)
April 20 0 (of 12) Vermont
Caucuses[64]
1,146 SDs
504 SDs
(43.98%)
18 SDs
(1.57%)
1 SDs
(0.09%)
309 SDs
(26.96%)
1 SDs
(0.09%)
2 SDs
(0.17%)
2 SDs
(0.17%)
- - - - - - - 165 SDs[s]
(14.40%)
April 25 102 (of 102) Massachusetts
Primary[65]
618,516
102 Del.
325,673
(52.65%)
48,929
(7.91%)
45,807
(7.41%)
0 Del.[t]
131,709
(21.29%)
8,499
(1.37%)
19,441
(3.14%)
0 Del.[u]
22,398
(3.62%)
- 2,107
(0.34%)
8,736
(1.41%)
646
(0.10%)
874
(0.14%)
- - 0 Del.
[v]3,697[w]
(0.60%)
0 (of 182) Pennsylvania
Pres. Primary[66]
1,374,894
280,861
(20.43%)
481,900
(35.05%)
292,437
(21.27%)
279,983
(20.36%)
38,767
(2.82%)
- 336 WI
(0.02%)
- - - - - - - 610 [x]
(0.04%)
182[y] (of 182) Pennsylvania
Del. Primary[66][67]
54 Del.[z] 74 Del.[aa] 2 Del. 40 Del.[ab] - - - - - - - - - - 12 Del.[ac][ad]
April 28–30 11 (of 11) Nevada
State Convention[68]
4.95 Del. 1.65 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - 4.40 Del.[ae]
April 29 0 (of 47) Kentucky
Caucuses[69]
1,944 SDs
381 SDs
(19.60%)
6 SDs
(0.31%)
22 SDs
(1.13%)
59 SDs
(3.03%)
- - - - - - - - - - 1,526 SDs[af]
(78.50%)
May 2 29 (of 37) Alabama
Del. Convention[70]
- - 23 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - 6 Del.[ag]
76 (of 76) Indiana
Primary[71]
751,458
- 49 Del.
354,244
(47.14%)
27 Del.
309,495
(41.19%)
87,719
(11.67%)
- - - - - - - - - - -
145 (of 153) Ohio
Primary[72][73]
1,205,194
66 Del.
478,434
(39.70%)
74 Del.
497,538
(41.28%)
- 105,903
(8.79%)
97,896
(8.12%)
- - - - 25,423
(2.11%)
- - - - 13 Del.[ah]
20 (of 20) Washington D.C.
Primary[74]
29,560
- - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 Del.
21,217
(71.78%)
8,343
(28.22%)[ai]
May 4 49 (of 49) Tennessee
Primary[75]
751,458
35,551
(7.22%)
78,350
(15.90%)
49 Del.
335,858
(68.16%)
9,634
(1.96%)
5,896
(1.20%)
2,543
(0.52%)
18,809
(3.82%)
- 1,476
(0.30%)
2,267
(0.46%)
692
(0.14%)
1,621
(0.33%)
- - 24
(0.01%)
May 5 [aj] 51 (of 64) Minnesota
District Conventions[76]
14 Del. 26 Del. - - - - 6 Del. - - - - - - - -
May 6 57 (of 57) North Carolina
Primary[55]
821,410
- - 37 Del.
413,518
(50.34%)
30,739
(3.74%)
9,416
(1.15%)
- 61,723
(7.51%)
27 Del.
306,014
(37.26%)
- - - - - - -
May 9 22 (of 22) Nebraska
Primary[77]
192,137
18 Del.
79,309
(41.28%)
