Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesACVRL1, ACVRLK1, ALK-1, ALK1, HHT, HHT2, ORW2, SKR3, TSR-I, activin A receptor like type 1
External IDsOMIM: 601284 MGI: 1338946 HomoloGene: 20058 GeneCards: ACVRL1
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 12: 51.91 – 51.92 MbChr 15: 101.03 – 101.04 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Serine/threonine-protein kinase receptor R3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACVRL1 gene.[5][6][7]

ACVRL1 is a receptor in the TGF beta signaling pathway. It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1.


This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta superfamily of ligands. It shares with other type I receptors a high degree of similarity in serine-threonine kinase subdomains, a glycine- and serine-rich region (called the GS domain) preceding the kinase domain, and a short C-terminal tail. The encoded protein, sometimes termed ALK1, shares similar domain structures with other closely related ALK or activin receptor-like kinase proteins that form a subfamily of receptor serine/threonine kinases. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) type 2, also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2.[7]


Germline mutations of ACVRL1 are associated with:

Somatic mosaicism in ACVRL1 are associated with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.[10]

ACVRL1 directly interacts with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which implies that it might initiate the early phases of atherosclerosis.[11]

Abnormal activity of ACVRL1 has been found to be closely associated with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

As a drug target

Closely/family related kinases

(Not to be confused with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) )
ALK4 is ACVR1B, ALK7 is ACVR1C, and ALK5 is [part of] the TGF-β type I receptor.[13]

See also


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000139567Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000000530Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ ten Dijke P, Ichijo H, Franzén P, Schulz P, Saras J, Toyoshima H, Heldin CH, Miyazono K (October 1993). "Activin receptor-like kinases: a novel subclass of cell-surface receptors with predicted serine/threonine kinase activity". Oncogene. 8 (10): 2879–87. PMID 8397373.
  6. ^ Johnson DW, Berg JN, Baldwin MA, Gallione CJ, Marondel I, Yoon SJ, Stenzel TT, Speer M, Pericak-Vance MA, Diamond A, Guttmacher AE, Jackson CE, Attisano L, Kucherlapati R, Porteous ME, Marchuk DA (June 1996). "Mutations in the activin receptor-like kinase 1 gene in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2". Nature Genetics. 13 (2): 189–95. doi:10.1038/ng0696-189. PMID 8640225. S2CID 21379604.
  7. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1".
  8. ^ Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, Buscarini E, Danesino C (July 2002). "Identification of 13 new mutations in the ACVRL1 gene in a group of 52 unselected Italian patients affected by hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia". Journal of Medical Genetics. 39 (7): 39e–39. doi:10.1136/jmg.39.7.e39. PMC 1735165. PMID 12114496.
  9. ^ Vandenbriele C, Peerlinck K, de Ravel T, Verhamme P, Vanassche T (April 2014). "Pulmonary arterio-venous malformations in a patient with a novel mutation in exon 10 of the ACVRL1 gene". Acta Clinica Belgica. 69 (2): 139–41. doi:10.1179/0001551213Z.00000000012. PMID 24724759. S2CID 35264961.
  10. ^ Jones G, Robertson L, Harrison R, Ridout C, Vasudevan P (August 2014). "Somatic mosaicism in ACVRL1 with transmission to several offspring affected with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 164A (8): 2121–3. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36568. PMID 24753439. S2CID 5417225.
  11. ^ Kraehling JR, Chidlow JH, Rajagopal C, Sugiyama MG, Fowler JW, Lee MY, Zhang X, Ramírez CM, Park EJ, Tao B, Chen K, Kuruvilla L, Larriveé B, Folta-Stogniew E, Ola R, Rotllan N, Zhou W, Nagle MW, Herz J, Williams KJ, Eichmann A, Lee WL, Fernández-Hernando C, Sessa WC (November 2016). "Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals ALK1 mediates LDL uptake and transcytosis in endothelial cells". Nature Communications. 7: 13516. Bibcode:2016NatCo...713516K. doi:10.1038/ncomms13516. PMC 5121336. PMID 27869117.
  12. ^ Gupta S, Gill D, Pal SK, Agarwal N (2015). "Activin receptor inhibitors--dalantercept". Current Oncology Reports. 17 (4): 14. doi:10.1007/s11912-015-0441-5. PMID 25708802. S2CID 22676858.
  13. ^ Laping NJ, Grygielko E, Mathur A, Butter S, Bomberger J, Tweed C, Martin W, Fornwald J, Lehr R, Harling J, Gaster L, Callahan JF, Olson BA (July 2002). "Inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced extracellular matrix with a novel inhibitor of the TGF-beta type I receptor kinase activity: SB-431542". Molecular Pharmacology. 62 (1): 58–64. doi:10.1124/mol.62.1.58. PMID 12065755. S2CID 792324.

Further reading

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.