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Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guógē
English: National Anthem of the Republic of China
中華民國國歌
National anthem of ROC score.gif
Sheet music

National anthem of
 Republic of China
Party anthem of the  Kuomintang
LyricsSun Yat-sen, 1924[note 1]
MusicCheng Maoyun, 1928
Adopted1930 (in Mainland China)
1945 (in Taiwan)
Relinquished1949 (in Mainland China)
Audio sample
Official orchestral instrumental recording

The "Three Principles of the People" is the party anthem of the Kuomintang as well as the national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC) adopted in 1930 by the ROC as the "National Anthem of the Republic of China". It was used as such in mainland China until 1949, when the central government of the Republic of China relocated to Taiwan following its defeat by the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War. It replaced the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud", which had been used as the Chinese national anthem before. The national anthem was adopted on October 25, 1945, after the surrender of Japan. Mainland China, being governed by the People's Republic of China today, discontinued this national anthem for "March of the Volunteers".

The national anthem's words are adapted from a 1924 speech by Sun Yat-sen in 1937. The lyrics relate to how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can be achieved and maintained.[1] Informally, the song is sometimes known as "San Min Chu-i" from its opening line, which references the Three Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi), but this name is never used in formal or official occasions.

History

The text was a collaboration between several Kuomintang (KMT) party members: Hu Hanmin, Tai Chi-tao, Liao Zhongkai, and Shao Yuanchong. The text debuted on 16 June 1924, as the opening of a speech by Sun Yat-sen at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy. After the success of the Northern Expedition, the Kuomintang party chose the text to be its party anthem and publicly solicited for accompanying music. Cheng Maoyun won in a contest of 139 participants.[2]

On 24 March 1930, numerous Kuomintang party members proposed to use the speech by Sun as the lyrics to the national anthem. At the time, the national anthem of the republic was the "Song to the Auspicious Cloud". Due to opposition over using a symbol of a political party to represent the entire nation, the National Anthem Editing and Research Committee (國歌編製研究委員會) was set up, which endorsed the KMT party song. On 3 June 1937, the Central Standing Committee (中央常務委員會) approved the proposal, and in the 1940s, the song formally became the official national anthem of the Republic of China. For many Taiwanese, the anthem carries a number of meanings, often conflicting. Some Taiwanese reject the anthem outright as an anachronistic symbol of the vanquished KMT dictatorship.[2]

Tune


  \relative c' {
    \key c \major \time 4/4
    \partial 4 c\mf
     c2. e4 e2. g4 g2. e4 d2. e4 c'2. a8( g) \bar "|" \break
     a2. e4 a2. g8( fis) g2.\fermata g4-.\p( f-. a-. g-. c-.)( b-. d-. c-.) a( \bar "|" \break
     a c a g e d c) g'\mf g2. a8( g) g2. c4 c2. a8( g) \bar "|" \break
     g2. g4\ff e'2. d8.( e16) d2. g,4 d'2. d8.( e16) c2. \bar "|."}

Lyrics

National Anthem of the Republic of China
ROCanthemBySunYatSen.jpg
The original Whampoa Military Academy speech in Sun's handwriting.
Traditional Chinese中華民國國歌
Simplified Chinese中华民国国歌
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese三民主義
Simplified Chinese三民主义
Hanyu PinyinSānmín Zhǔyì
Literal meaningThree Principles of the People
Traditional Chinese
(with Bopomofo)
Simplified Chinese
(with Hanyu Pinyin)
IPA transcription[a]

ㄙㄢㄇㄧㄣˊㄓㄨˇㄧˋㄨˊㄉㄤˇㄙㄨㄛˇㄗㄨㄥ
ㄧˇㄐㄧㄢˋㄇㄧㄣˊㄍㄨㄛˊㄧˇㄐㄧㄣˋㄉㄚˋㄊㄨㄥˊ
ㄦˇㄉㄨㄛㄕˋㄨㄟˋㄇㄧㄣˊㄑㄧㄢˊㄈㄥ
ㄙㄨˋㄧㄝˋㄈㄟˇㄒㄧㄝˋㄓㄨˇㄧˋㄕˋㄘㄨㄥˊ
ㄕˇㄑㄧㄣˊㄕˇㄩㄥˇㄅㄧˋㄒㄧㄣˋㄅㄧˋㄓㄨㄥ
ㄧˋㄒㄧㄣㄧˋㄉㄜˊㄍㄨㄢˋㄔㄜˋㄕˇㄓㄨㄥ

三民(Sānmín)主义(zhǔyì)()(dǎng)(suǒ)(zōng)
()(jiàn)民国(Mínguó)()(jìn)大同(dàtóng)
()(ěr)多士(duōshì)(wèi)(mín)前锋(qiánfēng)
夙夜(Sùyè)(fěi)(xiè)主义(zhǔyì)(shì)(cóng)
(Shǐ)(qín)(shǐ)(yǒng)()(xìn)()(zhōng)
()(xīn)()()贯彻(guànchè)(shǐ)(zhōng)