4 Del.
65,968
(34.33%)
23,912
(12.45%)
6,886
(3.58%)
5,276
(2.75%)
377
(0.20%)
1,763
(0.92%)
- 1,244
(0.65%)
3,194
(1.66%)
3,459
(1.80%)
249
(0.13%)
- - 500[ak]
(0.26%)
0 (of 35) West Virginia
Pres. Primary[78]
368,484
- 246,596
(66.92%)
121,888
(33.08%)
- - - - - - - - - - - -
35 (of 35) West Virginia
Del. Primary[78]
7 Del. [al] 14 Del. [am] - 5 Del. [an] - - - - - - - - - - 9 Del.[ao]
May 12 11 (of 11) Wyoming
State Convention[79]
0.55 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10.45 Del.[ap]
May 13 3 (of 3) Canal Zone
Territorial Convention[80]
2.5 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.5 Del. [aq]
30 (of 35) Kansas
District Conventions[81]
12 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Del.[ar]
44[as](of 44) Louisiana
District Conventions[82][83]
10 Del. - 3 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - 32 Del.[at]
May 16 53 (of 53) Maryland
Primary[84]
568,131
6 Del.
126,978
(22.35%)
6 Del.
151,981
(26.75%)
41 Del.
219,687
(38.67%)
13,363
(2.35%)
17,728
(3.12%)
4,776
(0.84%)
12,602
(2.22%)
- 2,168
(0.38%)
4,691
(0.83%)
13,584
(2.39%)
- 573
(0.10%)
- -
132 (of 132) Michigan
Primary[85][86]
1,588,073
38 Del.
425,694
(26.81%)
27 Del.
249,798
(15.73%)
67 Del.
809,239
(50.96%)
38,701
(2.44%)
6,938
(0.44%)
- 44,090
(2.78%)
- - - - 2,862
(0.18%)
- - 10,751 [au]
(0.68%)
May 19 20 (of 20) Maine
State Convention[87]
- - - 20 Del. - - - - - - - - - - -
May 19–21 17 (of 17) Hawaii
State Convention[88][89]
1.5 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - 1.5 Del. - 14 Del.[av]
May 20 10 (of 44) Iowa
State Convention[90]
5 Del. - - 3 Del. - - - - - - - - - - 2 Del.[aw]
12 (of 12) Vermont
State Convention[91]
9 Del. - - 3 Del. - - - - - - - - - - -
46 (of 52) Washington
District Conventions[92][93]
0 Del. [ax] - - - 46 Del. - - - - - - - - - -
May 23 55 (of 73) Missouri
District Conventions[94]
11 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 44 Del. [ay]
34 (of 34) Oregon
Primary[95]
408,644
34 Del.
205,328
(50.25%)
51,163
(12.52%)
81,868
(20.03%)
10,244
(2.51%)
22,042
(5.39%)
1,208
(0.30%)
2,975
(0.73%)
- 5,082
(1.24%)
8,943
(2.19%)
- - 6,500
(1.59%)
- 13,291 [az]
(3.25%)
22 (of 22) Rhode Island
Primary[96]
37,864
22 Del.
15,603
(41.21%)
7,701
(20.34%)
5,802
(15.32%)
7,838
(20.70%)
138
(0.36%)
41
(0.11%)
- - - 245
(0.65%)
6
(0.02%)
- - - 490 [ba]
(1.29%)
May 26 10 (of 10) Alaska
State Convention[97]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 Del.[bb]
May 27 3 (of 3) Guam
Territorial Convention[98]
1 Del. 1.5 Del. - 0.5 Del. - - - - - - - - - - -
3 (of 3) Virgin Islands
Territorial Convention[99]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 Del.
