Ronald Reagan gives a televised address from the Oval Office outlining his plan for tax reductions in July 1981 (excerpt)
Ronald Reagan gives a televised address from the Oval Office outlining his plan for tax reductions in July 1981 (excerpt)

This timeline of modern American conservatism lists important events, developments and occurrences which have significantly affected conservatism in the United States. With the decline of the conservative wing of the Democratic Party after 1960, the movement is most closely associated with the Republican Party (GOP). Economic conservatives favor less government regulation, lower taxes and weaker labor unions while social conservatives focus on moral issues and neoconservatives focus on democracy worldwide. Conservatives generally distrust the United Nations and Europe and apart from the libertarian wing favor a strong military and give enthusiastic support to Israel.[1]

Although conservatism has much older roots in American history, the modern movement began to gel in the mid–1930s when intellectuals and politicians collaborated with businessmen to oppose the liberalism of the New Deal led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, newly energized labor unions and big city Democratic machines. After World War II, that coalition gained strength from new philosophers and writers who developed an intellectual rationale for conservatism.[2]

Richard Nixon's victory in the 1968 presidential election is often considered a realigning election in American politics. From 1932 to 1968, the Democratic Party was the majority party as during that time period the Democrats had won seven out of nine presidential elections and their agenda gravely affected that undertaken by the Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower administration, but the election of 1968 reversed the situation completely. The Vietnam War split the Democratic Party. White ethnics in the North and white Southerners felt the national Democratic Party had deserted them. The white South has voted Republican at the presidential level since the 1950s and at the state and local level since the 1990s.

In the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan rejuvenated the conservative Republican ideology, with tax cuts, greatly increased defense spending, deregulation, a policy of rolling back communism, a greatly strengthened military and appeals to family values and conservative Judeo-Christian morality. His impact has led historians to call the 1980s the Reagan Era.[3] The Reagan model remains the conservative standard for social, economic and foreign policy issues. In recent years, social issues such as abortion, gun control and gay marriage have become important. Since 2009, the Tea Party movement has energized conservatives at the local level against the policies made by the presidency of Barack Obama, leading to Republican success in the 2010 and 2014 mid-term elections, and the 2016 election, in which Donald Trump was elected president.

Chronology of events

Main articles: Conservatism in the United States and History of the United States Republican Party

1930s

As the nation plunges into its deepest depression ever, Republicans and conservatives fall into disfavor in 1930, 1932 and 1934, losing more and more of their seats. Liberals (mostly Democrats with a few Republicans and independents) come to power with the landslide 1932 election of liberal Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. In his first 100 days Roosevelt pushes through a series of dramatic economic programs known as the New Deal.[4]

The major metropolitan newspapers generally opposed the New Deal, as typified by William Randolph Hearst and his chain (Hearst had supported Roosevelt in 1932, but he parted ways in 1934.[5] Robert R. McCormick, owner of the Chicago Tribune, compared the New Deal to communism. He was also an America First isolationist who strongly opposed entering World War II to rescue the British Empire. McCormick also railed against the League of Nations, the World Court, and socialism.[6]

1934
1935
1936
1937 cartoon by Joseph L. Parrish in the Chicago Tribune warning Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive branch reorganization plan is a power grab
1937 cartoon by Joseph L. Parrish in the Chicago Tribune warning Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive branch reorganization plan is a power grab
1937
1938
1939
Robert A. Taft

1940s

1943
1944
Party change of House seats in 1946 showcasing GOP landslide
Party change of House seats in 1946 showcasing GOP landslide
1945
1946
Warning against communism, 1947
Warning against communism, 1947
1947
1948

1950s

After the war, businessmen opposed to New Deal liberalism read Hayek, fight labor unions, and fund politicized think tanks such as American Enterprise Institute (founded 1943). They promote statewide right-to-work campaigns.[38]

1950
1951
1952
Russell Kirk
1953
1955
1957
1958
Barry Goldwater
1959

1960s

Liberalism made major gains after the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963, as Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) pushed through his liberal Great Society as well as civil rights laws. An unexpected bonanza helped conservatism in the late 1960s as liberalism came under intense attack from the New Left, especially in academe. This new element, says liberal historian Michael Kazin, worked to "topple the corrupted liberal order."[60] For the New Left "liberal" became a nasty epithet. Liberal commentator E. J. Dionne finds that, "If liberal ideology began to crumble intellectually in the 1960s it did so in part because the New Left represented a highly articulate and able wrecking crew."[61]

"A Time for Choosing" Speech
In support of Goldwater in 1964, Reagan delivers the TV address "A Time for Choosing", a speech which made Reagan the leader of movement conservatism
DateOctober 27, 1964 (1964-10-27)
Duration29:33
LocationLos Angeles, CA, United States
Also known as"The Speech"
TypeTelevised campaign speech
ParticipantsRonald Reagan
WebsiteVideo clip, audio, transcript

Movement conservatism emerges as grassroots activists react to liberal and New Left agendas. It develops a structure that supports Goldwater in 1964 and Ronald Reagan in 1976–80. By the late 1970s, local evangelical churches join the movement.[62][63] Liberalism faces a racial crisis nationwide. Within weeks of the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights law, "long hot summers" begin, lasting until 1970, with the worst outbreaks coming in the summer of 1967. Nearly 400 racial disorders in 298 cities saw blacks attacking shopkeepers and police, and looting stores.[64] Meanwhile, the urban crime rates shoot up. Demands for "law and order" escalate and the backlash causes disillusionment among working class whites with the liberalism of the Democratic Party.[65]

