This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Key to the tables below

Systems using standard voltages

See also: Railway electrification system § Voltage

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163[1] and IEC 60850.[2]

Overhead systems

600 V DC

This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few new ones as well.

Country Name of system Location Notes
Australia Australia Adelaide Metro tramway Adelaide  
Yarra Trams Melbourne  
Belgium Belgium Antwerp Tram Antwerp  
Belgian Coast Tram De Panne to Knokke  
Brussels trams Brussels  
Charleroi Metro Charleroi  
Ghent Tram Ghent  
Canada Canada Calgary Transit C-Train Calgary  
Edmonton Transit LRT Edmonton  
Toronto Transit Commission Toronto streetcars only
Croatia Croatia Trams in Zagreb Zagreb 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge
Czech Republic Czech Republic most tram lines   negative polarity in Brno and Ostrava
Estonia Estonia Tallinn tram Tallinn  
Finland Finland Helsinki tram Helsinki  
Germany Germany Augsburg tram
(Stadtwerke Augsburg Verkehrsbetriebe)
Augsburg tram
Hungary Hungary BKV Budapest trams and metro line M1
DKV Debrecen tram
MVK Zrt. Miskolc tram
Public transport in Szeged Szeged tram
Italy Italy Most tram lines    
Japan Japan Most tram lines    
Chōshi Electric Railway Chōshi, Chiba  
Eizan Electric Railway Kyoto, Kyoto  
Enoshima Electric Railway Kanagawa  
Iyotetsu Takahama Line Matsuyama, Ehime  
Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka, Shizuoka  
Tokyu Setagaya Line Tokyo  
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Tram Amsterdam including line 51 of the Amsterdam Metro south of Station Zuid
Rotterdam tram Rotterdam  
Trams in The Hague The Hague  
Poland Poland Trams in Bydgoszcz Bydgoszcz 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge
Trams in Częstochowa Częstochowa Negative polarity
Trams in Elbląg Elbląg 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge; negative polarity
Trams in Gdańsk Gdańsk
Trams in Gorzów Wielkopolski Gorzów Wielkopolski Negative polarity
Trams in Grudziądz Grudziądz 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge; negative polarity
Trams in Kraków (Cracow) Kraków (Cracow)
Suburban trams in and around Łódź (Lodz) Łódź plus Konstantynów Łódzki, Lutomiersk, Ozorków, Pabianice and Zgierz 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge; negative polarity
Trams in Olsztyn Olsztyn
Trams in Poznań Poznań
Trams in Szczecin Szczecin
Trams in Toruń Toruń 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge
Silesian Interurbans GOP (Upper Silesia conurbation)
Warszawa (Warsaw) Trams Warszawa (Warsaw)
Trams in Wrocław Wrocław
Romania Romania Arad tramway system
Arad-Ghioroc Narrow Gauge Railway
Arad, Arad county being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary, Arad-Ghioroc Narrow Gauge Railway being the first electrified railway line in present-day Romania; metre gauge
Botoşani tramway system Botoşani recently lowered from Romanian standard 750 V due to massive import of second hand German trams
Craiova tramway system Craiova recently lowered from Romanian standard 750 V due to massive import of second hand German trams
Iaşi tramway system Iaşi lowered from 825 V in 2005, metre gauge
Oradea tramway system Oradea being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary
Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway Sibiu county part of the former Sibiu tram line
Timişoara tramway system Timişoara being built during Hungarian rule, the system originally uses the same standard as Hungary
Serbia Serbia Belgrade tram system Belgrade 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge
Slovakia Slovakia Trenčianska elektrická železnica (TREŽ)
Tramways in Bratislava and Košice
Trenčianska TepláTrenčianske Teplice Bratislava Košice 760 mm (2 ft 5+1516 in) gauge, negative polarity in Košice
Switzerland Switzerland Basel Trams (BVB) Basel
Bern Trams (Bernmobil) Bern
Dolderbahn Zürich
Geneva Trams (TPG) Geneva
Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) Canton Bern tram line 6 between Bern and Worb; all other lines are electrified at 1250 V DC[3]
Zürich Trams (VBZ) Zürich
United Kingdom United Kingdom Blackpool Tramway Blackpool  
United States United States Kenosha Streetcar Kenosha, Wisconsin
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Boston • The entire MBTA Green Line streetcar/light rail system
Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line
• Part of the MBTA Blue Line northeast of Airport station
RTA Streetcars in New Orleans New Orleans all lines
RTA Rapid Transit Cleveland, Ohio all three lines
San Diego Electric Railway & San Diego Trolley San Diego The San Diego Electric Railway is defunct and is succeeded by the San Diego Trolley.
San Francisco Muni San Francisco  
SEPTA Philadelphia, PA and suburbs 600 V trolley wire used on trolley routes within Philadelphia and suburban routes from 69th Street Terminal

750 V DC

This voltage is used for most modern tram systems.