June 2 38 (of 51) Connecticut
District Conventions[100]
15 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 Del.[bc]
35 (of 47) Kentucky
District Conventions[101]
7 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 28 Del. [bd]
June 3 12 (of 47) Kentucky
State Convention[101]
3 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 Del. [be]
30 (of 39) Oklahoma
District Conventions[102]
10 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 Del. [bf]
June 6 271 (of 271) California
Primary[103]
3,564,518
271 Del.
1,550,652
(43.50%)
1,375,064
(38.58%)
268,551 WI
(7.53%)
72,701
(2.04%)
28,901
(0.81%)
- 157,435
(4.42%)
- 26,246
(0.74%)
34,203
(0.96%)
50,745
(1.42%)
- - - 20 WI
(1.59%)
17 (of 17) South Dakota
Primary[104]
28,017
17 Del.
28,017
(100.00%)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
0 (of 109) New Jersey
Pres. Primary[105]
76,834
- - - - - - 51,433
(66.94%)
25,401
(33.06%)
- - - - - - -
109 (of 109) New Jersey
Del. Primary[106]
72 Del. 10 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 Del. [bg]
18 (of 18) New Mexico
Primary[105]
153,293
10 Del.
51,011
(33.28%)
39,768
(25.94%)
8 Del.
44,843
(29.25%)
6,411
(4.18%)
4,236
(2.76%)
- 3,205
(2.09%)
- - - - - - - 3,819 [bh]
(2.49%)
June 9 13 (of 64) Minnesota
State Convention[107]
5 Del. 7 Del. - - - - 1 Del. - - - - - - - -
41 (of 53) Virginia
District Conventions[108][109]
18 Del. 2 Del. - 1 Del. - - - 1 Del. - - - - - - 19 Del. [bi]
June 10 5 (of 35) Kansas
State Convention[110]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 Del.[bj]
18 (of 73) Missouri
State Convention[111]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Del. [bk]
9 (of 39) Oklahoma
State Convention[112]
3 Del. [bl] - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 Del. [bm]
12 (of 53) Virginia
State Convention[109][113]
9 Del. 1 Del. - - - - 2 Del. - - - - - - - -
June 13 130 (of 130) Texas
State Convention[114]
34 Del. 21 Del. 42 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - 33 Del.[bn]
June 16 27 (of 36) Colorado
District Conventions[115][116]
17 Del. 6 Del. - - - - 1 Del. - - - - - - - 13 Del.[bo]
13 (of 51) Connecticut
State Convention[117]
5 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 Del. [bp]
17 (of 17) Idaho
State Convention[118]
7 Del. 1 Del. - 3 Del. - - 2 Del. - - - - - - - 4 Del.[bq]
14 (of 14) North Dakota
State Convention[119]
7.7 Del. 4.2 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.1 Del.[br]
19 (of 19) Utah
State Convention[120]
11 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 Del.[bs]
June 17 17 (of 17) Montana
State Convention[121]
14.5 Del. - - - - - 1 Del. - - - - - - - 1.5 Del.[bt]
7 (of 7) Puerto Rico
Local Convention[122]
6 Del. 0.5 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.5 Del. [bu]
June 18 9 (of 36) Colorado
State Convention[123]
7 Del. 1 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 Del.[bv]
June 20 278 [bw](of 278) New York
Del. Primary[124][125]
251 Del. - - 1 Del. - - 4 Del. - - - - - - - 22 Del. [bx]
June 23 6 (of 52) Washington
State Convention[126]
- - - - 6 Del. - - - - - - - - - -
June 24 27 (of 27) Arkansas
State Convention[127]
- - - - - 27 Del. - - - - - - - - -
13 (of 13) Delaware
State Convention[128]
5.85 Del. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7.15 Del.[by]
Total
3,016 pledged delegates

16,207,757 votes

1319.55
4,051,565
(25.00%)
345.85
4,119,230
(25.42%)
371
3,755,424
(23.17%)
172.5
1,838,314
(11.34%)
52
504,596
(3.11%)
28
37,401
(0.23%)
22
430,733
(2.66%)
28
331,415
(2.04%)
6
196,406
(1.21%)
0
553,352
(3.41%)
0
79,446
(0.49%)
0
11,798
(0.07%)
1.5
8,286
(0.05%)
20
20,717
(0.13%)
618.6
47,518
(0.29%)
Suspected Delegate Count
as of June 27
[129]
1,466.15
(48.61%)
385.50
(12.78%)
377
(12.50%)
208.85
(6.92%)
53.75
(1.78%)