In the mid-1960s the GOP debates race and civil rights intensely. Republican liberals, led by Nelson Rockefeller, argue for a strong federal role because it was morally right and politically advantageous. Conservatives call for a more limited federal presence and discount the possibility of significant black voter support. Nixon avoids race issues in 1968.[66]

Highlights of the 1960 Republican convention in Chicago, Illinois
Highlights of the 1960 Republican convention in Chicago, Illinois
1960
Cover of Modern Age
Cover of Modern Age
1961
1962
1963
The controversial "Daisy" Johnson TV commercial in 1964 attacks Goldwater foreign policy as inviting nuclear war[76]
The controversial "Daisy" Johnson TV commercial in 1964 attacks Goldwater foreign policy as inviting nuclear war[76]
In support of Goldwater, Reagan delivers the address, "A Time for Choosing", which speech launches Reagan to national prominence[78]
In support of Goldwater, Reagan delivers the address, "A Time for Choosing", which speech launches Reagan to national prominence[78]
1964
In the 1964 presidential election, Goldwater only won his home state of Arizona and five states in the Deep South
In the 1964 presidential election, Goldwater only won his home state of Arizona and five states in the Deep South
1965
1966
1967
1968 presidential election results in which red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, blue denotes those won by Humphrey/Muskie and orange denotes states won by Wallace/LeMay
1968 presidential election results in which red denotes states won by Nixon/Agnew, blue denotes those won by Humphrey/Muskie and orange denotes states won by Wallace/LeMay
1968
1969

1970s

Historians Meg Jacobs and Julian Zelizer argue that the 1970s were characterized by "a vast shift toward social and political conservatism," as well as a sharp decline in the proportion of voters who identified with liberalism.[99] Neoconservatism emerges as liberals become disenchanted with Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society welfare programs. They increasingly focus on foreign policy, especially anti-communism, and support for Israel and for democracy in the Third World.[100]

While Nixon continues to antagonize and anger liberals, many of his programs upset conservatives. His foreign policy with Henry Kissinger focuses on détente with the USSR and China, and becomes a main target of conservatives. Nixon is uninterested in tax cuts or deregulation, but he does use executive orders and presidential authority to impose price and wage controls, expand the welfare state, require Affirmative Action, grow the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Endowment for the Arts, and create the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[101]

1970
1971
Number of Conservative Political Action Conference attendees over time
Number of Conservative Political Action Conference attendees over time
1972
1973
1974
William F. Buckley Jr. (left) and Ronald Reagan. two of the most visible conservatives of the 1970s and 1980s
William F. Buckley Jr. (left) and Ronald Reagan. two of the most visible conservatives of the 1970s and 1980s
1976
1977
1978
1979
Washington for Jesus, 1980
Washington for Jesus, 1980

1980s

The decade is marked by the rise of the Christian right and the Reagan Revolution.[129] A priority of Reagan's administration is the rollback of Soviet communism in Latin America, Africa and worldwide.[130] Reagan bases his economic policy, dubbed "Reaganomics", on supply-side economics.[131]

1980
1981
1982
1983
"Evil Empire" (33:14) Ronald Reagan delivers "Evil Empire" speech on March 8, 1983
1984
1986
1987
"Tear down this wall" (26:33) Complete speech by Ronald Reagan at the Brandenburg Gate, June 12, 1987
1988
1989

1990s

Clarence Thomas

Conservative think tanks 1990–97 mobilize to challenge the legitimacy of global warming as a social problem. They challenge the scientific evidence, argue that global warming will have benefits, and warn that proposed solutions would do more harm than good.[156]

1991
1992
"Read my lips: no new taxes" (0:40) George H. W. Bush speaking about taxes at the 1988 Republican National Convention
1994
1995
Legislation Result
Welfare reform Passed (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996)
Term limits for Congressmen Did not pass (U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton)
Balanced budget amendment Did not pass
Increase rights of victims of crime Passed (Taking Back Our Streets Act)
Pro-family tax credits Passed (American Dream Restoration Act)
Decrease United States role in the United Nations Did not pass
Capital gains tax cut Passed (Job Creation and Wage Enhancement Act)
Limit punitive damages on product liability Passed, but vetoed (Product Liability Fairness Act)
1996
Fox News building on 48th Street
Fox News building on 48th Street
1997

2000s

The terror attack on September 11, 2001 reorients the administration towards foreign policy and terrorism issues, providing an opportunity for neoconservatives to have a greater influence on foreign policy. The Bush Doctrine leads to long-term interventions in Afghanistan (2001 to present) and Iraq (2003–2011).[170]

On the domestic front Bush promises compassionate conservatism and works to improve education, address poverty nationwide, increase financial aid to poor countries and help alleviate AIDS in Africa.[171]