Country Name of system Location Notes
Argentina Argentina PreMetro Buenos Aires  
Tranvía del Este Buenos Aires Closed in 2012, dismantled in 2017
Australia Australia G:link Gold Coast
Sydney light rail network Sydney  
Austria Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl   also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Austria Austria Switzerland Switzerland Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn River Rhine / Lake Constance Construction railway for the regulation works of the River Rhine near its outfall into Lake Constance, now preserved. The river forms the border between Austria and Switzerland, and the railway operated in both countries.
Brazil Brazil MetrôRio


Rio de Janeiro

São Paulo

Lines 1, 2 and 4

Lines 1, 2, 3 and 15 (monorail), 17 (future, monorail)

Canada Canada Ion rapid transit Regional Municipality of Waterloo under construction (opens 2017)
Eglinton Crosstown line Toronto, Ontario under construction (opens 2021)
Valley Line LRT Edmonton, Alberta under construction (opens 2020)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa Light Rail Addis Ababa Green and Blue Lines
Germany Germany Albtalbahn Rhein-Haardtbahn railway of the Upper Rhine
Cologne-Bonn Tram Cologne to Bonn and its suburbs. Both lines between Cologne and Bonn were originally heavy load train lines electrified at 1200 V; Line 18 one was 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge; Line 16 is still occasionally used by freight trains.
Greece Greece Athens Tram Athens  
Hong Kong Hong Kong Light Rail (MTR) Hong Kong  
India India Kolkata Metro Line 1 Kolkata (Calcutta)  
Namma Metro Bangalore  
Republic of Ireland Ireland LUAS Dublin
Italy Italy Metropolitana di Genova Genova
Trams in Florence Florence
Japan Japan Enshū Railway Hamamatsu, Shizuoka  
Hakone Tozan Railway Line Hakone, Kanagawa between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line Ehime  
Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line Yokkaichi, Mie  
Sangi Railway Hokusei Line Mie  
Malaysia Malaysia Kelana Jaya Line (RapidKL Rail) Kuala Lumpur between Kelana Jaya LRT station and Gombak Station
Netherlands Netherlands Randstadrail The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities  
Rotterdam Metro Rotterdam North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Utrecht sneltram Utrecht, Nieuwegein and IJsselstein  
Niger Nigeria Lagos Rail Mass Transit (LRMT) Lagos planned to open in December 2016
Norway Norway Oslo Tramway Oslo  
Bergen Light Rail Bergen  
Philippines Philippines Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) Metro Manila between Baclaran to Roosevelt
Manila Metro Rail Transit System Metro Manila between North EDSA to Taft Avenue
Portugal Portugal Metro do Porto Oporto  
Metro Transportes do Sul Almada, Seixal  
Sweden Sweden Trams in Stockholm and Saltsjöbanan Stockholm  
Gothenburg tram Gothenburg  
Trams in Norrköping Norrköping  
Switzerland Switzerland Wynental- und Suhrentalbahn (WSB) Aargau  
Tunisia Tunisia Métro léger de Tunis Tunis   also 25kV
Turkey Turkey Adana Metro Adana  
Antalya Tram Antalya  
BurTram Bursa  
EsTram Eskişehir  
Gaziantep Tram Gaziantep  
Istanbul Metro Istanbul Line M1 only
Istanbul Tram Istanbul  
Izmir Tram Izmir  
Kayseray Kayseri  
Akçaray Kocaeli  
Konya Tram Konya  
Samsun Tram Samsun  
United Kingdom United Kingdom Edinburgh Trams Edinburgh  
Manchester Metrolink Manchester  
Midland Metro Birmingham to Wolverhampton  
Nottingham Express Transit Nottingham  
Sheffield Supertram Sheffield  
Tramlink South London  
United States United States Baltimore Light Rail Baltimore, MD light rail
Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) Dallas, TX and adjacent suburbs light rail
Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD) Denver, Colorado light rail portion
Houston Metrorail Houston, TX light rail
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Hudson County, New Jersey light rail
Los Angeles Metro Rail Los Angeles County, California rapid transit
Lynx Rapid Transit Charlotte, North Carolina light rail
MAX, TriMet Portland, Oregon light rail
METRO Minneapolis-Saint Paul light rail
Newark Light Rail Newark, New Jersey light rail
Portland Streetcar Portland, Oregon tram/streetcar
S Line (Utah Transit Authority) Salt Lake City, Utah streetcar
Sacramento Regional Transit Light Rail (RT) Sacramento, California light rail
Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (SCVTA) San Jose, California light rail
South Lake Union Streetcar Seattle, Washington tram/streetcar
SunLink Tucson, Arizona tram
St Louis Metrolink St Louis, Missouri light rail
Tacoma Link Tacoma, Washington light rail
Tide Light Rail Norfolk, Virginia light rail
TRAX Salt Lake City, Utah light rail
Valley Metro Rail Phoenix, AZ [4]
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2008)