30.55
(1.01%)
23.65
(0.78%)
27
(0.90%)
0
(0.00%)
0
(0.00%)
0
(0.00%)
0
(0.00%)
0
(0.00%)
0
(0.00%)
441.25 [bz]
(14.63%)

Results by county

1972 Democratic primary results by county popular vote

Total primaries popular vote

1972 Democratic Party presidential primaries[130]
Candidate Votes %
Hubert H. Humphrey 4,121,372 25.8
George S. McGovern 4,053,451 25.3
George C. Wallace 3,755,424 23.5
Edmund S. Muskie 1,840,217 11.5
Eugene J. McCarthy 553,955 3.5
Henry M. Jackson 505,198 3.2
Shirley A. Chisholm 430,703 2.7
James T. Sanford 331,415 2.1
John V. Lindsay 196,406 1.2
Sam W. Yorty 79,446 0.5
Wilbur D. Mills 37,401 0.2
Walter E. Fauntroy 21,217 0.1
Unpledged delegates 19,533 0.1
Edward M. Kennedy 16,693 0.1
Rupert V. Hartke 11,798 0.1
Patsy M. Mink 8,286 0.1
"None of the names shown" 6,269 0
Others 5,181 0
Total votes 15,993,965 100

Analysis

In the end, McGovern succeeded in winning the nomination by winning primaries through grass-roots support in spite of establishment opposition. He had led a commission to redesign the Democratic nomination system after the messy and confused nomination struggle and convention of 1968. The fundamental principle of the McGovern-Fraser Commission—that the Democratic primaries should determine the winner of the Democratic nomination—lasted throughout every subsequent nomination contest. However, the new rules angered many prominent Democrats whose influence was marginalized, and those politicians refused to support McGovern's campaign (some even supporting Nixon instead), leaving the McGovern campaign at a significant disadvantage in funding compared to Nixon.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This number doesn't include Walter Fauntroy, Wayne Hays, and Carl Stokes, who were considered to be favorite sons
  2. ^ Channing Phillips had previously been placed in nomination at the 1968 convention and won the Washington D.C. delegation but was not a contender for national support.[citation needed]
  3. ^ Senator Margaret Chase Smith had previously contested the Republican nomination in 1964.
  4. ^ This should not be taken as a finalized list of results. While a significant amount of research was done, there were a number of Delegates who were not bound by the instruction, or "Pledged" to a candidate, and to simplify the data these delegates were considered "Uncommitted". Many states also held primaries for the delegate positions, and these on occasion were where slates or candidates pledged to a certain candidate might be elected; however, as these elections allowed for a single person to vote for multiple candidates, as many as the number of positions being filled, it is difficult to determine how many people actually voted in these primaries. For this reason, while such results may be found, they are not included in the popular vote summaries at the bottom of the table.
  5. ^ Technically this is only a partial result; over two dozen counties did not hold caucuses when these results were announced, accounting for around (12%) of the expected number of Caucus goers. However, a full tabulation including these counties was not found. Only percentages were found in terms of the number of delegates elected per candidate, not their number nor their total allotment.
  6. ^ All were Uncommitted.
  7. ^ Both are Uncommitted.
  8. ^ 1,176 SD's were Uncommitted at (32.30%), and 73 SD's were for other candidates at (2.00%).
  9. ^ Two rival delegate slates were named, as the Mississippi Democratic party was severely divided between White-lead Regulars and Black-lead Loyalists, with their contests being held at different dates. As the Loyalists were the ones seated at the National Convention, it is their slate and nomination date that is presented here.