At a joint session of Congress, President Bush pledges to defend America's freedom against the fear of terrorism, a policy known as the Bush Doctrine, September 20, 2001 (audio only)
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Sarah Palin addresses the 2008 Republican National Convention
2006
Yes on 8 rally in Fresno, California
Yes on 8 rally in Fresno, California
2007
2008
Taxpayer March on Washington
2009

2010s

Numerous historians after 1990 re-examined the role of conservatism in recent American history, according it much greater importance than before.[192] One school of thought rejects the older consensus that liberalism was the dominant ethos. Instead it argues conservatism dominated American politics since the 1920s, with the brief exceptions of the New Deal era (1933–36) and the Great Society (1963–66).[193] However Historian Julian Zelizer argues that "liberalism survived the rise of conservatism."[194]

2010
2010 House election results:dark blue denotes Democratic hold, blue denotes Democratic gain, dark red denotes Republican hold and red denotes Republican gain
2010 House election results:dark blue denotes Democratic hold, blue denotes Democratic gain, dark red denotes Republican hold and red denotes Republican gain
2012
2014
2016

2017

2018

2020

See also

Timelines

Footnotes

  1. ^ Michael T. Thomas (2007). American policy toward Israel: the power and limits of beliefs. Routledge. pp. 42–43.
  2. ^ Patrick Allitt (2009). The Conservatives: Ideas and Personalities Throughout American History. Yale University Press. ch 1–6 covers the story down to 1945.
  3. ^ Sean Wilentz The Age of Reagan: A History, 1974–2008. (2009); John Ehrman The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan. (2008) pp. 3–8.
  4. ^ Anthony J. Badger (2009). FDR: the first hundred days. Hilland Wang. pp. 3–22, 74.
  5. ^ Graham J. White (1979). FDR and the Press. University of Chicago Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0226895123.
  6. ^ Richard Norton Smith (2003). The Colonel: The Life and Legend of Robert R. McCormick, 1880–1955. Northwestern University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0810120396.
  7. ^ Rudolph Frederick (1950). "The American Liberty League, 1934–1940". American Historical Review. 56 (1): 19–33. doi:10.2307/1840619. JSTOR 1840619.
  8. ^ George Wolfskill (1962). The Revolt of the Conservatives: A History of the American Liberty League, 1934–1940. Houghton Mifflin. p. 249.
  9. ^ Kim Phillips-Fein (2010). Invisible Hands: The Businessmen's Crusade Against the New Deal. W. W. Norton. p. 15. ISBN 978-0393337662.
  10. ^ Gordon Lloyd and David Davenport, The New Deal and Modern American Conservatism: A Defining Rivalry (2013) excerpt and text search
  11. ^ Brendon O'Connor (2004). A Political History of the American Welfare System: When Ideas Have Consequences. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 38. ISBN 978-0742526686.
  12. ^ Charles W. Smith Jr. (1939). Public Opinion in a Democracy. Prentice-Hall. pp. 85–86.
  13. ^ Sternsher, Bernard (1984). "The New Deal Party System: A Reappraisal". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 15 (1): 53–81. doi:10.2307/203594. JSTOR 203594.
  14. ^ Michael Kazin, eta al, eds. (2011). The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. Princeton University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0691152073. ((cite book)): |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Jeff Shesol (2011). Supreme Power: Franklin Roosevelt Vs. The Supreme Court. W. W. Norton. pp. 299, 301–303. ISBN 978-0393338812.
  16. ^ Patterson, James T. (1966). "A Conservative Coalition Forms in Congress, 1933–1939". Journal of American History. 52 (4): 757–772. doi:10.2307/1894345. JSTOR 1894345.
  17. ^ John Robert, Moore (1965). "Senator Josiah W. Bailey and the "Conservative Manifesto" of 1937". Journal of Southern History. 31 (1): 21–39. doi:10.2307/2205008. JSTOR 2205008.
  18. ^ Walter Galenson (1960). The CIO challenge to the AFL. Harvard University Press. p. 542.
  19. ^ William E. Leuchtenburg (1963). Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal: 1932–1940. HarperCollins. pp. 231–274.
  20. ^ Milton Plesur, "The Republican Congressional Comeback of 1938," Review of Politics, Oct 1962, Vol. 24 Issue 4, pp. 525–562 in JSTOR
  21. ^ John P. East, "Leo Strauss and American Conservatism," Modern Age, (1977) 21:1 pp. 2–19 online
  22. ^ Geoffrey Matthews, "Robert A. Taft, the Constitution and American Foreign Policy, 1939–53," Journal of Contemporary History, July 1982, Vol. 17 Issue 3, pp. 507–522
  23. ^ Lee Edwards (1990). Missionary for Freedom: The Life and Times of Walter Judd. Paragon House. p. 210.
  24. ^ Murray L. Weidenbaum (2009). The competition of ideas: the world of the Washington think tanks. Transaction Publishers. p. 23.
  25. ^ F. A. Hayek (1944; 2nd ed. 2010). The Road to Serfdom. University of Chicago Press. 2nd ed. by Bruce Caldwell with prepublication reports on Hayek's manuscript, and forewords to earlier editions by John Chamberlain, Milton Friedman, and Hayek himself.
