Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesPHKG2, GSD9C, phosphorylase kinase catalytic subunit gamma 2
External IDsOMIM: 172471 MGI: 1916211 HomoloGene: 47915 GeneCards: PHKG2
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 16: 30.75 – 30.76 MbChr 7: 127.17 – 127.18 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Phosphorylase b kinase gamma catalytic chain, testis/liver isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PHKG2 gene.[5][6][7]

The PHKG2 gene provides instructions for making one piece, the gamma subunit, of the phosphorylase b kinase enzyme. This enzyme is made up of 16 subunits, four each of the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits. (Each subunit is produced from a different gene.) The gamma subunit performs the function of phosphorylase b kinase enzyme, and the other subunits help regulate its activity. This enzyme is found in various tissues, although it is most abundant in the liver and muscles. One version of the enzyme is found in liver cells and another in muscle cells. The gamma-2 subunit produced from the PHKG2 gene is part of the enzyme found in the liver.[8]

Phosphorylase b kinase plays an important role in providing energy for cells. The main source of cellular energy is a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is stored in muscle and liver cells in a form called glycogen. Glycogen can be broken down rapidly when glucose is needed, for instance to maintain normal levels of glucose in the blood between meals. Phosphorylase b kinase turns on (activates) another enzyme called glycogen phosphorylase b by converting it to the more active form, glycogen phosphorylase a. When active, this enzyme breaks down glycogen.[8]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156873 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000030815 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Hanks SK (Mar 1989). "Messenger ribonucleic acid encoding an apparent isoform of phosphorylase kinase catalytic subunit is abundant in the adult testis". Mol Endocrinol. 3 (1): 110–6. doi:10.1210/mend-3-1-110. PMID 2915644.
  6. ^ Whitmore SA, Apostolou S, Lane S, Nancarrow JK, Phillips HA, Richards RI, Sutherland GR, Callen DF (Aug 1994). "Isolation and characterization of transcribed sequences from a chromosome 16 hn-cDNA library and the physical mapping of genes and transcribed sequences using a high-resolution somatic cell panel of human chromosome 16". Genomics. 20 (2): 169–75. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1150. PMID 8020963.
  7. ^ "Entrez Gene: PHKG2 phosphorylase kinase, gamma 2 (testis)".
  8. ^ a b "PHKG2 gene". Genetics home reference. Retrieved 9 October 2018. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Further reading