  10. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  11. ^ Includes 954 Write-In votes for Senator Edward Kennedy at (1.07%), 854 Write-In votes for President Richard Nixon at (0.96%), 280 votes for Edward T. Coll at (0.32%), 133 Write-In votes for Congressman Pete McCloskey at (0.15%), 27 Write-In votes for Congressman John Ashbrook at (0.03%), and 19 Write-In votes for Comedian Pat Paulsen at (0.02%)
  12. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  13. ^ Includes 242 Write-In votes for Senator Edward Kennedy at (0.02%).
  14. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  15. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  16. ^ Both are Uncommitted.
  17. ^ Includes 2,450 votes for "None of the Names Shown" at (0.22%).
  18. ^ All were Uncommitted.
  19. ^ All were Uncommitted except two, which were pledged to Senator Edward Kennedy.
  20. ^ Technically won seven delegates, but these delegates were required to vote for McGovern on the first ballot.
  21. ^ Technically won five delegates, these delegates were technically required to vote for McGovern on the first ballot.
  22. ^ Technically Uncommmited won one delegate, but they were required to vote for McGovern on the first ballot.
  23. ^ Includes 2,348 Write-in votes for Senator Edward Kennedy at (0.38%), and 589 votes for Edward T. Coll at (0.10%).
  24. ^ Includes 262 Write-in votes for President Richard Nixon at (0.02%).
  25. ^ 45 delegates were technically named later in mid-June, 27 by the elected delegates and 18 by the Democratic State Committee.
  26. ^ 14 delegates were named later in June.
  27. ^ 19 delegates were named later in June.
  28. ^ 11 delegates were named later in June.
  29. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  30. ^ 1 delegate was named later in June.
  31. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  32. ^ All were Uncommitted bar one, who was pledged to Senator Edward Kennedy.
  33. ^ All are part of an Anti-Wallace slate.
  34. ^ A slate of eight delegates supporting Cleveland Mayor Carl Stokes was elected in the 21st District, and a slate of five delegates supporting Congressman Wayne Hays was elected in the 18th District.
  35. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  36. ^ Some District Conventions were held earlier in April.
  37. ^ Includes 293 Write-in votes for Senator Edward Kennedy at (0.15%).
  38. ^ Uncommitted by state law.
  39. ^ Uncommitted by state law.
  40. ^ Uncommitted by state law.
  41. ^ All are Uncommitted
  42. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  43. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  44. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  45. ^ Four delegates were picked on May 20.
  46. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  47. ^ 10,700 votes are for an Uncommitted slate at (0.67%)
  48. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  49. ^ Both are Uncommitted.
  50. ^ McGovern won eight delegates in these contests, but they were later replaced by Jackson delegates at the state convention.
  51. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  52. ^ Includes 12,673 votes for Senator Edward Kennedy at (3.10%), and 480 Write-in votes for President Richard Nixon at (0.12%).
  53. ^ All votes were for an Uncommitted slate.
  54. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  55. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  56. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  57. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  58. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  59. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  60. ^ All votes are for an Uncommitted slate.
  61. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  62. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  63. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  64. ^ This was suspected, not confirmed.
  65. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  66. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  67. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  68. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  69. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  70. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  71. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  72. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  73. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  74. ^ Is Uncommitted.
  75. ^ 30 were named on the June 25th by the Democratic State Committee.
  76. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  77. ^ All are Uncommitted.
  78. ^ Includes one delegate supporting Louisiana Governor Edward Edwards, and five delegates supporting Congressman Wayne Hays of Ohio.

References

  1. ^ Benen, Steve (May 5, 2015). "Biggest. Field. Ever". MSNBC.
  2. ^ Jacobson, Louis (May 2, 2019). "Warren just took the lead in a key polling average. History is vague on what happens next". PolitiFact. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  3. ^ Jack Anderson (June 4, 1971). "Don't count out Ted Kennedy". The Free Lance–Star.
  4. ^ a b Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 298. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  5. ^ a b c Freeman, Jo (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. Archived from the original on 2015-01-26.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "CQ Almanac Online Edition".