  26. ^ Robert McG. Thomas, Jr. (June 23, 1996). "Henry Regnery, 84, Ground-Breaking Conservative Publisher". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  27. ^ Richard V. Allen (June 2, 2008). "Turning the Tide". National Review Online. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  28. ^ Lee Edwards (February 5, 2011). "Reagan's Newspaper". Human Events. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  29. ^ Israel M. Kirzner (2001). Ludwig von Mises: the man and his economics. ISI Books. p. 25.
  30. ^ He retired in 1977 and moved to the Hoover Institution at Stanford. Milton and Rose Friedman (1999). Two Lucky People: Memoirs. University of Chicago Press. p. 559.
  31. ^ Alan O. Ebenstein (2009). Milton Friedman: A Biography Palgrave Macmillan. p. 259.
  32. ^ Susan M. Hartmann (1971). Truman and the 80th Congress. University of Missouri Press. p. 7.
  33. ^ James T. Patterson (1972). Mr. Republican: a biography of Robert A. Taft. Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 352–368.
  34. ^ Kari A. Frederickson (2000). The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968. The University of North Carolina Press. passim.
  35. ^ Fred D. Young (1995). Richard M. Weaver, 1910–1963: a life of the mind. University of Missouri. p. 9.
  36. ^ Michael Bowen (2011). The Roots of Modern Conservatism: Dewey, Taft, and the Battle for the Soul of the Republican Party. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 66.
  37. ^ "The Nation: Independence Day". Time. 1948-11-08. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  38. ^ Kim Phillips-Fein (2009). Invisible Hands: The Businessmen's Crusade Against the New Deal. W. W. Norton & Company. ch 2.
  39. ^ Russell Kirk (2001). The Conservative Mind: From Burke to Eliot. Regnery. p. 476. ISBN 978-0895261717.
  40. ^ "'Communists in Government Service', McCarthy Says". United States Senate. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
  41. ^ Charles W. Dunn; J. David Woodard (1991). American conservatism from Burke to Bush: an introduction. Madison Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0819180698.
  42. ^ Francis Graham Wilson (2011). The Case for Conservatism. Transaction Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 978-1412842341.
  43. ^ James T. Patterson Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft. (1972). ch 32–35.
  44. ^ William Lee Miller (2012). Two Americans: Truman, Eisenhower, and a Dangerous World. Random House Digital. p. 272. ISBN 978-0307957542.
  45. ^ Reba N. Sofer (2009). History, historians, and conservatism in Britain and the United States. Oxford University Press. p. 232.
  46. ^ Lee Edwards (2003). Educating for Liberty: The first Half-century of the Intercollegiate Studies Institute Regnery. ch 1.
  47. ^ Clarence E. Wunderlin (2005). Robert A. Taft: Ideas, Tradition, and Party in U.S. Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 191. ISBN 978-0742544901.
  48. ^ John B. Judis (1990). William F. Buckley, Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives. Simon & Schuster. pp. 121–124, 152.
  49. ^ James T. Kloppenberg, "Review: In Retrospect: Louis Hartz's The Liberal Tradition in America," Reviews in American History Vol. 29, No. 3 (Sept 2001), pp. 460–478 in JSTOR
  50. ^ Burns, Jennifer (2004). "Godless Capitalism: Ayn Rand and the Conservative Movement". Modern Intellectual History. 1 (3): 359–385. doi:10.1017/S1479244304000216. S2CID 145596042.
  51. ^ Jennifer Burns (2009). Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. Oxford University Press. pp. 174–176.
  52. ^ Richard J. Tofel (2009). Restless Genius: Barney Kilgore, The Wall Street Journal, and the Invention of Modern Journalism. Macmillan. p. 157. ISBN 978-0312536749.
  53. ^ Kim Phillips-Fein, "'As Great an Issue as Slavery or Abolition': Economic Populism, the Conservative Movement, and the Right-to-Work Campaigns of 1958," Journal of Policy History, (Oct 2011), 23:4 pp. 491–512 online
  54. ^ Nelson Lichtenstein and Elizabeth Tandy Shermer, eds. (2012). The American Right and U.S. Labor: Politics, Ideology and Imagination. University of Pennsylvania Press. ch. 1.
  55. ^ Congress and the Nation: 1945–1964 (1965). Congressional Quarterly. pp. 28–34.
  56. ^ "People & Events: Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1908–1979". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  57. ^ "Our Campaigns – AZ Senate Race, Nov 04, 1958". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  58. ^ Jonathan Schoenwald (2002). A Time for Choosing: The Rise of Modern American Conservatism. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–99.
  59. ^ Hyrum S. Lewis (2007). Sacralizing the Right: William F. Buckley Jr., Whittaker Chambers, Will Herberg and the Transformation of Intellectual Conservatism, 1945–1964. p. 8. ISBN 978-0549389996.
  60. ^ Michael Kazin (1998). The populist persuasion: an American history. Cornell University Press. p. 197.
  61. ^ E. J. Dionne (2004). Why Americans Hate Politics. Simon and Schuster. p. 37. ISBN 978-0743265737.
  62. ^ Rick Perlstein, "Thunder on the Right: The Roots of Conservative Victory in the 1960s," OAH Magazine of History, Oct 2006, Vol. 20 Issue 5, pp. 24–27
  63. ^ James A. Hijiya, "The Conservative 1960s," Journal of American Studies, Aug 2003, Vol. 37 Issue 2, pp. 201–228
  64. ^ Michael Omi and Howard Winant (1994). Racial formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1990s. Routledge. p. 196.