1,200 V DC

Country Name of system Location Notes
Cuba Cuba Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
Estonia Estonia     (Elektriraudtee) 1924–1941 and 1946–1958, converted to 3000 V DC
Germany Germany   Lusatian 900 mm (2 ft 11+716 in) gauge mining railways in the lignite district
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Barcelona, Catalonia uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
Sóller Railway PalmaSóller, Majorca [5]
Switzerland Switzerland Aare Seeland mobil (ASm) Canton Bern / Canton Solothurn [6][7]
Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn Dietikon, Canton ZürichWohlen, Aargau
Forchbahn ZürichEsslingen, Canton Zürich Forchbahn proper only; Forchbahn trains access their Zürich terminus via the Zürich tram network, which is electrified at 600 V DC. The rolling stock is equipped to run off both voltages.
Frauenfeld-Wil-Bahn Frauenfeld, ThurgauWil, Canton St. Gallen
Meiringen–Innertkirchen Bahn MeiringenInnertkirchen, Canton Bern
Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn ZürichUetliberg, Canton Zürich Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[8]
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (January 2015)

1,500 V DC

Country Name of system Location Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Metro Buenos Aires Lines A, C, D, E and H
Tren de la Costa Buenos Aires Suburban line
Australia Australia Sydney Trains Sydney  
Melbourne Suburban Railways Melbourne  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro São Paulo Lines 4 and 5
China China Shanghai Metro Shanghai except Line 16, but overhead wires installed in the depot.
Guangzhou Metro Guangzhou except Line 4, Line 5 and Line 6, but overhead wires installed in depots.
Shenzhen Metro Shenzhen Except Line 3
Colombia Colombia Medellín Metro Medellín Lines A and B
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC)   Tábor-Bechyně line only
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen S-train Copenhagen  
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Metro Santo Domingo  
Egypt Egypt Cairo Metro Cairo Line 1[9][10]
France France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (TGV) and in the north
Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation Hong Kong East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line are 25 kV AC
Hungary Hungary Budapest Cog-wheel Railway Budapest Converted from 550 V DC (city trams nominal voltage at that time) during the 1973 reconstruction.
Indonesia Indonesia KRL Jabodetabek Jakarta  
Jakarta MRT
Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin Area Rapid Transit Dublin  
Italy Italy Metropolitana di Roma Roma Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
Japan Japan Japan Railways (JR) lines   most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
Most private railway lines    
Most subway lines    
South Korea South Korea Seoul Subway Seoul National Capital Area except Korail Line 1, Line 4, Bundang
and Yongsan-Deokso Line
(see 25 kV 60 Hz below)
Incheon Subway Incheon  
Daegu Subway Daegu  
Busan Subway Busan  
Daejeon Subway Daejeon  
Gwangju Subway Gwangju  
Netherlands Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen - Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines and new freight line Betuweroute
New Zealand New Zealand Wellington suburban Wellington except Wairarapa Line beyond Upper Hutt. Since 2011, the nominal voltage has been 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock.
Philippines Philippines Manila MRT Line 2 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) Metro Manila between Santolan to Recto
Portugal Portugal Cascais Line    
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Singapore North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
Slovakia Slovakia Tatra Electric Railway    
Spain Spain Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya Cataluña  
ADIF Madrid only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Euskotren País Vasco  
FEVE Asturias-León-Cantabria-País Vasco  
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana Comunidad Valenciana  
Sweden Sweden Roslagsbanan Stockholm  
Switzerland Switzerland Chemin de fer Aigle–Leysin (AL) AigleLeysin, Vaud  
Chemin de fer Aigle–Ollon–Monthey–Champéry (AOMC) Aigle, VaudChampéry, Valais  
Chemin de fer Aigle–Sépey–Diablerets (ASD) AigleLes Diablerets, Vaud  
Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB) InterlakenLauterbrunnen / Grindelwald, Canton Bern  
Chemins de fer du Jura (CJ) Canton Jura metre gauge lines only; standard gauge lines are electrified at 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz
Chemin de fer Lausanne–Échallens–Bercher (LEB) LausanneBercher, Vaud
Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) NyonLa Cure, Vaud converted in the 1980s from 2200 V DC
Rigi Bahnen (VRB/ARB) Vitznau / GoldauRigi
Schynige Platte Bahn (SPB) WilderswilSchynige Platte, Canton Bern  
Waldenburgerbahn (WB) LiestalWaldenburg, Basel-Landschaft  
Wengernalpbahn (WAB) LauterbrunnenGrindelwald, Canton Bern  
Turkey Turkey Bursa Metro Bursa  
Istanbul Metro Istanbul Except lines M1 and M2
United Kingdom United Kingdom Tyne and Wear Metro Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside  
Manchester-Sheffield-Wath Manchester to Sheffield Operated 1949–1984. Abandoned east of Hadfield in 1981; suburban services in Manchester converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz AC as far as Hadfield and Glossop in 1984.[11]
Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway Manchester Opened in 1931.
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1971
Converted again to 750 V DC in 1991 (Metrolink).[12][13]
Great Eastern Main Line London (Liverpool Street) to Shenfield (then Chelmsford) Opened in 1949.
Converted to 6.25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1960 and later to 25 kV 50 Hz AC[14][15]
Shildon to Newport County Durham industrial line; operated 1915–1935[16]
United States United States Metra Electric District Chicago  
South Shore Line Northern Indiana & Chicago  
Central Link Seattle light rail