[sán.mǐn ʈ͡ʂù.î ǔ tàŋ swɔ̀ t͡sʊ́ŋ]
[ì t͡ɕjɛ̂n mǐn.kwɔ̌ ì t͡ɕîn tâ.tʰʊ̌ŋ]
[t͡sɹ̩́ àɚ twɔ́.ʂɻ̩̂ wɛ̂i mǐn t͡ɕʰjɛ̌n.fɤ́ŋ]
[sû.jɛ̂ fɛ̀i ɕjɛ̂ ʈ͡ʂù.î ʂɻ̩̂ t͡sʰʊ̌ŋ]
[ʂɻ̩̀ t͡ɕʰǐn ʂɻ̩̀ jʊ̀ŋ pî ɕîn pî ʈ͡ʂʊ́ŋ]
[î ɕín î tɤ̌ kwân.ʈ͡ʂʰɤ̂ ʂɻ̩̀ ʈ͡ʂʊ́ŋ]

The lyrics are in classical literary Chinese. For example:

In this respect, the national anthem of the Republic of China stands in contrast to the People's Republic of China's "March of the Volunteers", which was written a few years later entirely in modern vernacular Chinese.

As well as being written in classical Chinese, the national anthem follows classical poetic conventions. The ancient Fu style follows that of a four-character poem, where the last character of each line rhymes in -ong or -eng, which are equivalent.

English translations

The official translation by Du Tingxiu (Theodore B. Tu)[3] appears in English-language guides to the ROC published by the government.

Official Literal

San Min Chu-i
Our aim shall be:
To found a free land,
World peace, be our stand.
Lead on, comrades,
Vanguards ye are.
Hold fast your aim,
By sun and star.
Be earnest and brave,
Your country to save,
One heart, one soul,
One mind, one goal...

Three people's principles
The foundation of our party.
Using this, we establish the Republic;
Using this, we advance into a state of total peace.
Oh, you, righteous men,
For the people, be the vanguard.
Without resting day or night,
Follow the Principles.
Swear to be diligent; swear to be courageous.
Obliged to be trustworthy; obliged to be loyal.
With one heart and one virtue,
We carry through until the very end...

Transcriptions in other Chinese and similar languages

Cantonese (Yale) Taiwanese Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī) Sino-Korean vocabulary Sino-Japanese vocabulary (On'yomi) Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary
Hangul RR Shinjitai (with Furigana) Romaji

Sāam màhn jyú yih, ngh dóng só jūng,
Yíh gin màhn gwok, yíh jeun daaih duhng,
Jī yíh dō sih, wàih màhn chìhn fūng,
Sūk yeh féi háaih, jyú yih sih chùhng,
Chí kàhn chí yúhng, bīt seun bīt jūng,
Yāt sām yāt dāk, gun chit chí jūng!

Sam bîn chú gī, ngô͘ tóng só͘ chong,
Í kiàn Bîn-kok, í chìn tāi tông,
Chu ní to sū, ûi bîn chiân hong,
Siok iā húi hāi, chú gī sī chiông,
Sí khîn sí ióng, pit sìn pit tiong,
i̍t sim i̍t tek, koàn thiat sí tiong!

삼민주의, 오당소종,
이건민국, 이진대동,
자이다사, 위민전봉,
숙야비해, 주의시종,
시근시용, 필신필충,
일심일덕, 관철시종!

Sammin juui, o dang so jong,
I geon minguk, i jin daedong,
Ja i dasa, wi min jeonbong,
Sugya bi hae, juui si jong,
Si geun si yong, pil sin pil chung,
Il sim il deok, gwancheol si jong!

さんびんしゅとうしょしゅう
けんびんこくしんだいどう
びんぜんほう
しゅくしゅじゅう
きんゆうひっしんひっちゅう
いっしんいっとくかんてっしゅう

Sanbin shugi, go tō sho shū,
I ken binkoku, i shin daidō,
Shi ji tashi, i bin zenhō,
Shukuya hi ke, shugi ze jū,
Shi kin shi yū, hisshin hicchū,
Isshin ittoku, kantesshi shū!

Tam Dân Chủ nghĩa, ngô đảng sở tông;
Dĩ kiến Dân Quốc, dĩ tiến đại đồng.
Tư nhĩ đa sĩ, vì dân tiền phong;
Túc dạ phỉ giải, Chủ nghĩa thị tòng.
Thỉ cần thỉ dũng, tất tín tất trung;
Nhất tâm nhất đức, quán triệt thủy chung.

Notes

  1. ^ Adapted from a speech.

References

  1. ^ "National anthem". english.president.gov.tw. Office of the President. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b Guy, Nancy (Winter 2002). ""Republic of China National Anthem" on Taiwan: One Anthem, One Performance, Multiple Realities". Ethnomusicology. 6 (1): 96–119. doi:10.2307/852809. JSTOR 852809.
  3. ^ Cassel, Susie Lan (2002). The Chinese in America: A History from Gold Mountain to the New Millennium. Rowman Altamira. p. 279. ISBN 9780759100015. Retrieved 30 August 2016.

Further reading

Preceded bySong to the Auspicious Cloud.mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}(1913–1928) Three Principles of the People 1943–1949(in Mainland China) Succeeded byMarch of the Volunteers(1949–1966 and 1976–today) Preceded byKimigayo(1895–1945) Three Principles of the People 1945–present(in Taiwan) Succeeded bycurrent