  65. ^ Michael W. Flamm (2007). Law and Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s. Columbia University Press. ch. 9.
  66. ^ Thurber, Timothy N. (2007). "Goldwaterism Triumphant? Race and the Republican Party, 1965–1968". Journal of the Historical Society. 7 (3): 349–384. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5923.2007.00221.x.
  67. ^ Theodore H. White (1961). The Making of the President 1960. HarperCollins. pp. 197–199. ISBN 978-0061900600.
  68. ^ Laura Jane Gifford (2009). The Center Cannot Hold: The 1960 Presidential Election and the Rise of Modern Conservatism. Northern Illinois Univ Press. p. 17.
  69. ^ Robert Alan Goldberg (1995). Barry Goldwater. Yale University Press. pp. 138–143, 179.
  70. ^ John R. E. Bliese (2002). The Greening Of Conservative America. Westview Press. pp. 4–5.
  71. ^ Gregory L. Schneider (1998). Cadres for Conservatism: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of the Contemporary Right. NYU Press. pp. 154, 167, 172.
  72. ^ W. J. Rorabaugh (2002). Kennedy and the Promise of the Sixties. Cambridge U.P. p. 18. ISBN 978-0521816175.
  73. ^ David Marley (2007). Pat Robertson: an American life. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 97.
  74. ^ Sean P. Cunningham (2010). Cowboy Conservatism: Texas and the Rise of the Modern Right. University Press of Kentucky. p. 53. ISBN 978-0813125763.
  75. ^ William F. Buckley, Jr., "Goldwater, the John Birch Society, and Me". Commentary (March 2008) online
  76. ^ Kurson, Ken (November 5, 2011). "Book Review: Daisy Petals and Mushroom Clouds". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  77. ^ Dan T. Carter (2000). The politics of rage: George Wallace, the origins of the new conservatism, and the transformation of American politics LSU Press. p. 12.
  78. ^ "'A Time for Choosing' (October 27, 1964)". Miller Center. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  79. ^ Robert D. Loevy (1997). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: the passage of the law that ended racial segregation. State University of New York Press. p. 359.
  80. ^ Wallace, George C. (July 4, 1964). The Civil Rights Movement: Fraud, Sham, and Hoax (Speech). Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  81. ^ William Safire (2008). Safire's Political Dictionary. Oxford U.P. p. 229. ISBN 978-0195343342.
  82. ^ Rick Perlstein (2004). Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus. Hill and Wang. ch. 22.
  83. ^ "Our History". American Conservative Union. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  84. ^ Jonathan Schoenwald (2002). A Time for Choosing: The Rise of Modern American Conservatism. Oxford University Press. pp. 162–189.
  85. ^ Laurence Zuckerman (December 18, 1999). "How 'Firing Line' Transformed the Battleground". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
  86. ^ Draper, Alan (Winter 1989). "Labor and the 1966 Elections". Labor History. 30 (1): 76–92. doi:10.1080/00236568900890031.
  87. ^ Matthew Dallek (2004). The Right Moment: Ronald Reagan's First Victory and the Decisive Turning Point in American Politics. Oxford University Press. p. ix.
  88. ^ Steven M. Gillon (2008). The Pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the Rivalry That Defined a Generation. Oxford U.P. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-0199886579.
  89. ^ John T. Bethell (1998). Harvard observed: an illustrated history of the university in the twentieth century. Harvard U.P. pp. 218–232. ISBN 978-0674377332.
  90. ^ R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. ed. (1987). Orthodoxy: The American Spectator's 20th Anniversary Anthology. Harper & Row. ch. 1.
  91. ^ Ford, Lynne E. (2010). Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics. Infobase Publishing. p. 158. ISBN 978-1438110325. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  92. ^ Lewis L. Gould (1993). 1968: The Election That Changed America. Ivan R. Dee. pp. 7–30.
  93. ^ Michael Flamm, "Politics and Pragmatism: The Nixon Administration and Crime Control," White House Studies, Feb 2006, 6:2 pp. 151–62
  94. ^ Rick Perlstein (2008). Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. Simon and Schuster. p. 349. ISBN 978-0743243025.
  95. ^ Peter Beinart (2008). The Good Fight: Why Liberals – and Only Liberals – Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Again. HarperCollins. p. 49. ISBN 978-0060841607.
  96. ^ Bernard Rostker (2006). I want you!: the evolution of the All-Volunteer Force. RAND Corporation. pp. 66–70, 749.
  97. ^ Kenneth J. Heineman (2001). Put your bodies upon the wheels: student revolt in the 1960s. Ivan R. Dee. p. 160.
  98. ^ Jennifer Burns (2009). Goddess of the market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. Oxford University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0195324877.
  99. ^ Jacobs, Meg; Zelizer, Julian E. (2008). "Comment: Swinging Too Far to the Left". Journal of Contemporary History. 43 (4): 689–693. doi:10.1177/0022009408095423. JSTOR 40543230. S2CID 155052711.
  100. ^ Justin Vaïsse (2010). Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement Harvard University Press. passim.
  101. ^ Joan Hoff (1995). Nixon Reconsidered. Basic Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-0465051052.