3 kV DC

Country Name of system Location Note
Belgium Belgium Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south area.
Brazil Brazil SuperVia Trens Urbanos; Rio de Janeiro suburban network;  
Canada Canada Deux-Montagnes Line Montreal built by CNoR in 1918, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by AMT
Chile Chile    
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín - Praha - Ostrava route). The system change stations are Kadaň-Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice. The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Estonia Estonia     Tallinn commuter rail only
Georgia (country) Georgia Georgian Railway LLC In fact 3,300 V
Italy Italy RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines
North Korea North Korea Korean State Railway   national standard
Latvia Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz) to be converted to 25 kV AC
Luxembourg Luxembourg Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) The line between Luxembourg and Arlon 25 kV AC on the rest of the network
Morocco Morocco ONCF (Office National des Chemins de Fer)   national standard
Poland Poland Polish State Railways (PKP) planned new high speed lines will use 25 kV AC
Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa (WKD) Warszawa and suburbs 600 V DC until 27 May 2016
Russia Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD) new electrification use only 25 kV AC
Slovakia Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned, and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Slovenia Slovenia Slovenian Railways (SŽ) national standard
South Africa South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR); MetroRail national standard; also 25 kV AC and 50 kV AC used
Spain Spain ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias) 25 kV AC used on high speed lines
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways in east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[17]
United States United States Morris & Essex Lines New Jersey, lines towards New York City By Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad in 1930.[18] Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz by NJT in 1984

15 kV AC, 16+23 Hz / 16.7 Hz

Main article: 15 kV AC railway electrification

Country Name of system Location Notes
Austria Austria Austrian Federal Railways national standard
Germany Germany German National Railways national standard
Norway Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration national standard
Sweden Sweden Swedish Transport Administration national standard
Switzerland Switzerland Chemin de fer Bière-Apples-Morges (BAM) Vaud  
BLS Canton Bern  
Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Canton Zürich Sihltal line only; shares track with the 1200 V DC electrified Uetliberg line that uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow such sharing
Swiss Federal Railways Throughout the country  
Zentralbahn Central Switzerland and Bernese Oberland  

25 kV AC, 50 Hz

Main article: 25 kV AC railway electrification

Country Name of system Location Notes
Argentina Argentina Roca Line Buenos Aires Constitución - Ezeiza
Constitución - Alejandro Korn
Constitución - Claypole
Constitución - Berazategui
Australia Australia Queensland Rail Brisbane, North Coast Line, Coalfields Queensland
Transperth Perth Western Australia
Adelaide Metro Adelaide South Australia; to be electrified 2009–2018
Belarus Belarus      
Belgium Belgium Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) High-speed lines and some other lines the rest of the network is 3 kV DC — see rail transport in Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina      
Botswana Botswana     proposed line to Namibia
Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgarian State Railways BDZ    
China China China Railway Corporation    
Republic of the Congo Congo      
Croatia Croatia Croatian Railways (HŽ) Nationwide national standard
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC)   Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary - Cheb - Plzeň - České Budějovice - Tábor - Jihlava - Brno - Břeclav - Slovakia).
Denmark Denmark Banedanmark See rail transport in Denmark Vast majority of the Banedanmark network not electrified
Finland Finland Finnish Railway network   National standard
France France French National Railways (SNCF)    
Germany Germany Rübelandbahn Harz
Greece Greece Hellenic Railways Organisation (OSE) Nationwide National standard. See Railways of Greece for details of progress.
Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation (East Rail Line) (West Rail Line) and (Ma On Shan Line) Hong Kong  
Hungary Hungary Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) and Raaberbahn (GYSEV)  
India India Indian Railways (IR)  
Mumbai Suburban Railway Mumbai Conversion from 1.5 kV DC to the current system was completed in 2012 (for Western Line[19]) and 2015 (for Central Line[20][21][22]) respectively
Mumbai Metro (Line 1)
Chennai Metro Chennai (Madras)  
Delhi Metro Delhi  
Iran Iran     Planned
Israel Israel Israel Railways   construction contract awarded in December 2015[23]
Italy Italy     new high-speed lines only
Japan Japan JR East Tōhoku, Jōetsu, and Hokuriku Shinkansen   60 Hz in some areas, see 60 Hz overhead below.
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan      
Latvia Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz)   Eastern lines only
Lithuania Lithuania Lithuanian Railways (LG) Naujoji Vilnia-Kaunas and Naujoji Vilnia-Trakai Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena route by 2013 for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) is expected. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda corridor electrification will follow.
Luxembourg Luxembourg Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard the Luxembourg – Arlon line is electrified under 3 kV DC
North Macedonia Macedonia Macedonian Railways    
Malaysia Malaysia KTM Komuter Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Sungai Gadut - Tanjung Malim / Port Klang - Batu Caves Under Construction Ipoh - Padang Besar / Sungai Gadut - Gemas
Montenegro Montenegro Railways of Montenegro Belgrade - Bar railway and Podgorica - Nikšić  
Namibia Namibia Proposed line to Botswana    
Netherlands Netherlands Dutch Railways (NS) Used on new High Speed Lines and Freight Lines 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network
New Zealand New Zealand North Island Main Trunk Railway   Central North Island section, 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
Auckland suburban Auckland 77 km between Swanson and Papakura; first service 28 April 2014
Portugal Portugal Portuguese Railways (CP)   except the Cascais Line (1500 V DC)
Romania Romania Romanian Railways (CFR)    
Russia Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD)   National standard
Serbia Serbia Serbian Railways    
Slovakia Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR)   South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the entire network (except narrow gauge lines) to follow
Spain Spain ADIF Alta Velocidad   High-speed lines only
South Africa South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), Gautrain    
Thailand Thailand Suvarnabhumi Airport Link Bangkok  
Tunisia Tunisia      [24]
Turkey Turkey Turkish State Railways (TCDD) Nationwide National standard
United Kingdom UK Network Rail   except Southern region and Merseyside
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways   national standard, in most of the west; also 3000 V DC in the east
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan      
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) Gweru-Harare de-energised in 2008