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "McGovern Shy 130 Votes as Delegate Choice Ends; Tally Finds McGovern is Shy 130 Votes" (PDF). The New York Times.
  8. ^ "McGovern Assails Nixon on Cambodia" (PDF). The New York Times.
  9. ^ "Humphrey Joins the Race; Asks U.S. To End War Now; Humphrey in Race; Urges War End Now" (PDF). The New York Times.
  10. ^ "Wallace Joins Florida Race as Democrat; Wallace Enters Primary in Florida as a Democrat" (PDF). The New York Times.
  11. ^ "Muskie Formally in Race; Pledges 'a New Beginning'; Muskie Formally in Nomination Race" (PDF). The New York Times.
  12. ^ "Admits Strategy Failed; Muskie Abandons Primary Contention" (PDF). The New York Times.
  13. ^ "Jackson Cites Lack of Funds in Quitting" (PDF). The New York Times.
  14. ^ "Jackson in Race; He Asserts Nixon Fails to Win Trust; Jackson in Race for President; Says Nixon Fails to Win Trust" (PDF). The New York Times.
  15. ^ "Rep. Mills Officially Enters Race for the Democratic Nomination; Mills Joins Race for Nomination" (PDF). The New York Times.
  16. ^ "New Hat in Ring: Mrs. Chisolm's; Representative is Seeking Presidency as Democrat Mrs. Chisholm Joins Presidential Race" (PDF). The New York Times.
  17. ^ "Sanford, Ex-Governor, Runs in Carolina for White House" (PDF). The New York Times.
  18. ^ "Lindsay, in Race, Scores His Rivals; in Miami, He Also Attacks Nixon -- Says Washington Ignores Cities' Problems Lindsay, in Race, Attacks Nixon and Rivals in Democratic Party" (PDF). The New York Times.
  19. ^ "Mayor Runs Sixth; Says Returns Indicate He Cannot Continue as a Candidate Lindsay Quits the Race After Sixth-Place Finish" (PDF). The New York Times.
  20. ^ "McCarthy, Casually, Enters the '72 Race; A Casual McCarthy Enters 1972 Race" (PDF). The New York Times.
  21. ^ "Yorty Enters Race; Eyes 2 Primaries; Yorty Enters Race; Eyes Two Primaries" (PDF). The New York Times.
  22. ^ "Minnesotan Won't Quit; Humphrey Concedes Loss in California Voting Today" (PDF). The New York Times.
  23. ^ "Petitions Raise Hartke Hopes" (PDF). The New York Times.
  24. ^ "Rep. Mink Withdraws from President Race" (PDF). The New York Times.
  25. ^ "19 Oct 1971, 10 - Hawaii Tribune-Herald at". Newspapers.com. 1971-10-19. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  26. ^ "Harris in Race for Presidency, the Second Democrat to Declare; Harris in Race for Presidency, the Second Democrat to Declare" (PDF). The New York Times.
  27. ^ "Harris, Declaring 'I Am Broke,' Withdraws from '72 Contention; $40,000 in Debt, Oklahoman Abandons a Short Campaign Based on 'New Populism'" (PDF). The New York Times.
  28. ^ "27 Apr 1972, Page 8 - The Akron Beacon Journal at". Newspapers.com. 1972-04-27. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  29. ^ "Bayh Quits Race; Cites Wife's Illness" (PDF). The New York Times.
  30. ^ "Hughes Quits as Presidential Aspirant" (PDF). The New York Times.
  31. ^ "Proxmire States He Will Not Run; Opens Way for McGovern in the Wisconsin Primary" (PDF). The New York Times.
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  33. ^ "Black in Capital to Enter Primary; Fauntroy to Run May 2 as Favorite-Son Candidate" (PDF). The New York Times.