  102. ^ Sullivan, Timothy J. (2009). New York State and the rise of modern conservatism: redrawing party lines. State University of New York Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0791476437.
  103. ^ Justin Vaïsse (2010). Neoconservatism: The Biography of a Movement. Harvard U.P. p. 298. ISBN 978-0674050518.
  104. ^ see his article
  105. ^ Walker, Jesse (June 13, 2011). "John Hospers, RIP". Reason. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  106. ^ Donald T. Critchlow (2005). Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade. Princeton University Press. pp. 212–242.
  107. ^ Robert D. Novak (January 13, 2003). "Who Is Robert Bartley?". Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  108. ^ Link, William A. (2008). Righteous Warrior: Jesse Helms and the Rise of Modern Conservatism. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312356002.
  109. ^ Judis, John B. (1988). William F. Buckley, Jr.: Patron Saint of the Conservatives. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 356–357. ISBN 0743217977.
  110. ^ Gregory L. Schneider (2009). The Conservative Century: From Reaction to Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 125. ISBN 978-0742542853.
  111. ^ Critchlow, Donald T. (1995). The politics of abortion and birth control in historical perspective. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0271015705.
  112. ^ Glenn H. Utter and John Woodrow Storey (2001). The religious right: a reference handbook. Grey House Publishing. p. 88.
  113. ^ "About Us". March For Life. 2012. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  114. ^ John W. Dean; Barry M. Goldwater, Jr. (2009). Pure Goldwater. Macmillan. pp. 296–298. ISBN 978-0230611337.
  115. ^ Michael Kazin; Rebecca Edwards; Adam Rothman, eds (2011). The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. Princeton U.P. p. 222. ISBN 978-0691152073. ((cite book)): |author3= has generic name (help)
  116. ^ Benjamin Balint (2010). Running Commentary: The Contentious Magazine That Transformed the Jewish Left Into the Neoconservative Right. PublicAffairs. passim.
  117. ^ Burns, Jennifer (2004). "In Retrospect: George Nash's The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945". Reviews in American History. 32 (3): 447–462. doi:10.1353/rah.2004.0053. S2CID 26303899.
  118. ^ Dan Gilgoff (2008). The Jesus Machine: How James Dobson, Focus on the Family, and Evangelical America Are Winning the Culture War. Macmillan. p. 19. ISBN 978-0312378448.
  119. ^ James McEnteer (2006). Shooting the truth: the rise of American political documentaries. Praeger. p. 146.
  120. ^ Roger Chapman, ed. (2010). Culture wars: an encyclopedia of issues, viewpoints, and voices. M. E. Sharpe. vol. 1, p. 55.
  121. ^ Glenn H. Utter and John Storey, eds. (2001). The religious right: a reference handbook. ABC-Clio Inc. p. 123.
  122. ^ Smith, D. A. (1999). "Howard Jarvis, Populist Entrepreneur: Reevaluating the Causes of Proposition 13" (PDF). Social Science History. 23 (2): 173–210. doi:10.1017/s0145553200018058. JSTOR 1171520.
  123. ^ Campbell, Ballard C. (1998). "Tax Revolts and Political Change". Journal of Policy History. 10 (1): 153–178. doi:10.1017/S089803060000556X.
  124. ^ Spruill, Marjorie J. (2008). "Gender and America's Right Turn". In Schulman, Bruce J.; Zelizer, Julian E. (eds.). Rightward Bound: Making America Conservative in the 1970s. Harvard University Press. pp. 71–89. ISBN 978-0674027572.
  125. ^ Sarah Slavin (1995). U.S. Women's Interest Groups: Institutional Profiles. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 138. ISBN 0313250731.
  126. ^ Aberbach, Joel D., ed. (2011). Crisis of Conservatism?: The Republican Party, the Conservative Movement, and American Politics After Bush. Oxford University Press. Ch. 7. ISBN 978-0199831364. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  127. ^ Tyrrell, R. Emmett (2010). After the Hangover: The Conservatives' Road to Recovery. Thomas Nelson. p. 36. ISBN 978-1595552723.
  128. ^ Harding, Susan (2001). The book of Jerry Falwell: fundamentalist language and politics. Princeton University Press. p. 285. ISBN 0691059896.
  129. ^ Michael Kazin; Rebecca Edwards; Adam Rothman, eds. (2009). The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. Princeton U.P. p. 288. ISBN 978-0691129716. ((cite book)): |author3= has generic name (help)
  130. ^ Eric J. Schmertz eds.; et al. (1997). President Reagan and the World. Greenwood. p. 146. ISBN 978-0313301155. ((cite book)): |author= has generic name (help)
  131. ^ Niskanen, William A.; Moore, Stephen (1996). "Supply-Side Tax Cuts and the Truth about the Reagan Economic Record". Cato Institute. p. 1. Retrieved April 21, 2002.
  132. ^ Daniel K. Williams (2010). God's Own Party: the making of the Christian right. Oxford University Press. pp. 181–182.
  133. ^ Skinner, Kiron K.; Kudelia, Serhiy; Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce; Rice, Condoleezza (September 15, 2007). "Politics Starts at the Water's Edge". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  134. ^ Kenneth F. Warren (2008). Encyclopedia of U.S. Campaigns, Elections, and Electoral Behavior. SAGE. p. 100. ISBN 978-1412954891.