25 kV AC, 60 Hz

Main article: 25 kV AC railway electrification

While 25 kV 60 Hz is not standardized by BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850; it is the logical equivalent of 25 kV 50 Hz in countries where 60 Hz is the normal grid power frequency.

Country Name of system Location Notes
Canada Canada Deux-Montagnes Line Montreal built by CNoR in 1918 as 3000 V DC, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM
Japan Japan Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Hokuriku Shinkansen
Kyushu Shinkansen
Western Japan, Central Japan, Eastern Japan, JR Kyushu 50 Hz in eastern Japan; see 25 kV AC 50 Hz overhead above
South Korea South Korea Korail South Korea all Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 (see 1500 V DC overhead above)
A'REX Incheon, Seoul  
Mexico Mexico Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México Mexico City  [25]
Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Railways Administration Taiwan
Taiwan High Speed Rail Western Taiwan
United States United States Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit New Jersey former 3,000 V DC system
North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Washington D.C. to Boston electrified in 2000; see Amtrak's 60 Hz Traction Power System
Denver RTD Denver opened in 2016; separate 750 V DC system for light rail
Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake Texas see E25B and Internet reference[26]
Navajo Mine Railroad New Mexico

Conductor rail systems

600 V DC conductor

All third rail unless stated otherwise.
Used by most older US subways.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Name of system Location Notes
Top contact Argentina Argentina Urquiza Line Buenos Aires Federico Lacroze-General Lemos
Top contact Canada Canada Toronto Subway and Rapid Transit Toronto only on subway lines
Top contact Greece Greece EIS/ISAP Athens used between 1904 and 1985, now 750 V
Top contact Italy Italy Superga Rack Railway Turin  
Top contact Japan Japan Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line Tokyo  
  Japan Japan Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line Nagoya, Aichi  
Top contact Sweden Sweden Stockholm Metro Stockholm 650 V, Green and Red Lines
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Glasgow Subway Glasgow  
Top contact United States United States Chicago "L" Chicago elevated and subway lines
Top contact United States United States Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Boston Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport Station
Top contact United States United States New York City Subway New York City  
Top contact United States United States PATH New York City metro area  
Top contact United States United States Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Philadelphia Broad Street subway
United States United States Walt Disney World Monorail System Bay Lake, Florida

750 V DC conductor

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact. All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Bottom contact
Country Name of system Location Notes
Algeria Algeria Algiers Metro Algiers  
Austria Austria Vienna U-Bahn Vienna  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro São Paulo except Lines 4 and 5
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Metro Sofia  
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Metro Prague  
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Metro Copenhagen  
Egypt Egypt Cairo Metro Cairo Line 2 and Line 3
Finland Finland Helsinki Metro Helsinki  
Germany Germany Berlin U-Bahn Berlin Lines from U5 to U9 (large profile). Negative polarity.
Hamburg U-Bahn Hamburg  
Munich U-Bahn Munich  
Nuremberg U-Bahn Nuremberg  
India India Namma Metro Bangalore  
South Korea South Korea Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit Busan  
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Metro Amsterdam including line 51 north of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Metro Rotterdam North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Norway Norway Oslo T-bane Oslo  
Poland Poland Warsaw Metro Warsaw  
Romania Romania Bucharest Metro Bucharest  
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Singapore North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line operated by SMRT Trains