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  51. ^ "Delegate Vote by Democrats Follows Plan". The Arizona Daily Star. Tucson, Arizona. February 13, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  52. ^ "Larson Predicts 19 State Delegates to Back Muskie". The Iowa City Press-Citizen. Iowa City, Iowa. February 28, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  53. ^ "Rival Democratic Factions Negotiate, Near Unification". The Sun Herald. Biloxi, Mississippi. February 28, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  54. ^ "Mississippi Dispute Is Won By Loyalists". The New York Times. New York, New York. July 9, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  55. ^ a b "Muskie Gets 14 of 20 Delegates to Nat'l Confab". The Valley News. West Lebanon, New Hampshire. March 11, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  56. ^ "State Demos Favor Unpledged Delegates". The Macon News. Macon, Georgia. March 12, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  57. ^ "Wallace's Victory Freezes Out Florida's Big-Name Delegates". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. March 16, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  58. ^ "Muskie Winner Over McCarthy". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. March 22, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  59. ^ "Victory in Illinois a major Plum for Muskie to Take to Wisconsin". The Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. March 23, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
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  62. ^ "McGovern Surges to State Victory". The Wisconsin State Journal. Madison, Wisconsin. April 5, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
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  69. ^ "'Kentucky... Ballots For". The Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. April 30, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  70. ^ "Wallace Delegates May Select Blacks". The Montgomery Advertiser. Montgomery, Alabama. May 14, 1972. Retrieved September 28, 2023.
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  76. ^ "Humphrey to Only Get Slim Delegate Margin". The Winona Daily News. Winona, Minnesota. May 8, 1972. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
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  78. ^ a b "Humphrey Gains Most Delegates". The Beckley Post-Herald. Beckley, West Virginia. May 12, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  79. ^ "Democratic Delegation Largely Uncommitted". The Casper Star-Tribune. Casper, Wyoming. May 14, 1972. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  80. ^ "McGovern Gets 2.5 Votes". The Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. May 15, 1972. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  81. ^ "McGovern Backers Claim 12 Delegates – Officially". The Wichita Eagle. Wichita, Kansas. May 14, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  82. ^ "29 Uncommitted Among 40 Demo State Delegates". The Sun Herald. Biloxi, Mississippi. May 14, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  83. ^ "La. Demos Pick Edwards to Head Delegation". The Town Talk. Alexandria, Louisiana. May 21, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  84. ^ "Wallace Convention Support Uncertain". The Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan. May 18, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  85. ^ "Leaders of Democrats Get Message: Change Needed". The Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan. May 18, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  86. ^ "Wallace Gets 67 Delegates". The Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan. June 1, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  87. ^ "Muskie Gets All 20". The Bangor Daily News. Bangor, Maine. May 22, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  88. ^ "Coalition Planning Miami Challange". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. May 22, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  89. ^ "Challenge to Hawaii Officially Dropped". The Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu, Hawaii. May 22, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  90. ^ "McGovern and Muskie Split". The Des Moines Register. Des Moines, Iowa. May 21, 1972. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  91. ^ "McGovern Wins 9 Delegates". The Battleboro Reformer. Battleboro, Vermont. May 22, 1972. Retrieved September 28, 2023.