  135. ^ Bruce S. Jansson (2011). The Reluctant Welfare State: Engaging History to Advance Social Work Practice in Contemporary Society. Cengage Learning. pp. 332–333. ISBN 978-0840034403.
  136. ^ Karl Gerard Brandt (2009). Ronald Reagan and the House Democrats: gridlock, partisanship, and the fiscal crisis. U. of Missouri Press. pp. 10–15. ISBN 978-0826218353.
  137. ^ Michael Kort (2001). The Columbia Guide to the Cold War. Columbia U.P. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0231107730.
  138. ^ Mary Beth Norton (2009). A People and a Nation: A History of the United States. Since 1865. Cengage. p. 862. ISBN 978-0547175607.
  139. ^ Tim Merrill (1994). "3". Nicaragua: a country study. Library of Congress.
  140. ^ Pipes, Richard (June 3, 2002). "Ash Heap of History: President Reagan's Westminster Address 20 Years Later". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
  141. ^ Andrew Busch (2001). Ronald Reagan and the politics of freedom. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0742520530.
  142. ^ James Mann (2010). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Penguin. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0143116790.
  143. ^ Goldman, Ralph Morris (2002). The Future Catches Up: Transnational Parties and Democracy. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 978-0595228881.
  144. ^ Gil Troy (2005). Morning in America: how Ronald Reagan invented the 1980s. Princeton University Press. pp. 147–174.
  145. ^ Steven F. Hayward (2010). The Age of Reagan: The Conservative Counterrevolution: 1980–1989. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 417. ISBN 978-1400053582.
  146. ^ Mark V. Tushnet (2005). A Court Divided: The Rehnquist Court and the Future of Constitutional Law. W. W. Norton. p. 13. ISBN 978-0393327571.
  147. ^ Christopher E. Smith (1993). Justice Antonin Scalia and the Supreme Court's Conservative Moment. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. ISBN 978-0275947057.
  148. ^ Jeffrey H. Birnbaum; Alan S. Murray (1988). Showdown at Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and the Unlikely Triumph of Tax Reform. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 3–22. ISBN 978-0394758114.
  149. ^ William E. Pemberton (1998). Exit With Honor: The Life and Presidency of Ronald Reagan. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 172–190. ISBN 978-0765600967.
  150. ^ Romesh Ratnesar (2009). Tear down this wall: a city, a president, and the speech that ended the Cold War. Simon & Schuster. p. 6.
  151. ^ Rusher, William (July 5, 2007). "Back to the Fairness Doctrine?". Townhall.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  152. ^ David Harrell Jr. (2010). Pat Robertson: A Life and Legacy. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. passim.
  153. ^ Joseph Turow (4th ed. 2011). Media Today. Routledge. p. 376.
  154. ^ "1988: Bush wins with 'no new taxes' promise". BBC News Online: On This Date. November 9, 1988. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  155. ^ Charles W. Dunn (2009). The Enduring Reagan. University Press of Kentucky. p. 100. ISBN 978-0813125527.
  156. ^ Aaron M. McCright and Riley E. Dunlap, "Defeating Kyoto: The Conservative Movement's Impact on U.S. Climate Change Policy," Social Problems, Aug 2003, Vol. 50 Issue 3, pp. 348–373 in JSTOR
  157. ^ Dan Thomas, Craig McCoy and Allan McBride, "Deconstructing the Political Spectacle: Sex, Race, and Subjectivity in Public Response to the Clarence Thomas/Anita Hill "Sexual Harassment" Hearings," American Journal of Political Science Vol. 37, No. 3 (Aug., 1993), pp. 699–720 in JSTOR
  158. ^ Joel D. Aberbach and Gillian Peele (2011). Crisis of Conservatism?: The Republican Party, the Conservative Movement and American Politics After Bush. Oxford University Press. p. 31.
  159. ^ Gary Donaldson (2007). Modern America: a documentary history of the nation since 1945. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 308–310 for original text. ISBN 978-0765615374.
  160. ^ Nicol C. Rae (1998). Conservative reformers: the Republican freshmen and the lessons of the 104th Congress. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-0765601292.
  161. ^ James W. Ceaser; Andrew Busch (1997). Losing to win: the 1996 elections and American politics. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 6–12. ISBN 978-0847684069.
  162. ^ Peter B. Levy (2002). Encyclopedia of the Clinton presidency. Greenwood. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0313312946.
  163. ^ "William Kristol". The Weekly Standard. Terry Eastland. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  164. ^ Boot, Max (December 30, 2002). "What the Heck Is a 'Neocon'?". The Wall Street Journal. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  165. ^ Savage, David G. (26 June 2013). "Gay marriage ruling: Supreme Court finds DOMA unconstitutional". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  166. ^ Stephen L. Vaughn, ed. (2009). Encyclopedia of American Journalism. Routledge. pp. 76, 177–178.
  167. ^ a b "Profile: Matt Drudge – Webmaster of pork pies". Scotsman.com. Johnston Publishing Ltd. March 1, 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  168. ^ Sappell, Joel (August 4, 2007). "Hot links served up daily". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