Downtown Line operated by SBS Transit
Thomson-East Coast Line

Taiwan Taiwan Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit Kaohsiung
Taipei Metro Taipei
Taoyuan Metro TaoyuanTaipei
Turkey Turkey Ankara Metro Ankara  
Istanbul Metro Istanbul Line M2 only
Izmir Metro Izmir  
United Kingdom United Kingdom Docklands Light Railway London  
United States United States Metro-North Railroad New York City  
Side contact
Country Name of system Location Notes
Canada Canada Montreal Metro Montreal (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Santiago  
France France Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Paris Positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars.
See DC, four-rail below.
Lyon Métro Lyon
Marseille Métro Marseille
Lille Métro Lille
Rennes Métro Rennes
Toulouse Métro Toulouse
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport
Automated People Mover (APM)
Hong Kong Mitsubishi "Crystal Mover" system using two power rails (positive and negative) with side collection.
Japan Japan Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line Sapporo, Hokkaido  
Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit Singapore Sengkang LRT Line and Punggol LRT Line operated by SBS Transit
Sentosa Express Singapore Sentosa Express operated by SDC
United States United States Las Vegas Monorail Las Vegas  
Top contact
Country Name of system Location Notes
China China Beijing Subway Beijing  
France France Paris Métro (Conventional metro) Paris  
Germany Germany Berlin U-Bahn Berlin Lines from U1 to U4 (small profile)
Greece Greece Athens Metro Athens Line 1 was 600 V before 1985.
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Budapest except line M1, which is 600 V DC with overhead lines.
India India Kolkata Metro Kolkata (Calcutta)  
Japan Japan Osaka Municipal Subway Osaka, Osaka except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line, which are 1,500 V DC with overhead lines.
Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
Keihanna Line Higashiosaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
Yokohama Municipal Subway Yokohama, Kanagawa  
North Korea North Korea Pyongyang Metro Pyongyang based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
South Korea South Korea Everline Yongin  
Portugal Portugal Lisbon Metro Lisbon  
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Tren Urbano San Juan  
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Metro Stockholm Nominal voltage 650 V, subway 3 (blue line) 750 V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750 V.
United Kingdom United Kingdom Merseyrail Liverpool  
Northern City Line London access to City (Moorgate)
LNWR Suburban Network London formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Southern Region of British Railways
and successors
Southern England 660 V system upgraded and expanded
United States United States Long Island Rail Road New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
PATCO Speedline Philadelphia, PA  
Washington Metro Washington, DC  
Amtrak within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
New Jersey Transit within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan  
Not yet determined
Type Country Name of system Location Notes
See note China China Tianjin Metro Tianjin Top contact in Line 1, bottom contact in Lines 2 and 3

Systems using non-standard voltages

Overhead systems

DC voltage

Voltage Name of system Location Country Notes
120 Seaton Tramway Seaton, Devon United Kingdom UK Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250 Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago United States United States operated 1906–1959
500 Hong Kong Tramways Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong  
525 Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren Lauterbrunnen Switzerland Switzerland  
550 Manx Electric Railway Isle of Man Isle of Man Isle of Man including Snaefell Mountain Railway
Trams in Kolkata Kolkata (Calcutta) India India  
650 Pittsburgh Light Rail Pittsburgh United States United States
Basel Trams (BVB/BLT) Basel Switzerland Switzerland
700 Chemin de fer Bex-Villars-Bretaye BexCol de Bretaye, Vaud Switzerland Switzerland
800 Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Tricity Poland Poland Operated 1951-1976. Converted to 3,000 V DC in 1976.
850 Ferrovia Monte Generoso (MG) CapolagoMonte Generoso, Ticino Switzerland Switzerland
900 Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat Fribourg Switzerland Switzerland  
Montreux-Oberland Bernois Montreux Switzerland Switzerland  
1,000 Rhätische Bahn (RhB) St Moritz, GraubundenTirano, Lombardy Switzerland Switzerland Italy Italy Bernina line only; remainder of system electrified at 11 kV AC, 16 2⁄3 Hz. The Bernina line is an international line linking Switzerland (St. Moritz) with Italy (Tirano)
Budapest Commuter Rail and Rapid Transit (BHÉV) Budapest Hungary Hungary [27]
1,100 Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina only Line A (converted to 1,500 V DC with La Brugeoise trains replaced by new rolling stock in 2013)
1,250 Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) Canton Bern Switzerland Switzerland All lines except tram line 6 between Bern and Worb, which is electrified at 600 V DC[3]
1,350 Ferrovia Domodossola–Locarno (FART/SSIF) Domodossola, PiedmontLocarno, Ticino Italy Italy Switzerland Switzerland International railway between Italy (Domodossola) and Switzerland (Locarno)
Ferrovia Lugano–Ponte Tresa (FLP) LuganoPonte Tresa, Canton Ticino Switzerland Switzerland
2,400   Lausitzer Germany Germany work line of the Lausitzer Brown Coal AG company
Chemin de fer de La Mure Grenoble France France −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[28]
3,500 Bury – Holcombe Brook Manchester United Kingdom UK operated 1913–1918
6,000     Russia Russia experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