  92. ^ "McGovern Wins All 6 National Delegates at 3rd District Caucus". The Longview Daily News. Longview, Washington. May 22, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  93. ^ "Jackson Capture All of State's 52 Delegates". The News Tribune. Tacoma, Washington. June 25, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  94. ^ "44 Uncommitted Delegates Chosen by State Demos". The St. Joseph News-Press. St. Joseph, Missouri. May 24, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  95. ^ "Strong Showing for McGovern; Wallace Second". The Capital Journal. Salem, Oregon. May 24, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  96. ^ "Without Even Visiting the State, McGovern Sweeps Rhode Island". The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. May 24, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  97. ^ "Most Alaska Delegates Back Hubert, McGovern". The Olympian. Olympia, Washington. May 31, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  98. ^ "Humphrey Wins Guam Delegates". The Daily Oklahoman. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. May 29, 1972. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  99. ^ "McGovern's in Driver's Seat". The Delaware County Daily Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. May 27, 1972. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  100. ^ "McGovern Wins 41 Votes in 5 Contests". The Berkshire Eagle. Pittsfield, Massacshuetts. June 5, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  101. ^ a b "37 Kentucky Delegates Are Uncommitted; 10 Go to McGovern". The Courier-Journal. Louisville, Kentucky. June 4, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  102. ^ "McGovern's Oklahoma Delegate Strength Appears Locked at 10". The Lawton Constitution. Lawton, Oklahoma. June 5, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  103. ^ "McGovern Tops HHH 45% to 40% in California, Wins 3 Other States". The Sacramento Bee. Sacramento, California. June 7, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  104. ^ "McGovern Wins Crucial Primary in California". The Argus-Leader. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. June 7, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  105. ^ a b "McGovern, Wallace Officials OK State Delegate Alignment". The Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. June 8, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  106. ^ "Delegates Pick Leaders". The Record. Hackensack, New Jersey. June 13, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  107. ^ "Craig Wins Surprising Victory". The St. Cloud Times. Saint Cloud, Minnesota. June 12, 1972. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  108. ^ "Virginia Delegates to Miami Named". The Roanoke Times. Roanoke, Virginia. June 10, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  109. ^ a b "30 of 53 Seen for McGovern". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. June 10, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  110. ^ "McGovern Camp Loses Delegate Bid". The Wichita Eagle. Wichita, Kansas. June 11, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  111. ^ "Hearnes Holds Delegation". The Kansas City Star. Kansas City, Kansas. June 11, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  112. ^ "Demo Chief Backs Muskie". The Tulsa World. Tulsa, Oklahoma. June 13, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  113. ^ "Sen. McGovern Pick Up 30 More Delegates". The Bee. Danville, Virginia. June 12, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  114. ^ "Democratic Convention Ends; Delegation Set". The Forth Worth Star-Telegram. Fort Worth, Texas. June 15, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  115. ^ "McGovern Assured of Major Share of Delegates". The Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. June 18, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  116. ^ "McGovern Assured of Major Share of Delegates". The Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph. Colorado Springs, Colorado. June 17, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  117. ^ "McGovern Delegate Total Hits 1,113". The Baltimore Sun. June 19, 1972. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  118. ^ "McGovern Gets Most Delegates". The South Idaho Press. Burley, Idaho. June 19, 1972. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  119. ^ "McGovern Wins 11 of 20 Delegates". The Morning Pioneer. Mandan, North Dakota. June 17, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  120. ^ "Demos Face Job of Selling". The Ogden Standard-Examiner. Ogden, Utah. June 19, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  121. ^ "17 of 20 Montana Demo Delegates to McGovern". The Missoulian. Missoula, Iowa. June 19, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  122. ^ "McGovern Delegate Total His 1,113". The Baltimore Sun. June 19, 1972. Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  123. ^ "State Democrats Equally Divided Among Delegates". The Fort Collins Coloradoan. Fort Collins, Colorado. June 19, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  124. ^ "McGoven Victory a Blow to State Party Leaders". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 22, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  125. ^ "State Democrats Head Off Split". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 25, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  126. ^ "Jackson Captures All of State's 52 Delegates". The News Tribune. Tacoma, Washington. June 25, 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  127. ^ "Some State Delegates Would Back McGovern". The Camden News. Camden, Arkansas. June 26, 1972. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  128. ^ "McGovern Wins 5.85 Delegates". The Morning News. Wilmington, Delaware. June 24, 1972. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  129. ^ "The Candidates' Delegates". The New York Times.
  130. ^ Kalb, Deborah, ed. (2010). Guide to U.S. Elections (6th ed.). Washington, DC: CQ Press. p. 415. ISBN 9781604265361.

Further reading