  169. ^ Dick Morris and Eileen McGann (2006). Condi Vs. Hillary: The Next Great Presidential Race. HarperCollins. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0060859848.
  170. ^ Heiko Meiertöns (2010). The Doctrines of Us Security Policy: An Evaluation Under International Law. Cambridge University Press. pp. 182–187. ISBN 978-0521766487.
  171. ^ "Fact Sheet: Compassionate Conservatism" (Press release). The White House. April 30, 2002. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  172. ^ Richard A. Posner (2001). Breaking the Deadlock: The 2000 Election, the Constitution, and the Courts. Princeton University Press. passim.
  173. ^ Wattenberg, Martin P. (2004). "Elections: Tax Cut Versus Lockbox: Did the Voters Grasp the Tradeoff in 2000?". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 34 (4): 838–848. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2004.00227.x.
  174. ^ Aberbach, Joel D.; Peele, Gillian (2011). Crisis of conservatism?: the Republican Party, the conservative movement and American politics after Bush. Oxford University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0199764013.
  175. ^ Adam L. Fuller (2011). Taking the Fight to the Enemy: Neoconservatism and the Age of Ideology. Lexington Books. p. 264.
  176. ^ Dorothy E. McBride (2008). Abortion in the United States: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 185.
  177. ^ John C. Green, Mark J. Rozell and Clyde Wilcox (2006). The Values Campaign?: The Christian Right and the 2004 Elections. Georgetown University Press. ch. 1.
  178. ^ Alec Gallup; Frank Newport (2007). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion – 2005. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 130. ISBN 978-0742552586.
  179. ^ Babington, Charles (February 1, 2006). "Alito Is Sworn In On High Court: Senators Confirm Conservative Judge Largely on Party Lines". The Washington Post.
  180. ^ David B. Magleby and Kelly D. Patterson, eds. (2008). The Battle for Congress: Iraq, Scandal, and Campaign Finance in the 2006 Election. Paradigm. ch. 1.
  181. ^ Schier, Steven E. (2006). "Frustrated Ambitions: The George W. Bush Presidency and the 2006 Elections". Forum. 4 (3): 1–8. doi:10.2202/1540-8884.1142. S2CID 144847778.
  182. ^ "Rev. Jerry Falwell dies at age 73". CNN. 15 May 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  183. ^ Currie, Duncan (2008-01-22). "Beyond the Border". The Weekly Standard.
  184. ^ Daniel J. Balz; Haynes Johnson (2009). The Battle for America 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary Election. Penguin. p. 288. ISBN 978-0670021116.
  185. ^ See Exit Poll details
  186. ^ Stanley D. Brunn, et al. eds. (2011). Atlas of the 2008 Elections. Rowman and Littlefield. p. 265.
  187. ^ Mark Meckler; Jenny Beth Martin (2012). Tea Party Patriots: The Second American Revolution. Macmillan. p. 9. ISBN 978-1429942690.
  188. ^ Scott Rasmussen and Doug Schoen (2010). Mad As Hell: How the Tea Party Movement Is Fundamentally Remaking Our Two-Party System. Harper. ch. 1.
  189. ^ Williams, Juan (May 10, 2011). "Juan Williams: The Surprising Rise of Rep. Ron Paul". Fox News.
  190. ^ Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (2012). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford University Press. pp. 45–82. ISBN 978-0199832637.
  191. ^ Scott Rasmussen; Doug Schoen (2010). Mad As Hell: How the Tea Party Movement Is Fundamentally Remaking Our Two-Party System. HarperCollins. p. 228. ISBN 978-0062016720.
  192. ^ Phillips-Fein, Kim (2011). "Conservatism: A State of the Field". Journal of American History. 98 (3): 723–743. doi:10.1093/jahist/jar430., with commentary by Wilfred M. McClay, Alan Brinkley, Donald T. Critchlow, Martin Durham, Matthew D. Lassiter, and Lisa McGirr, and response by Phillips-Fein, pp. 744–773 online
  193. ^ Labor historians Jefferson Cowie, and Nick Salvatore, "The Long Exception: Rethinking the Place of the New Deal in American History," International Labor & Working-Class History, (2008) 74:3–32, argue the New Deal was a short-term response to depression and did not mark a permanent commitment to a welfare state because America has always been too individualistic and too hostile to labor unions
  194. ^ Zelizer, Julian E. (2010). "Reflections: Rethinking the History of American Conservatism". Reviews in American History. 38 (2): 367–392, quote p. 380. doi:10.1353/rah.0.0217. S2CID 144740051.
  195. ^ Dawood, Yasmin (2015). "Campaign Finance and American Democracy". Annual Review of Political Science. 18: 329–348. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-010814-104523. SSRN 2528587.
  196. ^ Skocpol, Theda; Williamson, Vanessa (2012). The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism. Oxford University Press. pp. 138, 149. ISBN 978-0199832637.
  197. ^ "Election Center". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  198. ^ James Hohmann (February 12, 2012). "Romney doubles down, wins CPAC, Maine caucuses". Politico. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  199. ^ Murray, Sarah; Nelson, Colleen McCain; O'Connor, Patrick (August 12, 2012). "Romney Picks Ryan as Vice-Presidential Running Mate". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-08-15.

Bibliography

Videos