AC voltage

Voltage Frequency Name of system Location Country Notes
5,500 16+23 Hz Ammergau Railway (German: Ammergaubahn) Murnau Germany Germany 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,000 50 Hz     Germany Germany factory railway of Rheinbraun AG
6,250 Great Eastern suburban lines London United Kingdom UK Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
Glasgow suburban lines Glasgow United Kingdom UK Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Germany Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 Mariazellerbahn Sankt Pölten Austria Austria  
6,600 Thamshavnbanen Orkdal Norway Norway  
6,600 50 Hz Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn Cologne Lowland Germany Germany transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants
8 kV 25 Hz Alb Valley Railway (German: Albtalbahn) Karlsruhe Germany Germany 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV Hofpleinlijn The Hague - Rotterdam Netherlands Netherlands from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz Russian Railways industrial railways at quarries Russia Russia operated from 1950-s at coal and ore quarries
Ukrainian Railways Ukraine Ukraine
some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
11 kV 16+23 Hz Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Graubünden Switzerland Switzerland Except the Bernina line, which is electrified at 1,000 V DC
Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB)   formerly Furka Oberalp Bahn (FO) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
25 Hz Pennsylvania Railroad
  United States United States All lines now 12.5 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
50 Hz Mont Blanc Tramway   France France  
12 kV 16+23 Hz Chemin de fer du Midi lines in Pyrenees France France most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12.5 kV 25 Hz Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Washington, DC - New York City United States United States 11 kV until 1978
Keystone Corridor, Amtrak Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA 11 kV until 1978
SEPTA Philadelphia Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey 11 kV until 1978
60 Hz North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey 1988-2002, today using 25 kV 60 Hz
New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT  
20 kV 50 Hz Höllentalbahn Freiburg Germany Germany Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15 kV 16+23 Hz.
Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron France France Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others Japan Japan  
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others  
50 kV 50 Hz Sishen–Saldanha railway line Northern Cape, Western Cape South Africa South Africa opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) British Columbia Canada Canada Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad Arizona United States United States First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.
Deseret Power Railroad (formerly Deseret Western Railway) Utah  


Main article: Three-phase AC railway electrification

Two wires
Voltage Current Name of system Location Country Notes
725 50 Hz, Gornergratbahn ZermattGornergrat, Valais Switzerland Switzerland
750 40 Hz, 3Ø Burgdorf-Thun Bahn BurgdorfThun Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV 16+23 Hz in 1933
800 60 Hz, 3Ø Corcovado Rack Railway Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brazil  
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø Jungfraubahn Interlaken Switzerland Switzerland
3000 15 Hz, 3Ø Valtellina Electrification   Italy Northern Italy 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø Chemin de Fer de la Rhune   France France  
3000 16 Hz, 3Ø   Simplon Tunnel Switzerland Switzerland, Italy Italy Simplon Bahn, 1906–1930
3600 16+23 Hz, 3Ø     Italy Italy operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
FS Porrettana railway 1927–1935
3700 16+23 Hz, 3Ø Brenner Railway Trento/Trient to Brenner Germany Germany 1929 - 1965
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø   AlmeriaGergal Spain Spain 1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø Great Northern Railway (U.S.) Cascade Tunnel United States United States 1909 - 1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø FS Roma - Sulmona Italy Italy 1929–1944
Three wires
Voltage Current Name of system Location Country Notes
3000 V 50 Hz Zahnradbahn Tagebau Gruhlwerk Kierberg Germany Germany rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
10000 V 50 Hz   Berlin-Lichterfelde (de) test track (1.8 km);
variable voltage and frequency;
trial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz - 48 Hz
(See notes)
  Zossen - Marienfelde test track (23.4 km);
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.

50 Hz   Ship elevator of Krasnoyarsk Reservoir Russia Russia length: 1.5 km, 9000 mm gauge

Conductor rail systems (all DC voltage)

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact.

Top contact systems

Voltage Type Name of system Location Country Notes
50 See notes Volk's Electric Railway Brighton United Kingdom UK Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail the world's oldest operational electric railway[citation needed]
160 Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail Monorail at National Motor Museum Beaulieu United Kingdom UK current fed by 2 contact wires
180 See notes Siemens streetcar Berlin-Lichterfelde Germany Germany Current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail Southend Pier Railway Southend United Kingdom UK Until 1902[29]
250 Hythe Pier Railway Hythe, Hampshire  
Chicago Tunnel Company Chicago, Illinois United States USA Morgan Rack

1904, revenue service 1906–1908

400 Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway Berchtesgaden Germany Germany
440 Post Office Railway London United Kingdom UK disused since 2003[30]

150 V is used in station areas to limit train speed

550 Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina Only Line B
630 Island Line Isle of Wight United Kingdom UK  
630 4th rail London Underground (LUL) London Supplied at +420 V and -210 V (630 V total); It is proposed to increase the voltage to 750 V (+500 V and -250 V)[31]
650 See notes Euston to Watford DC Line London Third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail

To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and South West Trains Putney Bridge to Wimbledon.

660 third rail Southern Railway & LSWR   some areas up to 1939, original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
800 Berlin S-Bahn Berlin GermanyGermany discontinued, today 750 V
825 Pyongyang Metro Pyongyang North KoreaNorth Korea uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
1000 Bay Area Rapid Transit San Francisco United States USA [32]
1500 Culoz–Modane railway Chambéry - Modane France France used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire

Side contact systems

Voltage Type Name of system Location Country Notes
850 Third Rail Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine Martigny France France
1200 Third Rail Manchester-Bury Manchester United KingdomUK Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)
1200 Third Rail Hamburg S-Bahn Hamburg Germany Germany Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6300 V 25 Hz) until 1955. Also uses German standard 15 kV, 16 2/3 Hz overhead electrification on the section between Neugraben and Stade on line S3, opened in December 2007.

Bottom contact systems

Voltage Type Name of system Location Country Notes
650 third rail SkyTrain Vancouver Canada Canada Expo Line (1985) and Millennium Line (2006)
700 third rail Metro-North Railroad New York United States United States Hudson and Harlem Lines, southern part of New Haven Line. Original New York Central Railroad electrification scheme to Grand Central Terminal.
Market-Frankford Line Philadelphia Originally 600 V, raised to 700 V
825 third rail Sofia Metro Sofia Bulgaria Bulgaria  
Moscow Metro Moscow Russia Russia Nominal voltage: 825 V; allowed range: 550 V - 975 V[33]
Saint Petersburg Metro Saint Petersburg
Novosibirsk Metro Novosibirsk
Nizhny Novgorod Metro Nizhny Novgorod
Samara Metro Samara
Yekaterinburg Metro Yekaterinburg
Kazan Metro Kazan
Kiev Metro Kiev Ukraine Ukraine FSU underground systems share the same standard[34]
Kharkiv Metro Kharkiv
Dnipro Metro Dnipro
830 third rail Mitre Line Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina Retiro - José León Suárez
Retiro - Bartolomé Mitre
Retiro - Tigre
Sarmiento Line Once - Moreno
850 third rail Ligne de Cerdagne Villefranche France France Often referred to as the "Yellow Train"
Wiener Lokalbahn Vienna Austria Austria  
900 third rail Brussels Metro Brussels Belgium Belgium
1500 third rail Guangzhou Metro Line 4, Line 5 and Line 6 Guangzhou China China Overhead wires in depots; all trains are equipped with pantographs
third rail Shenzhen Metro Line 3 Shenzhen  
third rail Shanghai Metro Line 16 Shanghai Overhead wires in depot; all trains are equipped with pantographs
third rail Beijing Subway Line 7 Beijing

Special or unusual types

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below track

Main article: Conduit current collection

DC, one ground-level conductor

DC, two-wire

DC, power from running rails

DC, four-rail

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
630 Top contact London Underground London UK Transport for London[35]

See also


  1. ^ BS EN 50163 (2007).
  2. ^ IEC 60850 (2007).
  3. ^ a b Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 66.
  4. ^ page 5
  5. ^ Sóller Website
  6. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 11.
  7. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 19.
  8. ^ "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  9. ^ Barrow, Keith (14 March 2014). "Cairo to order new trains for metro Line 1". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Cairo Metro Tender for New Rolling Stock". MENA RAIL POST. MENA RAIL POST. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  11. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p.101 & p.142
  12. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 135.
  13. ^ Dixon (1994), p. 119.
  14. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 139.
  15. ^ Swain (1990), p. 19.
  16. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 92–93.
  17. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  18. ^ Electrified D. L. & W. Time magazine archives Retrieved 2007-08-12
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ "Israel Railways awards USD 500m electrification contract to Spanish SEMI". Think Railways. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60Hz
  26. ^ "TXU - Monticello Line". 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  27. ^
  28. ^ Chemin de fer de La Mure
  29. ^ "Southend Pier Railway".
  30. ^ Disused since 2003
  31. ^ London Underground (October 2014), New Tube for London - Feasibility Report (PDF), p. 26
  32. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  33. ^ "Rules of technical operation of undergrounds of the Russian Federation (Правила технической эксплуатации метрополитенов Российской Федерации)" (PDF) (in Russian). International Metro Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-13. Retrieved 2017-11-30. ((cite web)): |archive-date= / |archive-url= timestamp mismatch; 2013-10-10 suggested (help)
  34. ^ "Structures, devices and rolling stock of underground (Сооружения, устройства и подвижной состав метрополитена)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  35. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Retrieved 2013-04-22.